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tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

IE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, Lirr.D. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soc. 
















First printed 1928 
RepriTiied 1962, l'.»69 

Printed in Great Britain 







INDEX 539 



A B f A 



a. riepl KaWu>-n L(T jjLOV . 

j8'. Ilepl riva aaKe'tadai Se? rhf Trpo/cJi/.ot'Ta Kal on twv Kvpiund- 

TUP a/j.e\ov/j.€v, 
y'. Tis iJAtj tov ayadov kuI trphs t'i ^d\i.(TTa a.<TKr]Tiov. 
S'. npos rbf a.K6fffxws iv Oearpy (nrovhiaavra. 

Wphs rous Sm uocrov airaWaTTo/uLf 


^ . '2,Tropd5r]v rivd. 

^'. Ylphs Thv hiopQocTi)v Twi' €\€vd(p(i}v ■jr6\ewi', ^EiriKovpdoi 


7}'. Tlus TTpus Toy (pauTaaias yvixvacrriov ; 

6'. npos riva p-qropa afiovra ets 'Pwutjv in\ SIkt]. 

I . nHs (pepciv Se? Tots voVoyj ; ^ 

la'. 27ropa5rji/ Tii'a. 

jfl'. Tl€p\ a.(TKr]<T€a}S. 

ly . Ti (prjixia kuI ttolos epri/ios. 

iS'. ^nopidrjv rii'd. 

^ S : TTKarro^x^i'ovs S. 

2 Tlie entire title supplied from Ch. X. by 5. 



Chapters of the Third Book 

I. Of personal adornment. 

II. The fields of study in which the man who expects 
to make progress will have to go into training ; 
and that we neglect what is most important. 

III. What is the subject-matter with which the good 

man has to deal ; and what should be the chief 
object of our training ? 

IV, To the man who took sides, in an undignified 

manner, while in a theatre, 
V. To those who leave school because of illness. 
VI. Some scattered sayings, 
VII. A conversation with the Imperial Bailiff of the 
Free Cities, who was an Epicurean. 
VIII. How ought we to exercise ourselves to deal with 
the impressions of our senses ? 
IX. To a certain rlietorician who was going to Rome 

for a law-suit. 
X. How ought we to bear our illnesses ? 
XI. Some scattered sayings. 
XII. Of training. 

XIII. The meaning of a forlorn state, and the kind of 

person a forlorn man is. 

XIV. Some scattered sayings. 


If'. "Oti 5e? irfpifaKfuuivws iOxecrQai f<p' (Kaara. 

i^'. "Ort ivKaQu)s Sel aufKadUvai (Is (TV/jLnepKpopdy. 

iC'- Uep] TTpouolas. 

17]'. "On ov Set irphs ras ayye\ias Tapdcrcecrdai, 

id'. TIs ffrdais iSixrou Ka\ (ptKoa6(pov ; 

K. "Oti av'o irivrwv twv ^Krhs ((Ttiv u}<pe\el(r9ai. 
Ka. Tlphs Toi'S evK6\(as iirl rh (ro<pi(TT€vtiv ipxa/J-ffovs. 
Kj3'. riepl Kvpia/Jiov. 

Ky'. Uphs Tovs avayyivuxTKovTas Kal SiaKtyoueuovs finifiKTiKus. 
k5'. Uepl Tov fi^ SeTv vpoairdax^'''^ "^^^^ o^'f ^^' T/M*^*'- 
Ke'. Uphs rovs diroiriirrovTas wv TTpofOevro. 
K{-'. Tlphs roiis riju airopiai' SiSoiKoraS. 


a. JJepl KaWwTTiafjLOv. 

1 EtVfoi'To? Tivo^ TTpo^ avrov veaviaKov pijroptKov 
TrepiepyoTepov r)p/jLoa'/j,evov rrjv ko/jLtjp Kal rip 
aXXriP 7T€pi/3o\r]v KaTaKO(T/jLOVPTO<; EtVe fioi, €(f)y], 
el ov hoKovaiv aoi kvv6<; r elvat koXol rLve<i Kal 
'lttttoc Kal 0L/T&)9 TCi)P ciWcov ^(pcoi> eKaarop ; — 

2 AoKovaip, 6(f)r). — Ovkovp Kal apOpwiroL ol fiep 
KaXoiy ol 8' alaxpol ; — Ilai? yap ov ; — Ylorepop 
ovp Kara to avro eKaara rovrcop ip rw avrrp 
yepcL KaXa TTpoaayopevofiep rj t'^to)? eKaarop ; 

3 oi/Tft)? K 6\(r€L avTo. eVetSr; 7rp09 dWo fxep 6p(o- 
pep Kvpa 7r€(pvK6ra, Trpo? aWo 5' lttttop, tt/oo? 


BOOK III. 1. 1-3 

XV. That we ought to approach eacli separate thing 

with circumspection, 
XVI. That one should enter cautiously into social inter- 
XVII. Of Providence. 

XVIII. 'J'hat we ought not to allow any news to disturb us. 
XIX. What is the position of the layman, and what that 

of the philosopher ? 
XX. That it is possible to derive advantage from every- 
thing external. 
XXI. To those who enter light heartedly upon the 

profession of lecturing. 
XXII. On the calling of a Cynic. 

XXIII. To those who read and discuss for the purpose of 


XXIV. That we ought not to j'earn for the things which 

are not under our control. 
XXV. 'J'o those who fail to achieve their purposes. 
XXVI. To those who fear want. 


Of personal adornment 

Once_, when he was visited by a young student of 
rhetoric whose hair was somewhat too elaborately 
dressed, and whose attire in general was highly em- 
bellished, Epictetus said : Tell me if you do not think 
that some dogs are beautiful, and some horses, and so 
every other creature. — I do, said the young man. — Is 
not the same true also of men, some of them are 
handsome, and some ugly? — Of course. — Do we, 
then, on the same grounds, pronounce each of these 
creatures in its own kind beautiful, or do we pro- 
nounce each beautiful on special grounds? I sliall 
show you what I mean. Since we see that a dog is 
born to do one thing, and a horse another, and, if 
you will, a nightingale for something else, in general 



aXXo 6' 6t ovTa)<; tv^ol (h]h6i'a, KadoXov fxev ovk 
aroTTft)? cLTTOcpi'ji'aiT^ dp rt? eKaarov rrjpiKavra 
Kokov elvai, orrore Kara jy^v avrov (f)V(Tiv Kpdricrr 
ey^OL' iirel 6' 77 <f>v(TL<; eKaarov BLd<j)op6<; iariv, 
8ia(f)6p(o<; elvai fioi Sokcl eKaarov avrwv KaXov 

4 ?; >ydp ov ; — 'fl/xoXoyei.. — Ovk ovv oirep Kvva 
TToiel KaXop, rovro 'imrop aLa')(^p6p, oirep S' lttttop 
KaXop, rovro Kvva ala\poPj eX ye Sidxpopot at 

5 (f)vaei<; ela\p avrcop ; — ^'KoLKep. — Kat yap to 
Tray K par laarrjv olfiat ttolovv KaXop rovro TraXat- 
ari-jP OVK dyaOop iroiel, Spopia Se Kal yeXoLora- 
rop' Kal 6 7r/)o? irepraOXiap KaXb^ 6 avr6<; ovro<; 

6 7r/309 TrdXrjp ata^iaro^^ ; — Outo)?, e<^ri. — Tt ovp 
TToiel dpdpcoirop KaXov rj oirep rat yepei Kal Kvpa Kal 
iTTTTov ; — TouTO, e^r]. — Tt ovp iroiel KVPa KaXov ; 7) 
dperrj 7; kvpo<; irapovaa. ri 'liriTOP ; 1) dperr) ?; ^ 
Ilttttov rrapovaa. ri ovp dpOpooirop ; pi] rrod^ 1) 

7 dperr) t] dpOpMirov irapovaa ; Kal au ovp el ^eXet? 
KaXo<; elpaL, veapiaKe, rovro eKiropei, rr/v dperijp 

8 rr)p dpOpa)7rLK}]p. — Tt? 8' iarlp avrrj ; — "Opa, ripa<^ 
avTO^ eTTaivel<;, orav Si)(^a irdOov^; rivd^ eiraLpfi^' 
TTorepa tol/? hiKaiov^ 77 toi/? dSiKOv; ; — Tol'? 
BiKaiovi. — Uorepop rov<; ad)(ppopa<; rj rov<; aKO- 
Xdarov<i ; — Tou? a(t}cf)popa<;. — Tou? eyKparel^ K 

9 7) rov<; uKparel^; ; — Tou? eyKparel<;. — Ovkovp 
roLovrop ripa itolojp aavrop LaOi on KaXop 

^ 7] added by s. 

^ One who specialized in the panrrafj'nm, a combination of 
boxing, wrestling, and plain " tighting." 

BOOK III. I. 3-9 

it would not be unreasonable for one to declare that 
each of them was beautiful precisely when it 
achieved supreme excellence in terms of its own 
nature ; and, since each has a different nature, each 
one of them, I think, is beautiful in a different 
fashion. Is that not so? — He atrreed. — Does it not 
follow, then, that precisely what makes a doi; 
beautiful, makes a horse ugly, and precisely what 
makes a horse beautiful, makes a dog ugly, if, that 
is, their natures are diff'erent? — So it apj)ears. — Yes, 
for, to my way of thinking, what makes a pancratiast ^ 
beautiful does not make a wrestler good, and, more 
than that, makes a runner quite absurd : and the 
same man who is beautiful for the pentathlon - is 
very ugly for wrestling? — That is so, said he. — What, 
then, makes a man beautiful other than just that 
which makes a dog or a horse beautiful in its 
kind? — Just that, said he. — What is it, then, that 
makes a dog beautiful ? The presence of a dog's 
excellence. What makes a horse beautiful ? The 
presence of a horse's excellence. What, then, makes 
a man beautiful ? Is it not the presence of a man's 
excellence? Very well, then, young man, do you 
too, if you wish to be beautiful, labour to achieve this, 
the excellence that characterizes a man. — And what 
is that? — Observe who they are whom you yourself 
praise, when you praise people dispassionately ; is it 
the just, or the unjust ? — ^The just ; — is it the temper- 
ate, or the dissolute ? — ^The temperate ; — and is it the 
self-controlled, or the uncontrolled ? — The self-con- 
trolled. — In making yourself that kind of person, 
therefore, rest assured that you will be making your- 

2 An all-round competition in running, jumping, wrestling, 
and hurling the discus and the javelin. 



TToa/cref?" /jLey(pi<; 5' av rovrwv dfieXfjf;, ala^^^pop 
a elvai dvdyKrj, kuv iravra firiy^ava virep rov 
^aivecrOai ae ^ KaXov. 

10 ^{"jVTevOtv ouKerc ejj^o) aoL ttw? ecTTco- civ re yap 
Xeyco a (fypovco, dvu'iacD ae Kal e^eXOcov rdxa ovB' 
elaeXevar)- dv re /jLT] Xeyw, opa olov 7roiy'](70), el 
ail fxev €p)(7] irpo^ i/ie dxpeXyjOrjao/jLevof;, iyw ^ 5' 
ovK M(^eXi-j(T(o a ovSev, real av ptev o)? irpo^ 
(f)iX6ao(f)Ov, €761) 3' ovSep ipcb aoi ct)9 (^LXoao^a^. 

11 TTW? he Kal ovK^ do/jiov eart. Trpo? avrov ae to 
irepLihelv dveiravopOcorov ; dv iroO varepov 

12 ^peva<; ^XV^' evX6yo)<; /jlol eyKaXeaei<;' " ri elhev 
ev efidi 6 'Etti/ctt^to?, iva ^Xeirwv fie roiovrov 
elaep^ofievov irpo<; avrov ovTa)<; alaxpM<i e^ovra 
TTepilSr] Kal* /xySeTTore pLi]Be p?]pia eiTrrj ; ovto)<^ 

13 piov direyvo) ; veo^ ovk -tj/jLyv ; ovk rffjLiiv Xoyov 
uKovaTifc6<; ; iroaot 8' dXXot veou ec/)' rjXt.KLa'^ ttoX- 

14 Xd roiavra Biap,aprdvova{v ; Tivd ttot dKOvco 
YloXepicova i^ dKoXaaroTUTOV veaviaKov roaav- 
rrjv pLerapoXriv fierajSaXelv. earco, ovk oiero /xe 
TloXepLoyva eaeoOar r-qv /lev Kopi.t-jv r)hvvar6 fiov 
Siopdwaai, rd /lev TreptdpL/jLard piOv TrepieXetv, 
■ylriXovpLevov pie iravaaL rjhvvaro, dXXd ^Xeircov 

15 p.6 — TLvo<; eiTTW ; — ax^lP-ct exovra eaicoTray eyw 
ov Xeyw, Tivo<; earl to aX'lP'Ci tovto' av S' avro 

^ Or perhaps ye, Oldfather, ^ .s : epywi S. 

^ OVK added by Koraes. * Kai supplied by 5. 

^ Once when drunk he burst in upon Xenocrates, but was 
converted by him and eventually succeeded him in the head- 


BOOK III, 1.9-15 

self beautiful ; but so long as you neglect all this, 
you must needs be ugly, no matter if you employ 
every artifice to make yourself look beautiful. 

Beyond that 1 know not what more I can say to 
you ; for if I say what I have in mind^ I shall hurt 
your feelings, and you will leave, perhaps never to 
return ; but if 1 do not say it, consider the sort of 
thing I shall be doing. Here you are coming to me 
to get some benefit, and I shall be bestowing no 
benefit at all ; and you are coming to me as to a 
philosopher, and 1 shall be saying nothing to you as 
a philosopher. Besides, is it anything but cruel for 
me to leave you unreformed ? If some time in the 
future you come to your senses, you will have good 
reason to blame me : " What did Epictetus observe 
in me," you will say to yourself, '^ that, although he 
saw me in such a condition and coming to him in so 
disgraceful a state, he should let me be so and say 
never a word to me ? Did he so completely despair 
of me ? Was I not young ? Was I not ready to listen 
to reason ? And how many other young fellows make 
any number of mistakes of the same kind in their 
youth ? I am told that once there was a certain 
Polemo^ who from being a very dissolute young man 
underwent such an astonishing transformation. Well, 
suppose he did not think that I should be another 
Polemo ; he could at least have set my hair right, he 
could have stripped me of my ornaments, he could 
have made me stop plucking my hairs ; but although 
he saw me looking like— what shall I say? — he lield 
his peace." As for mc, I do not say what it is you look 

ship of the Academy. See below IV. 11. 30; Diogenes 
Laertius, 4, 16; and Horace, Sat. II. 3, 253-7. 


epeh r6d\ orav et? aavrov e\dr)<;, koX yvooaei, 
oloi' icTTL Kol TtVe? avTO ^TTiTTjBevovai. 

16 Tof'To fioi varepov av iyKa\r]<^, tl e^o) airoXoyrj- 
aaaOai ; vai- dXX' epo) Kal ov 7r€iaO)]a6Tai. 
T(p yap ^AttoWcovl eTrelaOrj 6 Aai'o? ; ovk uTreX- 
doiv KOL iieOvaOei^i -y^aipeiv eiTrev tw ')(^piia fifo ; tl 
ovv ; irapa touto ovk eliTev avrro 6 WttoWcov Ta<; 

17 aXi]6eLa<; ; KairoL iyco fiev ovk olBa ovt el Tret- 
aO/jar] jioi ovr el /x/y 6K6li>o^ 8' aKpi^earara rjSei, 

18 OTL ov TreLadtjaerat, Koi ofjiw^ elirev. — A/a ri 8' 
elirev ; — Ata ^ rl Se WttoXXcov iariv ; hia ri he 
')(p7]afi(pSeL ; Sia tl S' et? ravrrju rrjv y^copav 
eavTOv Karareray^ev, wcrre /uLdvTi<; elvat, Kal Trijyy) 
T?)? dXj]Oeia<; Kal Trpo'; avrov epx^a-Oai tou? e/c 
tT/? olKOV/j.evr]<; ; Bid tl Se irpoyeypaiTTai to yvcdOi 
aavTOV fjirjhevh<^ avTo voovi'TO^ ; 

19 '^CL)KpdT}]<^ irdvTa'^ eireiOe tov<; 7rpo(Ti6vTa(;^ 
eTTifxeXelaOat eavToyv ; ovSe to \iXlo(JTOV fxepo^. 
dXX 6/JLco(i eTTeiBrj et? TavTifv ttjv tu^iv vtto tov 
haLfJLOVLOVy &<; iprjaiv aiiTO'^, KaTeTuydr], ixifKeTL 
e^eXLirev. dXXd Kal irpo'; tov^ huKaaTa^ tl 

20 Xeyei ; '' dv /x' dcpiJTe,'' (p)]aLv, " inl tovtol<;, I'va 
/jLTjKeTi TavTa irpdaaco a vvv, ovk dpe^o/xac oiS' 
dvi'iaw dXXd Kal vew Kal irpea^vTepo) Kal aTrXw? 
del Tw evTvyx^^ovTL irpoaeXOiov Trevaofiai TavTa 
d Kal vvv TTVvddvofiaL, ttoXv Be fidXiarTa v/xwv, 

1 hix supplied by s. 

^ s : TrpoffioTas or Trpo(rav6Tas S. 

* Who warned him not to beget a son, the ill-starred 


BOOK III. I. 15-20 

like, but yuu will say it, when you come to yourself, 
and will realize what it is and the kind of people those 
are who act this way. 

If you bring this charge against me some day, 
what shall I be able to say in my own defence ? 
Yes ; but su})pose I speak and he not obey. And 
did Laius obey Apollo ?i Did he not go away and 
get drunk and say good-bye to the oracle r What 
then? Did that keep Apollo from telling him the 
truth? Whereas 1 do not know whether you will 
obey me or not. Apollo knew perfectly well that 
Laius would not obey, and yet he s})oke. — But v, hy 
did he speak ? — And why is he Apollo ? And why 
does he give out oracles? And why has he placed 
himself in this position,^ to be a prophet and a 
fountain of truth, and for the inhabitants of the 
civilized world to come to him ? And why are the 
words *' Know thyself" carved on the front of his 
temple, although no one pays attention to them ? 

Did Socrates succeed in })revailing upon all his 
visitors to keep watch over their own characters ? 
No, not one in a thousand. Nevertheless, once he 
had been assigned this post, as he himself says, by 
the ordinance of the Deity,^ he never abandoned it. 
Nay, what does he say even to his judges ? " If you 
acquit me," he says, "^ on these conditions, namely, 
that I no longer engage in my present })ractices, I 
will not acce})t your offer, neither will I give u}) my 
practices, but I will go up to young and old, and, in 
a word, to everyone that I meet, and put to him the 
same question that I put now, and beyond all others 
I will especially interrogate you," he says, '' who are 

2 For the expression compare II. 4, 3; IV\ 10, IG, 
^ Based upon the Apology, 28 E. 



(f)y](TL, TMi> iToXiToov, oTi €yyvT€pco fiov yevec eare.'' 

21 ovrcoi; irepiepyo'; el, o) ^odKpaje^, kol iroXvTrpdy- 
^(ov ; TL Be (joi fieXei, tl 7roiov/jL€V ; " olov Kal 
Xeyeif; ; kolvwv6<^ /hov wv kol cvyyevrj'^ dfMe\el<; 
aeavTov kol rfj TroXec irapey^eif; TroXiTrjv KaKov 

22 Ka\ TOt? avyytveai avyyevt] Kal roi? yelroai 
yeiTova.^^ " av ouv rt? el ; *' evravOa yukya 
earl ro eiTreLv otl " ovro'i elfxi, a Sec fieXeiv 
di>0pa)7r(ov." ovSe yap Xeovri to tvxov ^othiov 
ToXfxd dvrLaTi)vaL avrm- dv S' o ravpo^ irpo- 
aeXOcov dv6i(TT)]TaL, Xeye avro), dv aot Bo^ij, 
" av oe t/? el ; " Kal " rt aol [xeXei ; " duOpcoTre, 

23 ev iravrl yevei (^veral tl e^aiperov ev ftovaiv, 
ev Kvalv, ev /uie\i(TcraL<;, ev 'iinTOi^. p,r} Sr} Xeye 
rep e^aiperw " au ovv tl el;'' el Se pn], epel 
aoi (f)(oin]v TToOev Xa^ov " eyio el/uLL tolovtov olov 
ev //xar/ft) irop^vpa' pur) pH d^iov opLoiov elvac tol<; 
dXXoi<i rj TTJ (jyvaeL pLov ^ pbepL<^ov, otl pie BiacpepovTa 
Trapa TOv<i dXXov<; eTroirjaevJ" 

24 Tl ovv ; eyw tolovto<; ; iroOev ; av yap 
TO/ouTO? olo<; dKOveLV TdX'>]OT] ; co(f)eXev. dXX o/ao)? 
eVet TTO)? KaTeKpiOi^v ircoycova ex^iv ttoXlov Kal 
TpL/3(t)va Kal (TV €Laep)(r] 7r/oo«? epLe o)? tt/jo? (f)iX6ao- 
(^ov, ov 'Xp/jaopLai (Tol a)pid)<; ouS' d'JToyvwaTiKW'^, 

^ Deleted by Kronenberg, and "nature" rather than 
" my nature " would seem to be more logical here (ct. Grant's 
note on Aristotle's Ethics, 2.1.3). But /uoi; is supported by 
the precisely similar <tov of § 30, which is if anything even 
more illogical. In the original remark of Diogenes, whom 
Epictetus is clearlj- quoting in § 30 (see the note at that 
point), iyKaXilv rf) (pixrn is used as it is normally in Greek. 
Apparently we have in these two locutions a form of 
expression peculiar to Epictetus. 

BOOK III. I. 20-24 

my fellow-citizens, inasmuch as you are nearer akin 
to me." ^ Are you so inquisitive, O Socrates, and 
meddlesome ? And why do you care what we are 
about ? " Why, what is that you are saying ? Vou 
are my partner and kinsman, and yet you neglect 
yourself and provide the State with a bad citizen, 
and your kin with a bad kinsman, and your neigh- 
bours with a bad neighbour." " Well, who are you } " 
Here it is a bold thing to say, " I am he who must 
needs take interest in men." For no ordinary ox 
dares to withstand the lion himself ;2 but if the bull 
comes up and withstands him, say to the bull, if you 
think fit, " But who are you t " and " VV' hat do you 
care .'^ " Man, in every species nature produces some 
superior individual, among cattle, dogs, bees, horses. 
Pray do not say to the superior individual, " Well, 
then, who are you ? " Or if you do, it will get a 
\oice from somewhere and reply to you, " I am the 
same sort of thing as red in a mantle ; "^ do not expect 
me to resemble the rest, and do not blame my nature "* 
because it has made me different from the rest." 

What follows? Am I that kind of person? Im- 
possible. Are you, indeed, the kind of person to 
listen to the truth ? I would that you were ! But 
nevertheless, since somehow or other I have been 
condemned to wear a grey beard and a rough cloak, ^ 
and you are coming to me as to a philosopher, I shall 
not treat you cruelly, nor as though I despaired of 

^ A free paraphrase of the Apology, 29 C, E, and 30 A. 
Compare also I. 9, 2d. 

2 Compare I. 2, 30. 

3 Compare I. 2, 17 (and note, where read " bright red ") 
and 22 ; the reference is to the stripe in the toga jrraetexta. 

* See critical note. 

" External symbols of a philosopher. 


aXV tpo)' veaviaKe, TLva OeX€L<; KaXov TTOielv ; 

25 yvoyOi irpcorov rt? el koI oi/tw? KOdiiei aeavrov. 
av0p(O7To<i el' rovTO 5' earl Ovtjtov ^woi' 
XprjarLKou (fiavTaaiai<i XoytKoj^i. to he XoyiKo)^ 
TL e<TTLV ; (f)vaeL 6 jjioXoyov iievw<^ koI reXeo)?. 

26 TL ovv e^ciiperov ex^i^ ; to t.Cpov ; ov. to 6vi]- 
Tov ; ov. TO y^py-jaTLKov (j)avTacrLai<; ; ov. to 
XoyiKov €\€i<; e^aipeTov' tovto KOGjxei Kai 
KaXXciiiTL^e' TT]v kojul}]!' S' a(/)6? tco irXdcravTL 

27 o)? avTO<; rjOeXi^aeu. aye, rtW? dXXa<; €)(ei<; 
TTpoai^yopia^ ; avi^p el rj yvvr) ; — ^Avvjp. — "Kvhpa 
OVV KaXXcoTTi^e, yu?) yvvalfca. eKelvr] <^vaei Xeia 
yeyove kol Tpvcpepd' kolv exiJ Tpi'^a's TroXXa?, 
Te'pa? eVrt Kal ev tol<; Tepaaiv ev'Pa)/jL7j BetfCvvTai. 

28 TavTO ^ 8' eir dvhp6<^ eaTL to /ij] ey^eiv kolv jxev 
cf)VG-ei fit] exjjy Tepa<; ecrTiv, av S' avTo<^ eavTov 
eKKOTTTTj Kal ciTroTiXXr], tl avTov 7TOL)j(j(op.ev ; ttov 
avTov SeL^co/jLCV Kal tl Trpoypdyfray/uiev ; " Sei^a) 
vfiLv dvSpa, 0? OeXet fiaXXov yvvr] elvai i) dviqpr 

29 w Seivov 0ed/jiaTO<;' ov8el<i ovyl Oav/idcret tyjv 
7rpoypa(f)7]v' vr] tov Ala, ol/iai otl avTol ol tlX- 
Xoiievoi oil 7rapaKoXovdovvTe<;, otl tovt avTo 

30 taTiv, iroLOvaiv, iroLOvariv. avOpwire, tl e;^6f? 
ey/caXecraL aov Trj <^vaei ; otl ae dvBpa eyevvrj- 
aev ; tl ovv ; irdaa'^ eheL yvva'iKa'^ yevvrjaaL ; Kal 

^ Wolf and Blass : rovro S. 

BOOK III. I. 24-30 

you, but 1 shall say : Young man, whom do jou wish 
to make beautiful ? First learn who you are, and 
then, in the light of that knowledge, adorn yourself. 
You are a human being ; that is, a mortal animal 
gifted with the ability to use impressions rationally. 
And what is "rationally"? In accordance with 
nature and perfectly. What element of superiority, 
then, do you possess ? The animal in you ? No. 
Your mortality.^ No. Your ability to use impres- 
sions ? No. Your reason is the element of superiority 
which you possess ; adorn and beautify that ; but 
leave your hair to Him who fashioned it as He 
willed. Come, what other designations apply to 
you ? Are you a man or a woman ? — A man. — Very 
well then, adorn a man, not a woman. Woman is 
born smooth and dainty by nature, and if she is 
very hairy she is a prodigy, and is exhibited at Rome 
among the j^rodigies. But for a man Jiot to be hairy 
is the same thing, and if by nature he has no hair he 
is a prodigy, but if he cuts it out and plucks it out of 
himself, what shall we make of him ? Where shall 
we exhibit him and what notice shall we post ? " I 
will show you," we say to the audience, "a man who 
wishes to be a woman rather than a man." What a 
dreadful spectacle I No one but will be amazed at 
the notice ; by Zeus, I fancy that even the men who 
pluck out their own hairs do what they do without 
realizing what it means. Man, what reason have 
you to complain against your nature '? ^ Because it 
brought you into the world as a man ? ^ What then } 
Ought it to have brought all persons into the world 

* Compare the critical note on § 23. 

2 An almost verbatim quotation from Diogenes the Cynic. 
See Athenaeus, XIII. 565 C. 



Tt av 6(p€\o<; r/v aoi rov Koa/xeloOai ; rivi av 

31 iKO(T[xov, el TTaVre? ?]aav yvi'aLK€<; ; aA,X,' ovk 
apeaKei aoL to Trpajfidriop ; 6\ov hi oXcdv avrb 
7TOii)oov' dpov — ri ttot eKelvo ; — to airiov rdv 
rpi^^cop' TTODjaov et? airavra aavrop yvvaiKa, Xva 
fjLi} TrXavcofxeOa, /jui] to /lev •^fxicrv avhpo^, to 8' 

32 rjixiav yvvaiKO'^. rivt OeXei^ cipeaat ; rol<i <yvvaL- 
KapLOi<; ; w? ^ dinjp avToU apeaov. " vai' dWd 
roL<; A,6toi? "x^aipovaivy ovk aTrdy^r] ; kol el Tot9 

33 KivaihoL<s e-)(^aLpov, eyei'ov dv KLvaLBo<; ; tovto aoi 
TO epyov eariv, eirl tovto eyevvrjO)]<^, Xva aoL ai 

34 yvvaLK€<; at aKoXaaTOL ^^acproaLV ; tolovtov ae 

6o)fJL€V TToXlTrfV K.0pLv6i(0V, KUP 0VT(0<; TV')(rj, d(TTV- 

v6f.iOV Tj i(f))]ffap)(^ou i) aTpaTijyov rj dyo)vo0eTt]v ; 

35 dye kuI ya[xi]aa<i TiWeaOai, jJieXkeL^ ; tLvl kul 
iirl TL ; KOL irathia iroLtjaa'; cItu KUKeiva TuWofxeva 
})/xtv etVa^et? el<; to TroXiTevfia ; KaXo<; tto/Vitt^? 
Kul ^ovX€VTt]<; KOL f)7]T(t)p. TOLOVTov^i Bel veov<i 
ev')(^ea6ai i^plv (^veaOai kol dvaTpec^eaOai ; 

36 MtJ, tol/? 6eov<^ aoiy veavlaKe' dXX dira^ 
dKOvaw; T(i)v Xoycov tovtcov direXBcov aavTW elire- 
" TUVTd fJLOL ^Ej7riKT7jTo<; OVK el'pr)K€P' TToQev yap 
eK€LV(f) ; dXXd Oeo^ Tt? ttot' €Vfi€vr}<; Bt eKeivov. 
ovhe yap dv eirrjXOev ^\\ttlkti]tcp tuvtu elirelv 

1 8b ; w S. 

^ Compare I. 29. 16 together with note on that passage, 
and for a more extended discussion Trans, of the Amer. 
Philol. Assoc, 52 (1921), 46. 

2 The interlocutor must have been a Corinthian. 

BOOK III. [. 30-36 

as women? And if tliat had been the case, wlial 
good would you be getting of your self-adornment? 
For whom would you be adorning yourself, it all 
were women ? Your paltry body ^ doesn't please 
you, eh ? Make a clean sweep of tiie whole matter ; 
eradicate your — what shall I call it? — the cause of your 
hairiness ; make yourself a woman all over, so as not 
to deceive us, not half-man and half-woman. Whom 
do you wish to please ? Frail womankind ? Please 
them as a man. '^^ Yes, but they like smooth men." 
Oh, go hang ! And if they liked sexual perverts, 
would you have become such a pervert? Is this 
your business in life, is this what you were born for, 
that licentious women should take pleasure in you ? 
Shall we make a man like you a citizen of Corinth,^ 
and perchance a warden of the city, or superinten- 
dent of ephebi,^ or general, or superintendent of the 
games? Well, and w^hen you have married are you 
going to pluck out your hairs ? For whom and to 
what end? And when you have begotten boys, are 
you going to introduce them into the body of 
citizens as plucked creatures too ? A fine citizen 
and senator and orator I Is this the kind of young 
men we ought to pray to have born and brought up 
for us ? 

By the gods, young man, may such not be your fate ! 
But once you have heard these words go away and say 
to yourself, ''^ It was not Epictetus who said these 
things to me ; why, how could they have occurred to 
him r but it was some kindly god or other speaking 
through him. For it would not have occurred to 
Epictetus to say these things, because he is not in 

^ Young men completing their education and serving their 
term in the army. 



37 ovK elwOoTL Xeyeiv 7rpo<: ovheva. aye ovv rrp Oefo 
7r6iaOa)fi€V, ira f-trj 6eo\6\roTOL w/ier'." ov' aW 
CIV /j.€V Kopa^ Kpavyd^(ov ayj/ialrr] aoi tl, ov)^ 6 
Kopa^ eariv 6 ayjpaivcoi', dX)C 6 ^eo? Bt* avrov' 
iw 8e Si' dvdpM7TLvrj<; c^coz'/}? ar]i.Laii'r] ri, rou 
di'Opcoirov TrpoarroDJat] ^ Xeyetp aoL ravra, "v 
dyi'of)'; ^ ryu dvvafxiv rod haifioviov, on. toT? /leu 
ouro)^, Tot? 8' eKeivci)^ ai]p.aireL, Trepi Be rwv 
fieyiarcov koI KvpiwruTCov Bca^ KaWlarov dy- 
3S yeXov arj/xaivei ; ri earlv aWo, o Xeyec 6 ttoltj- 
TV? ; 

eVet irpu o'l eiTTo/xe^-* ///tei?, 
'Kpfielav Tre/uL^jraPTe BuiKTopov ^ dpyeKpourtjv, 
/jL)'}T avrov Krelveiv /j-jJt€ p.vdaaOao clkoltlv. 

39 6 '\Lp/jLt]<; KaTal3d<; e/ieWei' \lyia6(o ^ Xeyeiv ravra 
Kul aol vvv Xeyovaiv oi Oeol ravra, 

'Kpfieiav Trefiyjravre '' BidKropov dpy€i(f)6vry]v, 

fjLrj e/<:arp6(f)€iv rd KaXco<s 6\ovra /biijhe irepiepydl^e- 
aOai, dXX' d(f)€LvaL rov uvhpa civSpa, rijv yvvaiKa 
yvvalxa, rov fcaXbv &)? dvOpcdirov KaXov,^ rov 

40 alaxpov ox? dvOpcorrov alaxpov. on ovk el Kpea^ 
ovSe rplx€^, dXXd Trpoaipeai's' ravrrjv dv crxV'^ 

41 KaXrjv, ror eaet KaX6<i. p^^XP^ ^^ ^'^^ ^^ roXpLo) 

^ Blass : iroi-f^crei S. ^ l>i;iss : Via yiu'n]is S. 

3 did supplied by Sb. 

* Upton from Homer : infl ol irp^eiwoixiv S. 

^ Oldfather: Tr4fx\\/avTes ivaKoirov S. The reading restored 
is that of Zenodotus and Aristophanes, which lias left some 
traces in two M8S., one scholium, and a papyrus of the 3rd 
cent, after Christ, and especially in § 39 below. iSee my note 
in Class. Philol., vol. 22, for a full discussion of this passage. 

^ Bentlej': avT(p 8. For arguments in favour of Bentley's 
emendation see Trarifi. Am. Fhilol. Ass. 52 (1921) 49, 

HOOK III. I. 36-41 

the habit of speaking to anyone. Come tlien, let us 
obey God, that we rest not under His wrath." Nay, 
hut if a raven gives you a sign by his croaking, it is 
not the raven that gives the sign, but God through 
the raven ; whereas if He gives you a sign through a 
human voice, will you pretend that it is the man who 
is saying these things to you, so that you may remain 
ignorant of the power of the divinity, that He gives 
signs to some men in this way, and to others in that, 
but that in the greatest and most sovereign matters 
He gives His sign through His noblest messenger? 
What else does the poet mean when he says : 

Since ourselves we did warn him, 
Sending down Hermes, the messenger god, the 

slayer of Argus, 
Neither to murder the husband himself, nor make 

love to his consort ? ^ 

As Hermes descended to tell Aegisthus that, so now 
the gods tell you the same thing. 

Sending down Hermes, the messenger god, the 
slayer of Argus, 

not to distort utterly nor to take useless pains about 
that which is already right, but to leave the man a 
man, and the woman a woman, the beautiful person 
beautiful as a human being, the ugly ugly as a 
human being. Because you are not flesh, nor hair, 
but moral purpose ; if you get that beautiful, then 
you will be beautiful. So far I do not have the 

^ Homer, Odiissey, a, 37-9. 

' TreV^avTes S ; see note 5 above. 

^ Oldfather : rhv KaKhv ii'dpuTrou us ica\hp &t/9pwvop S 



(JOL \ey€ii>, OTi aia^po'^ el' BoKel'^ yap jjlol ttuvtci 
42 Oeketv uKovaai rj tovto. a\X' opa, rl Xeyeu 
'^(OKpdrrjf; tw KaWiaTw navTcov kol copaiOTcirfty 
WXKt^idSr}' ** Treipo) ovv koXo^ elvat^ rl avTcp 
Xeyei ; " irXaacre aov ti^v Kofiriv Kal rlXXe aov 
ra aKeXrj " ; /xr; yevoiro' dXXa " Koaixei aov ry^v 
4\\ irpoaipeaWy e^aipe ra (f)auXa Soy/aara.^^ to 
aci)/i(iTiop ovv TTCo? ; ct)9 7r€(f)VK€V. ciXXo) rovrcov 

44 6/j,eX7]aep' iKeivw eiTLTpeylrov.^ — Ti ovp ; aKaOap- 
Tov hel elvai ; — M^ ykvoiTo' aXX! 6? el koX 7Te(f)v- 
Ka<^, TOVTOv Kcidaipe, avSpa &)? avhpa /caOdpcov 

45 ewai, yvvoLKa w? yvvaiKa, Traihlov &)? TratSiov. ov' 
aXXa Kat rod Xeorro^ eKjiXco/iev rrjv k6/jL1]v, Iva /li] 
d/cdOaprof; fj, Kal rov dXeKTpv6i'o<^ rov X6(pov' Bel 
yap Kal rovrov KaOdpcop elvai. dXX' &)? dXeK- 
Tpvova Kal eKelvov ft)9 Xeovra Kal rov KVvrjyeriKov 
Kvva ft)? Kvv)-]yeriKov. 

/3 . Wepl TLVd daKelaOat 8el rov irpoKoy^ovra Kal 
on ro)v KvpicoTdrcov d/jLeXovfiev. 

1 Tpel^i elal tottoi, irepl ov<; dcTKrjOijvai. Set rov 
eaofxevov koXov Kal dyaOoV o irepl ra^; dpe^et^; 
Kalrd<; eKKXiaeL^, Xva fxi^r opeyoiJievo^ diroTvyy^dvr] 

2 flljT eKKXiVCDV TTepLTTiTTTr)' 6 TTGpl Ttt? 6pfJLa<i Kal 

^ iTri(rTpe\pou S originally. 

^ An inexact quotation of Plato, Alcib. I. 131 D. 

2 Compare I, 25, 13 ; 30, 1 ; II. 5, 22. 

^ The implication is tliat the interlocutor's conception of 
" cleanliness " has to do merely with tilings external. 

•* Compare II. 17, 15 If. This triple division of philosophy 
is the one original element in the teaching of Epictetus, and 
even it is rather a pedagogical device than an innovation in 

BOOK 111. .. 41-11. 2 

courage to tell you that you art^ "i^ly^ for it looks to 
me as though you would rather hear anything than 
that. But observe what Socrates says to Alcibiades, 
the most handsome and youthfully beautiful of men : 
'^Try, then, to be beautiful."^ What does he tell 
him } '' Dress your locks and pluck the hairs out 
of your legs?" God forbid! No, he says, "Make 
beautiful your moral purpose, eradicate your worthless 
opinions." How treat your paltry body, then ? As 
its nature is. This is the concern of Another ; ^ 
leave it to Him. — What then } Does the body have 
to be left unclean ? — God forbid ! but the man that 
you are and were born to be, keep that man clean, 
a man to be clean as a man, a woman as a woman, 
a child as a child. No, but let's pluck out also the 
lion's mane, so that he may not iail to be "cleaned 
up," and the cock's comb, for he too ought to be 
" cleaned up " ! ^ Clean f Yes, but clean as a 
cock, and the other clean as a lion, and the hunting 
dog clean as a hunting dog ! 


7Vie /lelds of study in ivhich the vifni who expects to 
make progi'ess ivill have to go into training ; and thai 
we neglect what is most important 

There are three fields of study * in which the man 
who is going to be good and excellent must first 
have been trained. The first has to do with desires 
and aversions, that he may never fail to get what he 
desires, nor fall into what he avoids ; the second 

thought. Compare Vol. I. p. xxi, and the literature there 



(t(f)op/j,a^ /cat a-TrX&i? o Trepl to KaOfjKOP, Yva rd^ei, 
Lva evXoyiarw^, <W yar; ayueXw?- TpLTo^ iarlv 6 irepl 
Tijv ave^airaTrjaiav kol iiveLKaiortjra kuI oXo)? o 

3 Trepi Ta<; avyKaraOecrei^;. tovtmv KupiwraTO^; Kal 
/jLuXiara iiretycov iarlv 6 irepl ra irdOiy 7rciOo<i 
yap aWo)? ov yiverai el pur) 6pe^eco<i diroTvyy^avov- 
<Tr}<; Tj eKKXiaew^ 7TepL7n7TT0ua7j<i. ovro^ ecTTiv o 
Tapaxd<i, 6opv^ou<;, dTvx^a<i, 6 hvaTV)(^ia^ eiTL- 
(f>€pa)v, 6 irevdrj, ol/j,coyd<;, (f)06i'ov<;, 6 (f)Oov€pov<;} 6 
^>]\oTV7rov<; iroLoyv, hi ayv ovK uKovauL Xoyov 

4 Sui'dfieOa. S€VTep6<; eariv 6 irepl ro KaOrjKOv' 
ov Bel ydp /jl€ eivai diraOP] oj? dvSpidvra, dWd 
ra<^ (j')(^eaei<; rrjpovvra ra? (^vaiKO.^ Kal eTriOerov^ 
cos" euae^T], co? vlov, cd^ dSe\(p6v, co? irarepa, w? 

5 TptTO? earlv 6 tjSt] roU TTpoKOTrrovaiv Ittl- 
/SdWoyv, 6 irepl T7)i> avrcav tovtcov daifidXeiav, 
'lva /jL')]B' ev VTTVOL'^ XdOrj t69 dve^€Taaro<; irapeX- 
Ooucra (^avraaia fxifh^ ev olvcoaet /jLrjBe /jceXay- 
')(^uXcovT0<i. — TovTO vTTep y/idf;, (f)7]aLV, eariv, — 

C ()( he vvv <^LX6ao(^OL d(^evTe<^ rov Trpcorov rowov 
Kal Tov hevTepov KaTayivovrai irepl rov rplrov' 
p.eTaiTLTrrovTa'i, rw ^ rjpcoTfjaOaL irepalvovia^;, 

^ (t)6^ov5 (" fears") conjectured bj- Reiske, very plausibly. 

^ Tip added by Oldfather after the similar correction by s in 
1. 7, 1 (where the fact that t^ is due to s should have been 

^ A briefer definition is given in I. 27, 10. 
2 See critical note 

^ The expression is not logical, for the field of study 

BOOK in. II. 2-6 

with cases of clioice and of refusal, and, in general, 
with duty, that he may act in an orderly fashion, upon 
good reasons, and not carelessly ; the third with the 
avoidance of error and rashness in judgement, and, in 
general, about cases of assent. Among these the 
most important and especially pressing is that which 
has to do with the stronger emotions ; for a strong 
emotion does not arise except a desire fails to 
attain its object, or an aversion falls into what 
it would avoid. ^ lUiis is the field of study which 
introduces to us confusions, tumults, misfortunes 
and calamities ; and sorrows, lamentations, envies ; ^ 
and makes ^ us envious and jealous — passions which 
make it impossible for us even to listen to reason. 
The second field of study deals with duty ; for 1 
ought not to be unfeeling like a statue, but should 
maintain my relations, both natural and acquired, as 
a religious man, as a son, a brother, a father, a 

The third belongs only to those who are already 
making progress ; it has to do with the element of 
certainty in the matters which have just been men- 
tioned, so that even in dreams, or drunkenness, or a 
state of melancholy-madness, a man may not be 
taken unawares by the appearance of an untested 
sense-impression.— This, says someone, is beyond 
us. — But philosophers nowadays pass by the first and 
second fields of study, and concentrate upon the 
third, upon arguments which involve equivocal 
premisses, which derive syllogisms by the process of 
interrogation, which involve hypothetical premisses,^ 

obviously can do nothing of the kind, but the fault is 
probably not in the MS. tradition. 

* See I. 7, 1, and note for these first three. 



7 uTToOeTLKOix;, ^VevSofievov;.^ — Aet yap, ^^faiv, kuI 
iv Tal<s vXai<i ravTaL<; yevo/juevou Bia(f)v\d^ai rb 
ave^aTTi'nrjTov. — Tiva ; — tov koKov kcli dyaOuv. — 

8 (To\ ovv TOVTO XeiTrei ; ra? aWa? €K7r€7Tuin]Ka<; ; 
TTepl Kepfidriov dve^a-ndri^ro^ el ; idv i^rj^ 
Kopdcnov Kokov, dvrey^eL'^ rrj (pai'Tacrva ; av 6 
yeiTcov (TOV KXr)povo/i)]crrj, ov huKvij ; vvv ovhev 

1) dWo aoL XeiTTeL rj dfieTaTrrcoala ; rd\a<;, avrd 
Tavra rpe/icov fiavdavei^ koL dyojinwVy /lyj ri<i aov 
KaTacf)pov7]ar), koX irvvOavofievo';, /juj rt? tl irepl 

10 (jov \ey6L. Kav rt? eXOcov eiirr] <jol otl " Xoyov 
yivofiepov, rt? dpicrro^; ean ra)v (piXoaocpwv, 
irapdiv Ti<; eXeyep, on eh (f>iX6ao(f>o^ 6 helva^ 
yeyove aov to -^vxdpiov dvTi SaKTvXtaLOv SL7n))(v. 
dv 8' dXXo<; irapcov etTrrj " ovSev eipijKa^, ovk 
eariv d^LOv rov helvo<s dfcpodadar tl yap olhev ; 
Td<; TrpcoTa^ d(f)op/j,d<; e^et, irXeov S' ovhev^ 
€^e(TT7]Ka<i, d>')(piaKa<;, 6vOv<; KeKpaya<; " iyco avT(p 

11 hel^od, Tt? elfii, otl [ieya<; (f)iX6ao(po<;'' (BXeireTai 
ef avTWv TOVTwv. tl OeXei^ e'f dXXcov hel^ai ; 
OVK ol8a<;, OTL Aioyev7]<; tmv aocptaTcov Tivd ovt(o<; 
ehei^ev eKTeiva^ tov fieaov BdKTvXov, cItu €K/xa- 
veuT0<s avTov " Ovto'^ iaTiv,'^ ^4'^h "^ Beu'w 

12 eBei^a v/jllp avTOv^'; dv6pa3TTO<^ yap SaKTvXco ov 

^ Oklfather : \p(vho,u4yovs vulg. See explanatory note. 

* i.e., if a man says he is lying, is he really Ij'ing, or telling 
the truth? See II. 17, 34, and note, '^evdofifvovs is used 
without the article, as in II. 21, 17. 

* Literally, "from a finger's breadth (-7 in.) to two cubits.'' 
^ See Diogenes Laertius, 0, 34, who says that Demosthenes 

was the man thus pointed at. 


BOOK III. II. 6-12 

and sophisms like The Liar} — Of course, he says, 
even when a man is engaged in subjects of this kind 
he has to preserve his freedom from deception. — But 
what kind of a man ought to engage in them } — 
Only the one who is already good and excellent. — 
Do you, then, fall short in this.^ Have you already 
attained perfection in the other subjects? Are you 
proof against deception in handling small change? 
If vou see a pretty wench, do you resist the sense- 
impression? If your neighbour receives an inheri- 
tance, do you not feel a twinge of envy ? And is 
security of judgement now the only thing in which 
you fall short? Wretch, even while you are study- 
ing tiiese very topics you tremble and are worried 
for fear someone despises you, and you ask whether 
anybody is saying anything about you. And if 
someone should come and say, " A discussion arising 
as to who was the best of the philosophers, someone 
who was there said that So-and-so was the only real 
philosopher," immediately your poor little one-inch 
soul shoots up a yard high.^ But if another party to 
the discussion says, " Nonsense, it's a waste of time 
to listen to So-and-so. Why, what does he know? 
He has the rudiments, but nothing else," you are 
beside yourself, you grow pale, immediately you 
shout, "I'll show him who I am, that I am a great 
philosopher!" Yet we see what a man is by just 
such conduct. Why do you wish to show it by any- 
thing else? Do you not know that Diogenes^ 
showed one of the sophists thus, pointing out his 
middle finger at him,^ and then when the man was 
furious witli rage, remarked, " That's So-and-so ; I've 
pointed him out to you." For a man is not some- 

* Regarded in antiquity as an insulting gesture. 



heiKwraL w? \lOo<: ?; o)? ^vXov, a\X' orav r/? ra 
^oy/jLara avrov ^^l^j], rore avrov co? avOpwirov 

13 \l\e7r(i)/j.€V Kol gov ra S6y/j.aTa. /irj yap ov 
By'jXov iariv, on av rrjv Trpoaipeaiv Trjv aavrov 
ev ovhevl rldeaai, efco Be ySXevref? 6t? ra uTrpoal- 
pera, tl epel o helva xal ri<^ elvai So^et^, el 
(f)LXo\oyo(;, el \pva17r7rop dveyvcoKco'^ ^ rj ^ AvriiTa- 
Tpov ; el fiev yap Kal W p-)(^ehi piov , a7re;^ei9 

14 airavTa. ri en dycovcdf;, /iij ov Set.^?;? i)/, rt? 
el ; 6e\et<^ aoi elirco, rlva i)fiiv eSei^a^ ; avOpwirov 
Trapiovra ^ Taireivop, /jLe/jLyjrL/jioipov, o^vdvfjiov, 
heiXov, TTcivra fxefK^ofJLevov, iraaLv eyKaXovvra, 
/jLyjheTTOTe i-jav^iav ayovray irepTrepov ravra 

15 T^plu e^ei^a?. aireXSe vvv Kal dvayiyvwGKe 
^ A] p.ov' elra yO-G? av KaraTrear) Kal yjrocpyjay, 
aTreHave^. to/oOto? yap ere fievei Odvaro's, olo<; ^ 
Kal rov — TLva iror eKelvov ; — rbv Kplviv.* Kal 

16 €Ke2po<; /jueya €(j>p6vei, on evoei ^ A pyeh] ixov . Td\a<^ 
ov Oe\€i<; d(j)eLvaL ravra ra /xijSep 7rpo<; ae ; 
TTpeireL ravra ro'i<; hvvaiJbevoL<^ ^^X^ rapayrjf; avrd 
liavOdveLv, oU e^eanv eirrelv " ovk opyli^oiiai, ov 
XviTovfiaL, ov ipOovo), ov KcoXvofiai, ovk dvay- 
Kd^o/iai. ri fJiOL Xoiirov ; evayoXo), rjavyiav 

17 dyo). iSoy/jiev, ttco? Trepl rd<; /xeraTrrcoaeK; rwv 

^ Kronenberg : aveyvjjs S. 

" ai'Opwn-dpiov ("a mean little person") very plausibly 
snufrestod by Reiske. 

^ iNJenage : olop S. * Reiske: Kpiveiv S. 

^ See critical note. 

* A Stoic pliilosoplier of no great prominence, who must be 
supposed to liave died from an apoplectic stroke occasioned by 


BOOK III. II. 12-17 

thing like a stone or a stick of wood to be pointed 
out with a finger, but when one shows a man's 
judgements, then one shows him as a man. 

Let us take a look at your judgements too. Is it 
not evident that you set no value on your own moral 
purpose, but look beyond to the things that lie out- 
side the province of the moral purpose, namely, what 
So-and-so will say, and what impression you will 
make, whether men will think you a scholar, or 
that you have read Chrysippus or Antipater? Why, 
if you have read them and Archedemus too, you 
have everything ! Why are you any longer worried 
for fear you will not show us who you are .'' Do you 
wish me to tell you what kind of a man you have 
shown us that you are ? A person who comes into 
our presence^ mean, hypercritical, quick-tempered, 
cowardly, finding fault with everything, blaming 
everybody, never quiet, vain-glorious ; these are the 
qualities which you have exhibited to us. Go away 
now and read Archedemus ; then if a mouse falls 
down and makes a noise, you are dead with fright. 
For the same kind of death awaits you that carried 
off — wOiat's his name? — oh, yes, Crinus.^ He, too, 
was proud of himself because he could understand 
Archedemus. Wretch, are you not willing to let 
alone those things that do not concern you ? They 
are appropriate for those who can study them with- 
out disturbance of spirit, who have the right to say, 
'^ I do not yield to anger, or sorrow, or envy ; I am 
not subject to restraint, or to compulsion. What do 
I yet lack } I enjoy leisure, I have peace of mind. 
Let us see how we ought to deal with equivocal 

fright at a mouse falling down from the wall. JSce Von Arnim 
in the Ileal- Encydopddiey' s.v. 




Xoycov Sel dvaaTpec^eaOar ihco/j.6i', ttco? viroOeaiv 
Ti<; Xa/3a)i> ew ovBev aroirov a7Ta'x^0i]aeTaL.^' 
18 ifceti'cov earl ravra. tol<; €v Tradovcn TrpeTrei 
TTvp Kaieiv, apicrTav, civ ovrco^; TvxVy ^^^ ciSew 
KoX 6p)(€LaOaL' ^vOi^opei'ov Be tov ttXolov au pot 
TrapeXBcov i7Taip€L<i rov<; (iKpapov^, 

7'. Tt? vXt] tov ayaOov kol irpo^ ri paXiar 


1 ' TXrj TOV KaXov kol dyaOov to lSlov yjyepo- 
VLKoVt TO awpa 3' laTpov koI laTpaXeiiTTov} 6 
dypo<; yewpyov vXr)' epyov Be koXov nal dyaOov 

2 TO ')(^prja6aL TaL<; (j>avTa(jiaL<^ KUTa ^vaiv. ire^v- 
K€v Be IT da a '^v^^ coarrep tw dXt^Oel eiTLveveiv, 
irpo^i TO ylr€vBo<i dvavevecv, tt/Oo? to dBrjXoi> 
eire-^eiVj outo)? tt/jo? /jiev to dyadov opeKTLKo)^ 
KivelaOai, tt/do? Be to kukov eKKXtTtKco^;, irpo^; 

3 Be TO p,y]Te /caKov /jL7]t dyadov ovBeT€pco<;. to? 
yap TO TOV KaLaapo<; vo/xiapa ovk e^eaTiv dwo- 
BoKip^daac tco Tpaire^iTrj ovBe tw XaxavoTr(oXrjy 
dXX! dv B€L^7]<;, OeXei ov OeXei, irpoeaOaL avTov 
Bel TO dvT avTOv iroyXovp.evov, outo)? €)(ei kol eirl 

4 T>;? ^^V)(i)(;. TO dyaOov (pavev €vdu<; eKivrjaev €(f) 
avTo, TO Ka/cov ac^' avTov. ovBeiroTe 8' dyadov 
^avTaalav evapyP] uTToBoKipdaei "v/^t*;^//, ov p,dX- 

^ iSclnvc'igliauser : oTraAf /tttow S. 

BOOK III. II. 17-111. 4 

premisses in arguments ; let us see how a person 
may adopt an hypothesis and yet not be led to an 
absurd conclusion." These things belong to men of 
that type. When men are prospering it is a})propriate 
to light a fire, to take luncheon, and, if you will, even 
to sing and dance ; but when the ship is already 
sinking you come up to me and start to hoist the 
topsails ! 


fl'hat is the subject-matter with which the good man has 
to deal ; and ?vhat should he the chief object of our 
training ? 

The subject-matter with which the good and 
excellent man has to deal is his own governing 
principle, that of a physician and the masseur is 
the body, of a farmer is his farm ; but the function 
of the good and excellent man is to deal with his 
impressions in accordance with nature. Now just as 
it is the nature of every soul to assent to the true, 
dissent from the false, and to withhold judgement 
in a matter of uncertainty, so it is its nature to be 
moved with desire toward the good, with aversion 
toward the evil, and feel neutral toward what is 
neither evil nor good. For just as neither the 
banker nor the greengrocer may legally refuse the 
coinage of Caesar, but if you present it, whether he 
will or no, he must turn over to you what you are 
purchasing with it, so it is also with the soul. The 
instant the good appears it attracts the soul to itself, 
while the evil repels the soul from itself. A soul 
will never refuse a clear sense-impression of good, 



\ov 7] TO Ys.aiaapo<; vofiia/jia. evOev e^i'jpT^jrai 
iraaa klvi](ti<; koI dvOpcoirov Kal Oeov. 

5 Am TOVTO 7rda7j<^ oIk€i6ti]to<; irpoKpiverai ro 
ay aOou. ovBeu €/jloI koX tCo Trarpl, dWa tm 
dyaOcp. " ouTO)? el aK\7]p6<: ; '^ ol/tw? yap 
irec^VKa' tovto fioi to i'6/jLiafia SeScoKcv 6 6e6^. 

6 hLCL TOVTO, el Tov KuXov Koi hifcalov TO dyadov 
€T€p6v eaTLV, ol'YeTat koi iraTiip Kal dheXcpb^; koi 

7 iraTpU KOL iravTa tcl Trpdy/jiaTa. aXX' iyo) to 
efiov dyaOov virepiSco, 7va av cr^^?, Kal irapa- 
')^CL)pi]a(o aoL ; dvTl tlvo^ ; " iraTi]p aov elfiiy 
dXX! ovK dyadov. " dhe\<ho^ aov €l/j.l.^^ dXX* 

8 OVK dyaOov. lav 8' Iv opdfj irpoatpeaei Oa)/j.€v, 
avTO TO ^ T7]p€LV Ttt? a')(ea6L<^ dyadov yiveTai Kal 

XoiTTOV 6 TO)V eKTO^ TIVCOV €K-)(^Ci)pcbv, OVTO^ TOV 

9 dyaOov Tvy)(^dv€L. " aipei to, ')(^p)']iJLaTa 6 TraTrjpy 
«\X' ov ^XdiTTei. " 6^6i TO rrXeov tov dypov 6 
^l^eX(^o9."^ oaov Kal OeXei. yu?; ri ovv tov 
ai8)j/jiovo<;, /JL7] TL tov iriaTov, pur) tl tov (piXa- 

10 SeX(f)ov ; e'/c TavTrj<i yap rf;? ovala^; Tt? hvvaTai 
eK^aXelv ; ovV 6 Zeu?. ouSe yap i)6eXi)aev, dXX' 
eV e/iol avTO iiroujaev Kal ehwKev olov elx.^v 
avTo^, dKcoXvTOV, dvavdyKaaTOV, dirapaTro- 

11 'OTav ovv aXXfp aXXo to vopnap^a rj, eKelvo 
Tt? ^ hei^a<i ^X^^ '^^ ^^"^^ avTOv tt lit paa k6 fievov . 

12 iXtjXvOev eh ttjv eirapx^av /cXeVT?;? dv6v7raTO<;. 
tLvl vop,L(TpiaTt ')(pf]Tai. ; dpyvpifp. Sei^ov Kal 
diroc^epe o deXei^i. eX^'fkvOev /jlol)(^6<;. tlvl vo/xla- 

^ TO added by Reiske, 

2 6 abeKitos added bv .Scliweighauser. 

3 Sb (or 5a): inilyo's S. 


BOOK III. m. 4-12 

any more than a man will refuse the coinage of 
Caesar, On this concept of the good hangs every 
impulse to act both of man and of God. 

That is why the good is preferred above every 
form of kinship. My father is nothing to me, but 
only the good. "Are you so hard-hearted?" Yes, 
tliat is my nature. This is the coinage wliich God 
has given me. For that reason, if the good is some- 
thing different from the noble and the just, then 
father and brother and country and all relationships 
simply disappear. But shall I neglect my good, so 
that you may have it, and shall I make way for you ? 
What for .^ ^'^ I am your father." But not a good. 
"1 am your brother." But not a good. If, how- 
ever, we define the good as consisting in a right 
moral purpose, then the mere preservation of the 
relationships of life becomes a good ; and further- 
more, he who gives up some of the externals achieves 
the good. " My father is taking away my money," 
But he is doing you no harm, " My brother is going 
to get the larger part of the farm," Let him have 
all he wants. That does not help him at all to get 
a part of your modesty, does it, or of your fidelity, or 
of your brotherly love.? Why, from a {)ossession of 
this kwid who can eject you? Not even Zeus. Nay, 
nor did He even wish to, but this matter He put 
under my control, and He gave it to me even as 
He had it Himself, free from hindrance, compulsion, 

When, therefore, different persons have different 
pieces of coinage, a man offers the coin and gets what 
is bought by it. A thief has come to the province 
as Proconsul. What coinage does he use? Silver, 
Offer it and carry away what you wish. An adulterer 



IJiari y^pijrai ; fcopaaiSloL'^. ** Xa/?e," (fyrjaiv, " to 
i>o/iicr/.ia Kai 7rcL>X)]a6v /jlol to 7rpay/ii(iTiov.^^ 809 

13 Kal ayupa^e. a\\o<; irepl iraihdpia icnrovhaKev. 
80? avrw TO vojjiLafJLa Kal Xd^e o ^eXet?. a\\o? 
(f)L\60r]po<i. So? linrdpLov koXov 7) Kvvdpiov 
oi/j.u)^(ov Kal (JTevwv TrcoXyjaec uvt'' avTov o OeXei^. 
a\Xo<; yap avTov dvayKd^ei eawdev, 6 to vo/xLafia 
TovTO T€Tax(o<;. 

14 ri/30? TovTO fJidXiaTa to elSc^ avTov yv/xva- 
(TTeov. eiiOv^ opOpov TvpoeXOiov ov av iSrj^, ov av 

dK0llCri}<;, €^€Ta^€, dlTOKpivOV 6l><^ TTyOO? €pd)T7]/jLa. 

TL eZSe? ; KaXov r) KoX-qv ; erraye top Kavova. 
cLTTpoaipeTov rj irpoaipeTLKOv ; dirpoaipeTOV alpe 

15 e^o). tL etSe? ; irevOovvT ^ errl t€ki'0v TeXevTrj ; 
eiraye top Kavova. 6 6dvaT6<^ eaTiv dTrpoalpeTOV 
alpe eK tov fieo-ov. a7r;;z'T)/cre aoL i/Traro? ; erraye 
TOP Kavova. viraTeia irolov tI iaTiv ; ctirpoaipe- 
Tov rj TrpoaipcTiKov ; dirpoaipeTov' alpe Kal 
TOVTO, ovK ecTTt hoKLfJLOV uTTo^aXe, ovBev 7r/309 

16 ae. Kal tovto el eTroiovfiev Kal tt/jo? tovto 
r)aKOVfxeOa KaO i)/iepav e^ opOpov fie)(^pc vvkt6<;, 

17 eyivsTO dv tl, vy tov^ 6eou<;. vvv S' ev0v<; viro 
rrdarjf; (i}avTa(Tia<i Kexf]i'OTe<; Xa/j,/3av6p.e0c^ Kal 
fjLuvov, e'lirep dpa, ev tt] a)(^oXf) p.iKp6v tl Sieyec- 
pufieOa' eiT €^€X6uvt€<; av iBco/xev TrevOovvTa, 
XeyojjLev " uTTooXeTo''' av viraTOV, " pLaKdpLO'^y 

^ s : ■Kfvdovv S. 

^ The reference is to God, who has ordained that ever}' 
man should prefer what he regards as "good" to everything 
else. See § 5 above. The fault consists iu making a wrong 


BOOK III. III. 12-17 

has come. W hat coinage does he use ? Frail vvenclies. 
" Take/' says one^ " the coin and sell me the little 
baggage." Give^ and buy. Another is interested in 
boys. Give him the coin and take what you wish. 
Another is fond of hunting. Give him a fine horse 
or dog ; with sighs and groans he will sell for it what 
you wish ; for Another constrains him from within, 
the one who has established this currency.^ 

It is chiefiy witii this principle in mind that a man 
must exercise himself. Go out of the house at early 
dawn, and no matter whom you see or whom you 
hear, examine him and then answer as you would to 
a question. What did you see.'* A handsome man 
or a handsome woman ? Apply your rule. Is it out- 
side the province of the moral purpose, or inside ? 
Outside. Away with it. What did you see ? A 
man in grief over the death of his child? Apj)ly 
your rule. Death lies outside the province of the 
moral purpose. Out of the way with it. Did a 
Consul meet you ? Apply your rule. What sort of 
thing is a consulship ? Outside the province of the 
moral purpose, or inside? Outside. Away with it, too, 
it does not meet the test ; throw it away, it does not 
concern you. If we had kept doing this and had exer- 
cised ourselves from dawn till dark with this principle 
in mind, — by the gods, something would have been 
achieved ! But as it is, we are caught gaping straight- 
way at every external impression that comes along, and 
we wake up a little only during the lecture, if indeed 
we do so even then. After that is over we go out, 
and if we see a man in grief, we say, '' It is all over 
with him"; if we see a Consul, we say, ^^ Happy 

choice of what is to be considered "good." For " Anotlier" 
as a reverent form of reference to Zeus, see I. 25, 13 and note. 



ai^ e^copia^evov, ** TaXaL7rcopo<; "' av Trepijra, 

18 ** dO\io<;, ovK e^^et iToOev (f)dyr).^' ravT^ ovv 
eKKOTTjeLv hel ra irovtjpa Suy/jLara, irepl tovto 
(TvuTeTcio-Oat. tl yap iarc to KXaietu fcal olfxa)- 
^€ip ; Boy/JLU. rl Suarvy^La ; Boy/xa. ri aTdat<;, 
ri Bt^ovoLa, tl /j,6fM\jrc<;, tl KUTijyopLa, tl dae/Seia, 

19 TL (f)\vapLa ; TavTa irdvTa SoyfiaTti iaTi fcal 
dWo ovSev KoX Soy/jtaTa irepl tmp dirpoaipeTcov 
ft)? ovTCdv dyaOoiv kol KaKO)v. TavTu tl<; eVt tcl 
TTpoaipeTiKCL fiSTaOeTOiy Kuyco avTOV lyyvodpiai otl 
€V(TTadr)aeL, &)? av exD ^a irepl avTov. 

20 OloV icTTLV t) XcKaVT] TOV v8aT0<^, TOLOVTOV T) 

"^vX^h ^*^^ V CLuyrj rj TrpoaTTiTTTOvaa tm vButl, 

21 TOLOVTOV at ^avTaaiaL. OTav ovv to vScop Kivr]6fj, 
SoK€L fxev KOL T) avyvj KLveladaiy ov fxevTOL KivecTai. 

22 Kal OTav tolvvv (7K0T(o6fj Ti9, ovx CLL TexvcLi Kal 
al cipeTaX avyx^ovTUL, dWd to 7rv€v/xa, €(f> ov 
elaiv KaTaaTCLVTO^ he KaOiaTUTat KuKelva. 

8'. 17/309 TOV aKoap^w^i iv OeciTpw aTrovSdcravTa. 
1 ToO 8' imTpoTTOv Tr]<; ^HircLpov dKoa/xoTepov 

CTTTOvBdaaVTC^ KMfXfpZw Tivl Kul inl TOVTfp Brjfio- 

aia XoLhoprjdevTO'^, eiTa e^% dirayyeiXavTO^; irpo^ 

BOOK 111. 111. 17-1V. I 

man"; if" we see an exile, •'^ Poor fellow"; or a 
poverty-stricken person, " Wretched man, he has 
nothing with which to get a bite to eat." These, 
then, are the vicious judgements which we ought to 
eradicate; tiiis is the subject upon which we ought 
to concentrate our efforts. Why, what is weeping 
and sighing? A judgement. What is misfortune.'* 
A judgement. What are strife, disagreement, fault- 
finding, accusing, impiety, foolishness ? They are all 
judgements, and that, too, judgements about things 
that lie outside the province of moral purpose, 
assumed to be good or evil. Let a man but transfer 
his judgements to matters that lie within the 
province of the moral purpose, and I guarantee that 
he will be steadfast, whatever be the state of things 
about him. 

The soul is something like a bowl of water, and 
the external impressions something like the ray of 
light that falls upon the water. Now when the 
water is disturbed, it looks as though the ray of 
light is disturbed too, but it is not disturbed. And 
so, therefore, when a man has an attack of vertigo, 
it is not the arts and the virtues that are thrown 
into confusion, but the s])irit in w hich they exist ; 
and when this grows steady again, so do they too. 


Tu the. man who look sides, in an undigni/ied nuamer, 
while in a theatre 

The Procurator of Epirus took the side of a comic 
actor in a somewhat undignified manner and was 
reviled by the peo})le for doing so. Thereupon he 
brought word to Epictetus that he had been reviled, 



avTov, on eXoiSopyjdij, koI ayapaKTOVPTO<i 7r/)o? 
Tou? \oLBopt]aavTa<; Kal ri KaKov, €(f)7], eTToiovv ; 

2 iaTTOvBa^ov Kal ovjol co? Aral av. elirovTO'^ h 
eKeivov Gi^to)? ovv tl<; cnrovha^ei ; ^e, ecprj, 
l3Xe7T0VT€(; rov avrwv apy^ovra, rov KaLaapo<; 
(fylXov Kol ivlrpoTTOv, ovrco<; airovha^ovra ovk 

3 e/xeWov Kal avrol ovtcd^ airovSa^eiv ; el 'yap fiy] hel 
ovT(i)<; airovhd^eLV, p^r-jhe crv a7rovSa^€' el Se Sel, ri 
y^aXeiralveL^, et ere ep.i/j,i]aavTO ; riVa? yap e^ov- 
aiv /jLi/jL7]aaaOaL ol iroWol ?; toi)? vTrepexovraf; 
uyLta? ; et<? TLi>a<i aTrlScoaiv eXOoL're^ et? ra Oearpa 

4 y) vficL'^ ; " opa ttco^ 6 eirLTpoTTo^; rov KatVapo? 
Oewpel' KeKpayev Kciyoo rolvvv Kpavydaco. dva- 
TTTjSa' Kuyo) dva7rr)S7]cr(o. ol hovXot avrov Sta- 
KadtjvraL Kpavyd^ovre^;' eyco S' ovk e)(^o) Bov\ov<;' 
dvrl iravrcdv avro<; oaov Svva/jLai Kpavydaco.^^ 

5 elhevai ae ovv Bel, orav elaepxj) ei? to Oearpov, 
orL Kavojv elaepxj? ^otl TrapdBeiypLa rol'i dX\oi<;, 

6 TTW? avrov^ eel decopelv. ri ovv ae iXotSopovv ; 
on Tra? av6p(07ro<; paael ro e/xTroBL^ov. eKelvoL 
(Tre<j)avcoOy)vaL ijOeXov rov Belva, av erepov' 
eKelvOi aol eveiroBi^ov Kal crv eKeivoL<^. av 
evpiaKOV lax^porepo^' €K€lvol o eBvvavro enoiovv, 

7 eXoiBopovv ro €/jl7t6Bi^ov. ri ovv OeX€L<; ; 'iva av 
fiev 7roifj<; o deXei^;, eKetvoi Be pajB' el'Trooaiv^ a 

^ s : OeKwaif S. 

BOOK III. IV. 1-7 

and gave expression to his indignation at the men 
who had so reviled him. \\ li v, what wrong were 
they doing ? said Epictetus. They too were taking 
sides, just as you yourself were. But when the 
other asked. Is that the way, then, in which a man 
takes sides f he repHed, Yes, they saw you, their 
Governor, the friend and Procurator of Caesar, 
taking sides in this way, and weren't they likely to 
take sides themselves in the same way? Why, if 
people should not take sides in this way, you had 
better not do so yourself; but if they should, why 
are you angry if they imitated you ? For whom have 
the people to imitate but you, their superior ? 
Whom do they look to but you, when they go to the 
theatres? "See," says one of them, "how the 
Procurator of Caesar acts in the theatre ; he 
shouts ; very well, I'll shout too. He jumps up and 
down; I'll jump up and down too. His claque of 
slaves sit in different parts of the house and shout, 
whereas I haven't any slaves; very w^ell, I'll shout 
as loud as I can to make up for all of them." You 
ought to know, then, that when you enter the 
theatre, you enter as a standard of behaviour and as 
an example to the rest, showing them how they 
ought to act in the theatre. Why, then, did they 
revile you ? Because every man hates what stands 
in his way. They wanted So-and-so to get the 
crown, while you wanted the other man to get it. 
They were standing in your way, and you in theirs. 
You turned out to be the stronger ; they did what 
they could, and reviled w^hat was standing in tlieir 
way. What, then, do you wish ? That you should 
be able to do what you wish, but that they should 
not even say what they wish ? And what is there 



deXovdiv ; kol tl daviiacrrov ; ol yecopyol tov 
Ala ov XoiSopovcrLv, orav ifiTroSt^awTai iiir 
avrov ; ol vavrai ov \oi8opovai ; top Kaiaapa 
iravovrai \oihopovvTe<i ; tl ovv ; ov yiyvcoaKci 6 

8 Zeu? ; TO) KalaapL oufc aTrayyeWoPTaL to, Xeyo- 
jjueva ; tl ovv iroiel ; olhev otl, av TraVra? tol'9 

9 XoiBopovi'Ta<; KoXd^rj, ov^ e^ei tLvcov ap^ei. tl 
ovv ; ehei elaep'x^ojjievov €i9 to OeuTpov tovto 
elirelv " aye I'va 'S^(0(f)pa)v aTe^avwOf) ' ; aXX 
cKelvo " aye Xva TTjpijao) Tyv i/xavTOv irpoaipeaLV 
inl TavT7]<; rf;? vX7]<; kutcl (pvcriv exovaav." 

10 ifiol Trap' e/ze (f)iXTepo^ ovBel^' yeXolov ovv, Xv 

11 dXXo<; vLKi']a7] KcofKpScov, ip.€ ^XdirTeaOai. — Yiva 
ovv OeXo) vLKrjaai ; — Toi^ viKcovTa- /cal ovrco's del 
viKi'jaet, ov deXcj. — 'AXXa OeXco aT€(^av(o6rjvai 
1.(0(f)pova. — 'Ei^ oXkw oaov^ 6eXeL<; dy(ova<; dycov 
dvaKi'jpv^ov avTov Ne^ea, IlvOia, "laOfiia, 'OXv/jL- 
TTia' iv (f)av€pM Se fir) irXeoveKTei fXT^K v(pdp7ra^e 

12 TO fcotvov. el Be p,/], dve^pv XoLBopovp,evo<;' co?, 
OTav TavTO, 7roi7j<; rot? 7roXXoL<;, et? laov iK6LV0i<; 
KaOtaTa^; aavTov. 

e'. ri/Do? Tov<; Bid voaov u7raXXaTTOfi€vov<;.^ 

1 Nocrw, (pi](Tiv, evOdBe /cal /SovXofjuai d-nievai 

2 els olfcov. — 'EjV OLK(p yap dvoao<; ?}? av ; ov 
aKOTreL<;, ec Ti iroLel'; evOdBe tcov tt/jo? rr/i^ 

^ a; : -nKaTTOixfvovs S. 

^ The word " school " does not, of course, appear in the 
Greek, but such was the nature of the educational institution 
which Epictetus conducted, and that is clearly what is meant 
here. See in particular Ivo Bruns : Dc Schola Epicteii (1897), 


BOOK III. IV. 7-v. 2 

surprising in all that ? Don't the farmers revile 
Zeus, when he stands in their way ? Don't the 
sailors revile Zeus ? Do men ever stop reviling 
Caesar? What then? Doesn't Zeus know about 
it? Isn't Caesar informed of what is said? What, 
then, does he do ? He knows tiiat if he punishes 
all who revile him he will have no one left to rule 
over. What then? Ought you upon entering the 
theatre to say, "Come, let's see that Sophron gets 
the crown " ? and not rather, " Come, let me in this 
subject-matter maintain my moral purpose in accord 
with nature"? No one is dearer to me than my- 
self; it is absurd, therefore, for me to let myself be 
hurt in order that another man may win a victory as a 
comic actor. — Whom, then, do I wish to win the 
victory ? The victor ; and so the one whom 1 wish 
to win the victory will always win it. — But I wish 
Sophron to get the crown. — Stage as many contests 
as you will in your own house, and proclaim him 
victor in the Nemean, Pythian, Isthmian, and 
Olympic games ; but out in public do not arrogate 
to yourself more than 3'our due, and do not filch 
away a public privilege. Otherwise you must 
put up with being reviled ; because, when you do 
the same things that the people do, you are putting 
yourself on their level. 


To those who leave school ^ because of illness 

I AM ill here, says one of the students, and want 
to go back home. — What, were you free from illness 

and the studies by Colardeau, Halbauer, and Hartniann, listed 
in Vol. I, Introduction. 



TTDoaipeaiv rrjv aavrou (f)€p6i>Tcor, 'Iv iiravop- 
O(oOf) ; el fxev yap firjhev dvv6i<;, 7r€picrao)<i koI 

3 i]\6e<^. airidi, em/jLeXov tmv ev oI'kw. el yap 
fiT] hvvarai aov to yjyefiopiKov a-)(elv Ka-ra (pvcrip, 
TO 7' dypiSiov Svvt']aeTat'^ to ye Kepfjuiriov 
av^rjaei^, top nrarepa yi]pOKO/jL7](T€L^, ev rfj dyopa 
dpacrrpacfyy'jaT), cip^ei'^' KaKO<^ KaKOi<; ri irore 

4 7ronjaeL<; tmv e^f]^. el 8e irapaKoXovOel'^ aavrw, 
OTL (iTTO^dWei^; rivd Soyfiara (f>av\a kol dX)C 
dvT avTcJv dva\a/jbl3dvet,<; kol Trjv aavrov 
ardaiv fieTareOeiKa'^ diro rcov dir poaLpejwv eVt 
rd TrpoaipeTiKd, /cap ttot' el7rrj<^ " oIjjlol^* ov 
\e7€t9 8id TOP iraTepa, top dSe\(f)6p, dWd 

5 " ^t' e//.e," eTL vTroXoyl^rj poaov ; ovk ol8a^, 
OTL KOL p6(to<; Koi ddpaTO^ fcaTaXajSelp rjjjLa^ 
6<^ei\ovaLP TL TTOTe 7roLOVPTa<; ; top yecopyop 
yeaypyovPTU KaTaXa/ju/Sdpovai, top pavTiKOP 

6 irXeoPTa. av tL OeX€i<; ttolcop KaTaXijcpdfjpac ; 
TL TTOTe fiep yap iroiovPTd ae Sec /caTaXy](pdrjpai. 
€L TL ex^i^ TOVTOV Kpelaaop ttolcov KaTaXijcpOrj- 

PaL, TToUl €K€U'0. 

7 ^Ejfiol fM€P yap KaTaXr)(f)dr}paL yepoLTO fjLr]hePO<i 
dXXov €7rifMeXov/jLei'(p rj T779 Trpoatpeaeax; t>}9 
e/i,?}?, IV dTraOi]^, Xv a/ccoXfTO?, iV dpapdyKaaTO<;, 

8 IP eXev9epo<^. tuvtu e7rLT7]Bev(op deXco evpe- 

^ fvd(vri(rerai (will prosper) Elter rather plausibly. 

' See the critical note. 

BOOK III. V. 2-8 

at home ? Do you not raise the question whether 
you are doing here any of the things that have a 
bearing upon your moral purpose, so that it shall be 
improved? For if you are not accomplishing any- 
thing, it was no use for you to have come in the first 
place. Go back and tend to your affairs at home. 
For if your governing principle cannot be brought 
into conformity with nature, no doubt your paltry 
piece of land can be made to conform with it.^ You 
will increase the amount of your small change; you 
will care for your father in his old age, you will walk 
up and down in the market, you will hold office ; a 
poor wretch yourself, you will do wretchedly what- 
ever comes next. But if you understand yourself, 
namely, that you are putting away certain bad 
judgements and taking on others in their place, and 
that you have transferred your status from what lies 
outside the province of the moral purpose to what 
lies inside the same, and that if ever you say 
'' Alas ! " you are speaking, not for your father's sake, 
or your brother's sake, but "for my own sake," then 
why take account of illness any longer? Do you 
not know that disease and death needs must over- 
take us, no matter what we are doing? Thev over- 
take the farmer at his work in the fields, the sailor 
on the sea. What do you wish to be doing when it 
overtakes you ? For no matter what you do you will 
have to be overtaken by death. If you have any- 
thing better to be doing when you are so overtaken, 
get to work on that. 

As for me, I would fain that death overtook me 
occupied with nothing but my own moral purpose, 
trying to make it tranquil, unhampered, uncon- 
strained, free. This is what I wish to be engaged in 



6r}vaL, \v €L7r€LV hvvwfjiai rro Oeo) " /J-y'] ti irape- 
^t)i> aov Trt? e/'ToXa? ; /x?; ri tt/^o? dWa 
€)(py](7du7w Tai9 d(f)Op/jLaL<; a? e^w/ta? ; fnj tl 
rat? aladi^aeaiv aXXw?, /x/; t6 tol'; TrpoXijyjrecriv ; 
fjLi] TL aoL TTOT iveKuXecTa ; firj n eue/jLyjrd/irjv 
9 (70V T7]p SioUrjaiv ; ivuarjo-a, ore r;<9eX?;cra<?* Kal 
01 ciWoL, aXX' eyo) ckcov. vreV?;? iyevojir^v aov 
OeXnvTO^iy dWd ')(^aLpwv. ovk yp^a, otl crv ovk 
r]0 eX-rja a<^' ovheiroT^ eireOvfirjaa dp')(^rj<;. fxr] tl 
fi6 rovTOv €V6Ka (JTvyvorepov elSe? ; yu7; ov 
7rpo(Trj\66v aob Trore (fyaiSpu) tm TrpoacoTrrp, 

10 eToi/io<; €i TL eViTacro-et?, €i tl ai]/jLaLV€i<; ; vifv 
jxe deXei^ cnrekOelv eK t>}? 'rrapi]'yvp€0)<;' ciTreLpLL, 
X^'ip^^ ^OL ex^co irdaav, otl Tj^layad^; fie avfiTravrj' 
yvplaaL croL koI Ihelv epya tcl ad koX tj} StoiKjjaeL 

11 aov av/jLTrapaKoXovdrjaaL.^ TavTd fie evOu/iov- 
fievov, TavTa ypd(f)0VTa, TavTa dvayiyi^ooaKOVTa 
KaTaXd/3oL 6 6dvaT0<i. 

12 'AXX' -)) /jljJttjp /jLov ti]V K€(paXr]V voaovi>To<; ov 
KpaT7]a€L. — "AttlOl Toivvv 7rp6<; Trjv fiyjTipa' 
d^io<i yap el tijv /cecfyaX-tjv KpaTOVfievc^ voaelv. — 

13 'A XX' €7rl KXLvapiov KOfiy^ov iv oikcd KaTeKeipLrjv. 
— "AttlOl aov inl to KXivdpiov* rj ^ vyiaivcdv 
d^Lo<; el iirl tolovtov KaTaKelaOaL. /jLtj tolvvv 
diroXXve, a SvvaaaL eKel iroielv. 

14 'AXX' %(OKpdTt'j<; TL XeyeL ; " coawep dXXo<; 
Tt9," <pi]aLV, *' x^ipei ^ TOP dypov top avTov 
iroLcov Kpelaaova, dXXo<; top I'ttttov, ovtm^ eyo) 
KuO^ rjfiepap ^at/jw irapaKoXovOwv efxavTW 

^ <Toi after this word deleted in 
2 Upton : ^ S. 


BOOK III. V. 8-14 

when death finds nie, so that I may be able to say to 
God, " Have I in any respect transgressed Thy 
commands ? Have I in any respect misused the 
resources which Tliou gavest me, or used my senses 
to no purpose, or my preconceptions? Have I ever 
found any fault with Thee? Have I blamed Thy 
governance at all ? I fell sick, when it was Thy 
will ; so did other men, but I willingly. I became 
poor, it being Thy will, but with joy, I have held 
no office, because Thou didst not will it, and I never 
set my heart upon office. Hast Thou ever seen me 
for that reason greatly dejected ? Have I not ever 
come before Thee with a radiant countenance, ready 
for any injunctions or orders IMiou mightest give? 
And now it is Thy will that I leave this festival ; I 
go, I am full of gratitude to Thee that Thou hast 
deemed me worthy to take part in this festival with 
Thee, and to see Thy works, and to understand Thy 
governance." Be this my thought, this my writing, 
this my reading, when death comes upon me. 

But my mother will not hold my head in her arms 
when I am ill. — Very well, go back to your mother ; 
you are just the sort of person that deserves to have 
his head held in somebody's arms when he is ill ! — 
But at home I used to have a nice bed to lie on. — 
Go back to your bed; without doubt you deserve to 
lie on such a fine bed even when you are well I 
Pray, then, do not lose by staying here what you 
can do there. 

But what does Socrates say ? " As one man 
rejoices," remarks he, "in improving his own farm, 
and another his own horse, so 1 rejoice day by day 

3 s : xa^peiv S. 



15 jSeXriovL yLvofieua).'' — Ilpo? tl ; fxr] n tt/oo? 
Xe^eiSia ; — "" AvO pwire, €V(f)t]/uL€i. — M/; re tt^o? 

16 Oecoptj/jLUTLa ; — Tt Troiel^ ; — Kai fjirjv ov ^XeTTco, 
Tt earlv dWo, irepi o aaxoXovvrai cl (^l\6(70(^ol. 
— OvSiv aoi B0K6L elvai to fitjSeiTOTe eyKaXeaai 
TLVL, fJLT) Oew, fir) av6 p(jt)ir(0' /jurj fxefjiy^aaOai 
fjLrjheva' to avro irpoawiTov ael kol eK^epetv fcal 

17 el(j<^6p€Lv ; ravTU yv, a fjSei 6 Sw/c/^aT?;?, Kal 
6/j,a)<; ovheirore elirev, ore olheu tl rj BiSdaKei. 
el Be Ti? Xe^elSia rJTei rj Oecopi^/jLUTLa, airrjyev 
TTyoo? UpcoTayopav, 7rpo<; 'iTririav. kol <yap el 
Xd-)(^avd Tt? ^rjTCJv eXyjXvOev, TTyOo? rov /ct^ttou- 
pov av auTov d7n]ya<yev" rt? ovv v/jlmv e^e^ 

18 TauTtjv Tr]v ein^oXyjv ; eirei tol el er;)^eTe,^ kuI 
ei>oaetT€ av r)Seco<s fcal erreivaTe Kal uTreOvrfaKeTe.^ 

19 6t Tt? v/jLcbv r/pda8y] Kopaauou KOfiyjrov, olSeu otl 
dXi)dr) Xeyco. 

r'. ^TTopdhrjv TLvd. 

1 TlvOopevov he tlvo^, ttco? ^ vvv /xaXXov eKire- 
irovrjiievov tov Xoyov irporepov peit^ove<^ irpo- 

2 KOirai Tfaav, Kara tl, ecprj, e/CTreTTovrjTaL Kal 
Kai d TL fieL^ov; al TrpoKoiral TOTe rjaav ; KaOo 

^ Sc : ^x*'''^ '^' ^ Sc: ireiuare and atrodvrtaKiT^ S. 

^ Schweighiiuser : tuiv S. 

^ The closest parallels from Xenophon [Mem. I. 6. 8 and 
14) and Plato [Prot. 318 A) express the idea so diflferently 
that we have here probably (through ChrysippiT!) a fragment 
from one of the lost iSocratic dialo<^ues, of which there was a 
lai ge body. 


BOOK III. V. 14-V1. 2 

in following the course of my own improvement."^ 
In what respect; in little philosophic phrases? — 
Man, hold your tongue. — In little philosophic 
theories, then? — What are you doing .^ — Well, I 
don't see anything else that the philosophers spend 
their time on. — Is it nothing in your eyes never to 
bring accusation against anyone, be it God or man ? 
Never to blame anyone ? Always to wear the same 
expression on one's face, whether one is coming out 
or going in ? ^ These are the things which Socrates 
knew, and yet he never said that he either knew or 
taught anything. But if someone called for little 
philosophic phrases or theories, he used to take him 
over to Protagoras or Hippias. It was just as though 
someone had come to him for fresh vegetables, and 
he would have taken him over to the market 
gardener. Who, then, among you makes this pur- 
pose of Socrates the purpose of his own life? AVhy, 
if you did, you would have been glad even to be ill, 
and to go hungry, and to die. If any one of you was 
ever in love with a pretty wench, he knows that 
what I say is true. 


Soyne scattered sayings 

When someone asked how it was that, despite 
the greater amount of work which was done nowa- 
days in logic, there was more progress made in 
former times, Epictetus replied. On what has labour 
been expended in our time, and in what was the 
progress greater in those days ? For in that upon 

2 See also about Socrates in Aelian, Var. Hist. 9, 7. 



7rtp pvi' €K7r67r6v7]raL, Kara tovto kul rrpoKOTrai 

3 vvv evp€$)'jaovTai. kui vvv jxev waie avWo- 
yia/iov^; dvaXveiv ifCireTTOi'rjTaL Kal TrpoKOTral 
yLi'oi'rat' rore 6)(TT€ to i)y€iJioviKou Kara 
(f)vaLV €)(^ov TTjpyjaac Kal e^eTroveljo koI irpoKonal 

4 Tjaav. fiy] ovv ivdWaaae firjSe ^fJTei,, orav aWo 
€K7rovfj<;, ev dW(p TrpoKoirreLv. oKX Ihe, el ri^ 
i]/j.(ov TT/oo? Tovrw cov, ware Kara (pvaiv e)(^eiv Kal 
Bie^dyeiv, ov ttpokotttcl. ouSeva yap €vp/]aei<;. 

5 'O GiTOvhaio<; d)']TTy]TO<=;- Kal ^ yap ovk dywvi- 

6 ^erai, oirov /jlj] Kpeiaawv^ eariv. " el rd^ Kara 
Tov ay pov OeXei^;, KdfSe'^ \a/5e tov<; olKera^;, 
Xa'ySe t?;!^ dpxv^y Xd/Se ro a (o jxaT iov . ttjv 3' 
6p€^LU ov 7rot/;cre£9 diroTeuKTiKTjv ovSe ri-jv 

7 eKKXiaiv TreptTrTfOTLKtjv. et? tovtov fxovov tov 
dywva Kadu]crt.v tov irepl tcjv irpoaLpeTLKwv' vroi? 
ovv ov fieWei di]TT7]T0'^ elvai ; 

8 YivdoiJievov he t(vo<;, tl ecFTlv 6 koivo<; vov<;, 
"QaTTep, (prjalv, kolvi] ti<; aKorj XeyoLT dv ?; 
fiovov (f)u>va)v ScaKptTiKi], rj Se twv (f)06yya)P 
0VK6TC Koivrj, dXXd Te^viKi], ovtco'^ eaTL Tipa, 
a ol /jLtj iravTdiraaiv hieaTpapifxevot tcov dv- 
OpddTTWv KaTa TO? Koiva^ d(popijLd<; opwaiv. r) 
TOLavTT] KaTdaTaai^ kolvo^ vov<; KaXclraL. 

^ Upton's ** codex" : ^ S. 

2 The words that follow in S, el /x^ oirov Kpfiaacoy, are 
omitted in s. 

3 rd ad.led hy Sb. * \d$€ added by Upton. 

^ On the use of the term koipos vovs in Epictetus one may 
compare Ben h offer, Epikt<t vnd die Stoa, 121 and 224. It 
means simply the intellectual faculty that any normal man 


BOOK 111. VI. 2-8 

which labour has been expended in our time, 
progress also will be found in our time. The fact is 
that in our time labour has been expended upon the 
solution of syllogisms, and there is progress along 
that line ; but in the early days not only had labour 
been expended upon maintaining the governing 
principle in a state of accord with nature, but there 
was also progress along that line. Do not, there- 
fore, substitute one thing for the other, and do not 
expect, when you devote labour to one thing, to be 
making progress in another. But see whether any 
one of us who is devoting himself to keeping in a 
state of conformity with nature, and to spending his 
life so, fails to make progress. For you will find 
that there is none of whom that is true. 

The good man is invincible ; naturally, for he 
enters no contest where he is not superior. ^' If you 
want my property in the country," says he, '^take it ; 
take my servants, take my office, take my paltry 
body. But you will not make my desire fail to get 
what I will, nor my aversion fall into what I would 
avoid." This is the only contest into which the good 
man enters, one, namely, that is concerned with the 
things which belong in the province of the moral 
purpose; how, then, can he help but be invincible.'' 

VVhen someone asked him what "general per- 
ception " ^ was, he replied. Just as a sense of hearing 
which distinguishes merely between sounds would 
be called "general," but that which distinguishes 
between tones is no longer "general," but "techni- 
cal," so there are certain things which those men 
who are not altogether perverted see by virtue of 
their general faculties. Such a mental constitution 
is called "general perception." 



9 T(bv vecov Tou? /j,a\aKOu<; ov/c eari TrpoTpeyjraL 
pahiov' ovhe yap rvpov ^ ayKiarpw \aj3elv' ol 
S' 6V(f)V€L<;, KOLV ciTT OT pemj<; , eTL fiaWop 6)(0VTai 
10 Tov \uyov. Blo KOI 6 'Povcpo^ ra ttoWcl airk- 
rperrev tovtw Sofci/jLaarTjpLW ^p(t)/j,€vo<; tcov €v- 
(^VMV KOL d(f)va)v. eXeye yap otl " ct)9 o Xi^o?, kciu 
ava^dXr]'^, ivey^O/^aeTai kuto) enl yvjv Kara ^ riju 
avTOu fcaraaKevy'jv, ovrw^; Kal 6 eL'c^f?;?, oao) 
fidXXov diTOKpov6Tai Tf? avrov, roaovTW fidXXov 
vevet €(p 7r6(f)VK€V.^' 

^'. riyOO? TOV SlOpdu>T7)V T(t)V iXev6ep(i)V 

TToXecov, ^RiTLKOvpeiov ovra. 

1 ToO he SiopdcoTOV €laeX6ovro<^ irpb^ avrov 
{^v B' ovro^ ^EirLKOvpeios:) ''A^iov, e<^ri, rov<; 
lBnora<i yfid<i rrap v/icov tmv <pLXoa6(f)0)v ttvv- 
OdveaOai, KaOdirep tou? eh ^evrjv ttoXlv iXOovra^; 
rrapd rcov TroXtrcov /cal elBorcov, ri Kpdriarov 
eariv ev kogjjlw, Xva Kal avrol iaropi]aavre<^ 
periwfxev, o)? eKetvoi, ra ev ral<^ iroXeai, Kal 

2 OeaofieOa. on /jcev yap rpla earl irepl rov 
dvQpwTTOv, "^vx^ ^^'' o'WyUa Kal rd €Kr6<;, ay^eBov 
ovBel<i dvnXeyei' Xolttov v/xerepov eariv utto- 

^ See note to the translation. 

2 yrjy Kara, added by SchweigUiiuser. 

' A proverb ; see Diog. Laert. 4, 47, where the adjective 
air i\6s ("soft") is used of the cheese, which Wolf and Upton, 
perhaps with good reason, wanted to add here. At all events 
that is the kind of cheese which is meant. 


BOOK III. VI. 9-vii. 2 

It is not an easy thing to prevail upon soft young 
men; no, and you can't catch soft clieese on a fish- 
hook^ either — but the gifted young men, even if 
you try to turn them away, take hold of reason all 
the more firmly. And so also Rufus for the most 
part tried to dissuade men, using such efforts to 
dissuade as a means of discriminating between those 
who were gifted and those who were not. For he 
used to say, "Just as a stone, even if you throw it 
upwards, will fall downwards to earth by virtue of 
its very constitution, so is also the gifted man ; the 
more one beats him back, the more he inclines 
toward his natural object." 


A conversation with the Imperial Bailiff^ of the Free 
Cities, who was an Epicurean 

When the Imperial Bailiff, who was an Epicurean, 
came to visit him, Epictetus said : It is proper for us 
laymen to make inquiry of you philosophers what 
the best thing in the world is — ^^just as those who 
have come to a strange town make inquiry of the 
citizens and people who are familiar with the place 
— so that, having learned what it is, we may go in 
quest of it ourselves and behold it, as do strangers 
with the sights in the cities. Now that three things 
belong to man, soul, and body, and things external, 
hardly anyone denies ; all you have to do, then, is to 

^ Called by the Romans Corrector, an extraordinary official, 
of senatorial rank, appointed by the Emperor, and charged 
with carrying out administrative reforms in matters which 
lay outside I he general competence of the ordinary civil 
authorities. See A. von Premersteiu in the Real-Encyclopddie,^ 
IV. 1646-56. 



KpivaoOai, TL earl to Kpdriaroi.'. Tt epovfj-ev 

3 Tol'^ ai>0pct)7roL<i ; ryv adpKa ; koX Slcl Tavrrjv 
Md^i/jiO<; tirXevaev pi^XP^ Kaaai67r7]<; 'x^tpLcovo'; 
pLcrd Tou vlov 7rpo7r€pL7T(ov, Xv i](jdfi rfj crapKi ; 

4 dpvi](japLevov 8' eKeivov koI €Itt6vto<; Mt) <ye- 
voLTO' Ov 7rpoa)]K6L irepl to KpaTtdTov eairov- 
SuKepai ; — TldvTcov pLaXcaTa Trpoa/jKei. — Tt ovv 
Kpelaaov e^opiev tt^? aapKo^; ; — 'Vi]v '^vxyju, 6(f)rj. 
— ^AyaOd Se to, tov KpaTiaTOv KpeiTTOvd eaTLV rj 

5 Td ToD <f)av\oT6pov ; — Td tov KpaTiaTOv. — 
^v)(fj^ he dyaOd iroiepov TrpoaipCTLfcd iaTiv rj 
dirpoaipeTa ; — TlpoaipeTLKd.- — llpoaipeTiKov ovv 
eaTlv Tj r]hovr] 97 -y^vxttcy] ; — "Kcpy], — Avttj 8' eVl 

6 TLaiP jLVETat ; iroTepov ecf) avTy ; dXX' uBiavor]- 
Tov iaTLV Trpo7]yovpL6V7]p <ydp Tiva v^eaTdvai 
Bet ovaiav tov dyaOov, 1)^ Tvy^^vovTe^ i)ady]a6- 

7 peOa KaTa -yjrvxrjv. — 'QpuXoyei Koi tovto. — 'EttI 
Tivi ovv 7)a0i]a6p€0a TavTrjv ttjv y^v^f-K^h^ 
TjBovrjv ; el yap iirl tol^ yjrvxi'Kol'i^ dyaOol^, 
evpijTai 7] ovaia tov dyaOov. ov yap BvvaTai 
dWo pL€v elvai dyadov, dX\o S' ec^' co evXoyco^; 
eiraipopieOa, ovBe. tov Trpoyjyovpevov pit] ovto'^ 
dyaOov to eTnyevv^jpa dyaOov elvai. I'va yap 
evkoyov rj to eTnyevvrjpa, to irpoyyovpevov Bel 

8 dyaOov elvai. ttXX' ov pur) etirtjTe (f)peva<; e^ovTe'^' 
dvaKoXovda yap epetre Ka\ 'EiriKovpa) kuX toI<; 

^ y^ivx^Kois added by Schenkl (from the scholium). 

^ There were at least two distinguished men of the name 
at this time, but it is not clear that either one is meant. 

* More likely the headland and harbour on the northern 
end of Corcyra than the almost wholl}' unknown town near 
Nicopolis, which some hav'e thouglit of. 

BOOK III. vii. 2-8 

answer the question, Which is the best ? Wliat are 
we goinff to tell men? The flesh? And was it for 
this that Muximus ^ sailed all the way to Cassiope ^ 
during the winter with his son, to see him on his 
way? Was it to have pleasure in the flesh? W^hen 
the other had denied that and said " God forbid ! " 
Epietetus continued : Is it not proper to have been 
very zealous for that which is best?- — It is certainly 
most {)roper. — What have we better, then, than the 
flesh? — The soul, said he. — Are the goods of the 
best thing better, or those of the inferior? — Those 
of the best thing. — Do goods of the soul belong in 
the sphere of the moral purpose, or do they not? — 
To the sphere of the moral purpose. — Is the pleasure 
of the soul, therefore, something that belongs in 
this sphere? — He agreed. — At what is this pro- 
duced? At itself?^ But that is inconceivable. For 
we must assume that there is already in existence a 
certain antecedent essence of the good, by partaking of 
wdiich we shall feel pleasure of soul. — He agreed to 
this also. — At what, then, are we going to feel this 
pleasure of soul ? If it is at the goods of the soul, 
the essence of the good has already been discovered. 
For it is impossible that one thing be good, and yet 
that it is justifiable for us to take delight in some- 
thing else ; nor again, that when the antecedent is 
not good the consequent be good ; because, in order 
to justify the consequent, the antecedent must be 
good. But say not so, you Epicureans, if you are in 
your right mind ; for you will be saying what is 
inconsistent both with Epicurus and with the rest of 

3 '^Anex se ipsa? Id est, a?i delectamur, quia deUdamur ?" 



a\Xoi<i vi^iCov hoyfxaaLV. viroXeiireTai XoLiror 
€7rl Tot9 (TQ)/xaTLKOL<i ySeaOaL ttjv Kara '^v)(i]v 
i]Sov}jv -nciXiv €K€Lva 'yiverat irpoiiyovfieva koI 
ovaia rod dyaOov. 

10 Aia rovTO a(j)povw<^ eTTOujae j\Ia^f/xo9, et Sl' 
aWo Tt eirXevaev i) Sia rrjv adpKa, tout' eari 

11 Slcl to KpaTKTTOV. d(f)p6p(o<; Se Troiel koI el 
direx^Tat tmv ciWorpiwv ^^/cacrT;;? Otiv kuI 
Svpcifiei'o^ Xa/uL^dvetv. dXX^ dp aoi Bo^y, eKelvo 
fjLOVOv aKeiTTcofieOa, iva KeKpvixfievw^, (V dacpa- 

12 \w?, 'iva fxi] Tt? <yv(p. to yap KXeyjraL ovS^ aL'TO? 
'E7rLKOvpo<; diroc^aLvei kukov, dXXd to e/jLTreaeLu' 
KOL OTL TTiariv irepl rod XaOelv Xa/Seiv dSvparov, 

13 Sia TOVTO Xeyei " jjli] KXeTrrere." dXX* iyco aoi 
Xeyw, OTL edv KO/jL'ylrM<; /cal 7T€pL6(TTaX/jL6vco<; jLVtjrai, 
X7]a6fM€6a' elra Kal cf)LXov<; ev rfj 'Pco/jLt) 6')(0fJi€v 
Svi'arovf; /cat (fylXas^ Kal ol " KXXifve^ dBpaveL<; 
elaiv' ovhel'^ to\/jL}](T€L dva/3}]vaL tovtou eveKa. 

14 Tt d'ire)(r) tov IBlov dyadov ; d(ppov iarl tovto, 
TjXidiov earip. aXX' ovS' tip Xeyr]<; /loi, ore 

15 d7re)(^r), maTevao) aoL. co? yap dSuparop iari, 
TO) -ylreuBel (f)aLP0/jLep(p avyKaraOeaOai Kal diro 
TOV dXi^Oov^ diTOpevcrai, outo)? dhvparop eart 
TOV (^aiPOfJLepov dyaOov drroarrjPaL. 6 irXovTO^ 
8' ayaOop Kal olopapel^ to rrou]TLK(iiTaT6v ye 

16 TCOP l)h0PMP. Bid Tt /ULt] 7r€pL7T0nJ77} UVTOP ," Sid 

Tt he /jLI) tyjp TOV y6iT0P0<; yvpaiKa BiacpOetpoy/jLep, 

1 Wolf: (piXlas S, 

BOOK III. VM. 8-16 

your doctrines. The only thing left for you to say 
is that pleasure of soul is pleasure in the things of 
the body, and then they become matters of prime 
importance, and the true nature of the good. 

That is why Maximus acted foolishly if he made 
his voyage for the sake of anything but the Hesh, 
that is, for the sake of anything but the best And 
a man acts foolishly too, if, wiien he is judge and 
able to take the property of other men, he keeps 
his hands off it. But, if you please, let us consider 
this point only, that the stealing be done secretly, 
safely, without anybody's knowledge. For even 
Epicurus himself does not declare the act of theft 
evil, but only getting caught, and merely because 
it is impossible to feel certain that one will not be 
detected, he says, "Do not steal." But 1 tell you 
that if it is done adroitly and circumspectly, we shall 
escape detection ; besides that, we have influential 
friends in Rome, both men and women ; and the 
Greeks are a feeble folk, none of them will have the 
courage to go up to Rome for that purpose. Why 
refrain from your own good } This is foolish, it is 
silly. And again, 1 shall not believe you, even if 
you tell me that you do refrain. For just as it is 
impossible to assent to what is seen to be false, and 
to reject what is true, so it is impossible to reject 
what is seen to be good. Now wealth is a good, and 
when it comes to pleasures is, so to speak, the thing 
most productive of them. Why should you not 
acquire it? And why should we not seduce our 
neighbour's wife, if we can escape detection } And 

2 Schenkl (the word seems to he known hitherto only 
from glosses, but it seems practically certain here) : olov av 
^i (or iis) 8, 



av hvv(i)f.L€Oa \a6elv, av he (f)\vapj} 6 ainjp, fcal 

17 avTov IT poaeKT pa)(^r)\i(j(jo fxev ; el OeXet^; elvai 
(\)L\oa 0(^)0'^ olo<; Bel, €l ye TeXeio<;, el ukoXovOcov 
aou TOL<; hoyfiacTLV' el he /xt], ouSeu hLoiaei^; rj/jLcov 
Tco/^ Xeyofxevcop ^tcolkcoV kol avrol yap aWa 

18 Xeyopev, dWa he TroLov/xev. 7)/jiec<; Xeyo/xev ra 
KoXa, 7TOiov/ji€v ra atcr^pd' av ti]v evaviiav 
hLaaTpO(p7]P ear] hieaTpa/xfi€VO<; hoy/xarl^wv rd 
alaxpd, TTOLoyv rd KoXd.^ 

19 Tov deov aoL, e'Trivoel<; 'EiTTL/covpeLcov ttoXlv ; 
*' eyco ov ya/jLco.^^ " ovh^ iyco' ov yap yapajriov.'^ 
aXX' ovhe 7raiho7roL7}Tiov, dXX^ ovhe iroXiTevreop. 
Tt ovv y€V)]Tac ; nroOev ol TroXlrat ; Tt<? avTov<; 
TraihevaeL ; rt? €(f)t]/3apxo^, Tt? yupvaalap'^o^ ; 
Tt ^e Kal Traihevaet avrov^ ; a AaKehaifiovioi 

20 eTraihevovTO rj ' AOrfvaloL ; Xd^e /jLOl veov, dyaye 
KaTa TO, hoyfjLard aov. irovrjpd eari rd hoy/iara, 
dvarpeirTLKd 7r6X€0)<;, Xv/xavrtKa oI'kmv, ovhe 

21 yvvat^l irpeirovTa. a(/>e? ravr , dvOpwrre. ^fj^ 
ev yyep-ovouar) iroXer dp)(eiv ae hel, Kpiveiv 
hLKalco;, d'TTe')(^eaOai rcov dXXorplcov, aol Ka\i]v 
yvvaiKa <\>a'iveaOai fxi]he}Jiiav rj rrjv ai]v, koXov 
iralha pii]heva, KaXov dpyvpwfjLa firjhev, '^pvawpia 

22 /lyhev. rovroi^i avpL(f)(ova hoypLara ^tjryjaov, d(f)^ 
oiv oppLcopLevo<; r)he(i)<; d(f}e^7} Trpaypbdrcop ouro)? 

23 inOavoyv^^ 7rp6<; to dyayelv kov vLKijaai. av he 
TTyoo? rfi iridavoTrjri rfj eKeivcov Kal (f)L\oao(pLav 

1 Wolf (after Schegk) and Upton's "codex": Soy/j-aTiCwv 
TO. Ka\d' TToiaiv to al^xpa. S. 

2 Shaftesbury : iridafws S. 

^ See note on I. 1, 34, 

BOOK III. VII. 16-23 

if her husband talks nonsense, why should we not 
break his neck to boot? That is, if you wish to be 
a proper sort of philosopher, a perfect one, consistent 
with your own doctrines. If not, you will be no 
better than we who bear the name of Stoics ; for we 
too talk of one thing and do another. We talk of 
the noble and do the base ; but you will be perverse 
in the opposite way, laying down base doctrines, and 
doing noble deeds. 

In the name of God, I ask you, can you imagine 
an Epicurean State ? One man says, " I do not 
marry." '^ Neither do I," says another, ^^ for people 
ought not to marry." No, nor have children; no, 
nor perform the duties of a citizen. And what, 
do you suppose, will happen then } VVliere are 
the citizens to come from .'^ Who will educate 
them ? Who will be superintendent of the ephebi,^ 
or gymnasium director.^ Yes, and what will either 
of these teach them ? What the young men of 
Lacedaemon or Athens were taught ? Take me a 
young man ; bring him up according to your 
doctrines. Your doctrines are bad, subversive of 
the State, destructive to the family, not even fit for 
women. Drop these doctrines, man. You live in 
an imperial State ; it is your duty to hold office, to 
judge uprightly, to keep your hands off the property 
of other people ; no woman but your wife ought to 
look handsome to you, no boy handsome, no silver 
plate handsome, no gold plate. Look for doctrines 
consistent with these principles of conduct, doctrines 
which will enable you to refrain gladly from matters 
so j)ersuasive to attract and to overpower a man. 
If, however, in addition to the persuasive power of 
the things just mentioned, we shall have gone 



rivd TTore ravry]!' i^evptjKoref; oj/xev avveirco- 
Oovaav i)ixd<^ eV avja Kal iTTippcoi'Pvovaav, rl 

21 'Ki^ Topev/jLaTL^ tl KpaTiarov eariv, 6 dpyvpo'^ 
V V T^\i^V f X^'P09 ova la fiev ?; crup^, Trporjyov- 

25 fieva he ra ')(eLpo<; epya. ovkovv kol Ka9i')K0VTa 
rpiaad' ra /lev tt/jo? to elrai, rd 8e Trpo? to ttoicl 
elvai, rd S' avrd rd irpojjyov/xeva. outo)? Kal 
drOpcoTTOv ov Tip> vXifv hel Tipidv, rd aapKihia, 

23 uWd rd irpoi^yovpieva. rira earl ravra. ; iroXi- 
reveaOat, yapelv, TraiSoTroielaOai, Oeov ae^eLv, 
yoiecov iinfieXela-Oai, KaOoXov opeyeadai, ckkXI- 
veiVy opfxdv, d(f)op/jLdv, o)? CKaaTov tovtcov Set 

27 iTOielv, CO? 7r6(f)Vfcapev. ire^vKapLev Be ttco? ; co? 
iXevOepoL, w? yevvaloi, co? alhy]pLove<;. irolov ydp 
dXXo ^fpov ipvOpia, irolov alcr)(pov (pai'Taaiav 

28 Xap^dvei ; ryju i)hovrjV S' virora^ai TouTOt? co? 
Sid/coi'ov, &)? vTrrjpiriv, 'iva 7rpo6vpia<^ eK/caXear]- 
rai, 'Iv eV Tot? Kara (f)vaiv epyoi^ irapaKparfj. 

29 'AXX,' eyco irXovaio^ elpa Kal ovhevo<i XP^^^ 1^°^ 
iarw. — Tt ovv ere TrpoaTroifj (^iXoaocj^elv ; dpKel 

^ Wolf : fv Twi pivjxari S. 

^ The classification of duties in this sentence is obscure, 
and the commentators liave ever been in straits both to 
elucidate it, and to explain Mhat bearing it has upon the 
context. The first two classes (which are essentially one) 
deal with outward existence ; the last touches our higher 
nature. A full discussion of this matter will be found in 
A. Eonhofrer ; Die Ethik des Stoikers Epiktct, p. 2Uo-(3. A 
very similar Stoic division of duties into five classes, where 
the third class of Epictetus is triply divided, will be found in 
Cicero, Pf Fuiibus, III. l(>and"20. I l)elieve that the sentence, 
though prol>ably going back to Epictetus, did not belong 


BOOK III. vir. 23-29 

ahead and invented also some such doctrine as this 
of yours, which helps to push us on into them, and 
^ives them additional strength, what is going to 
happen ? 

in a piece of plate what is the best thing, the 
silver or the art ? The substance of the hand is 
mere flesh, but the important thing is the works of 
the hand. Now duties are of three kinds ; first, 
those that have to do with mere existence, second, 
those that have to do with existence of a particular 
sort, and third, the principal duties themselves.^ So 
also in the case of man, it is not his material sub- 
stance that we should honour, his bits of flesh, but 
the principal things. What are these .'' The duties 
of citizenship, marriage, begetting children, re- 
verence to God, care of parents,^ in a word, desire, 
avoidance, choice, refusal, the proper performance 
of each one of these acts, and that is, in accordance 
with our nature. And what is our nature.'' I'o act 
as free men, as noble, as self-respecting. Why, 
what other living being blushes, what other compre- 
hends the impression of shame ? And it is our 
nature to subordinate pleasure to these duties as 
their servant, their minister, so as to arouse our 
interest and keep us acting in accordance with 

But I am rich and need nothing. — Why, then, 
do you still pretend to be a philosopher.^ Your 

here originally (so also Bonhoffer, it seems), but derived 
from a marginal note u]>on to TrpoTjyoJ^ej/a, just below, and 
the sentence immediately following. 

2 After the Golden Verses of Pythagoras, 3-4: 

Tovs re Karax^oviovs (rede haifiovas, fvuojua pe^wv 
rovs re 'y6veis rifxa, tovs t' iyxior' iKytyuuras. 



TCI ')(^pva(i>/iaTa kol to, apyvpco/jLUTa' rl aoL 

30 xpeta Soyfidrcov ; — 'AWa kuI Kpirtj^; elfii ra)v 
' EWy']PG)v. — Ol8a<; /cplveiv ; ri ere eTToirjaev elhe- 
laL ; — Js^alaap pLOi KW^iKeWov eypaxj/ev. — Vpa- 

31 ylrdro) aoi, 'Iva Kpivr}<^ irepl tmv fjLovGLKOiV kol tl 
(joi 6(^€\o<; ; 6/j.o)<i Se ttw? KpLr7]<; iyevov ; t7]v 
Tivo<; X^'^'P^ KaTa(j)iXt]aa<;, ti)v ^vii^opov y) ti]i> 
^ovjjLiiviov ; TtVo? irpo rov koltmvo^ K0LiJLrj6ei<^ ; 
TLVi Tre/x-v/^a? h(apa ; elra ovfc alaOdvr), on roaov- 
rov a^Lov iari fcpirrju elvai oaov']VLO^ ; — 
'AXXa hvvafiai ov OeKw et? (f)u\aK7]v ^aXelv. — 

32 'n? \idov. — ^ AWd hvvafiai ^vXoKOTrrjaat ov 
OeXo). — 'n? ovov. ovK eart tovto civO pwirwv 

33 dpxV- ^*» XoyiKcbv rj/xwv dp^ov heiKVV<; i)ijuv rd 
aufjL(f)€povra Koi dKoXovOt'^aofxev BecKvve rd 

34 davfKpopa kol aTTOarpacpyjaop-eda. ^^/Xcora? 
■))/j,d<; Karaa/cevacrov aeavrov co? ^wKpdrrj^; eav- 
rov. 6Kelvo<; rjv 6 ft)? dvOpciiTTwv apx^i^v, o 
KaT€GKevaK(iL><; v7roT€TaxoTa<; avrw ti-jv ope^iv 
TTjv avTCJp, Ti-jv e/CKXiaiv, rrjv oppn'^v, ttjp d(f)oppV]v. 

35 " toOto TTOLTjaov, tovto fJbr] Troiijayf;' el Se p,t], et? 
(f)v\aKr}V ae ^oKro.^^ ovketl ob? XoyiKWv r/ dpxh 

36 yiveTai. aXX,' " o)? 6 Zei;? SieTa^ev, tovto irolrj- 
aov dv he /jltj 7roL)'}aT]<;, ^iiiitcoO-qar], /SXa/Byjcrj].^^ 
iToiav ^\d^7jv ; dX\7]v ovhepLiav, dXXd to p^rj 
'7TOLi'](7ai a her uTToXeaei^i top tticttop, top alSyj- 

^ Otherwise unknown, but obviously freedmen influential 
at court. 

2 That is, so as to be able to salute him the very first thing 
in the morning. 


BOOK III. VH. 29-36 

gold and silver plate are enough to satisfy you ; 
what do you need doctrines for? — Yes^ but I sit too 
as judge over the Hellenes. — Do you know how to 
sit as judge ? What has brought you to know that? 
— Caesar wrote credentials for me. — Let him write 
you credentials that will allow you to sit as a judge 
in music and literature ; and what good will it do 
you ? However this may be, there is another 
question, and that is, how did you come to be 
a judge? Whose hand did you kiss — that of 
Symphorus or that of Numenius?^ In front of 
whose bedroom door did you sleep ?^ To whom did 
you send presents ? After all, don't you recognize 
that the office of judge is worth exactly as much as 
Numenius is? — But I can throw whom I will into 
prison. — As you can a stone. — But I can have 
beaten to death with a club whom I will, — As you 
can an ass. — That is not governing men. Govern us 
as rational beings by pointing out to us what is 
profitable, and we will follow you ; point out what 
is unprofitable, and we will turn away from it. 
Bring us to admire and emulate you, as Socrates 
brought men to admire and emulate him. He was 
the one person who governed people as men, in that 
he brought them to subject to him their desire, 
their aversion, their choice, their refusal. " Do 
this ; do not do this ; otherwise I will throw you 
into prison." Say that, and yours ceases to be a 
government as over rational beings. Nay, rather, 
say, ^^ As Zeus has ordained, do this; if you do not 
do so, you will be punished, you will sufier injury." 
What kind of injury? No injury but that of not 
doing what you ought ; you will destroy the man of 
fidelity in you, the man of honour, the man of 



fxava, Tov Koaynov. rovrcov uX\a<; /SXdBct^ fxei- 

1 ' D.<i 7rpo<; ra epcortjfjLara ra ao(f)iarLKa yv/iva- 
^ofieOa, ovT(o<{ Kal 7rpo<; Ta<; ^avraaia^ kuB^ 

2 i)fiepav ehei yv/jLvd^eaOar Trporelvovat yap i)pA,i' 
Kal avrac ipcorjj/jiaTa. 6 f/o? direOave tov Seli'O^^. 
diTOKpivai " uTrpoaipeTOv, ov KaKov.'' 6 Trarrjp 
TOV Seli'a diTOKKripovopLOV cnreXLirev. ri aoi 
SoKel ; ^^ inrpoaiperoVy ov KaKov!^ K.aLaap avrov 

3 KureKptvei'. '^ dirpoaipeTov, ov KaKovT iXviryjOrj 
iirl rovTOL<i, " TrpoaiperLKOP, KaKou." yevvaiw^; 

4 v7Tep.€LV€P. " TTpoaipeTLKOv, dyaOovT Kav ovrco^; 
iOc^cop^eOa, TrpoKoyjro/Jiev' ovheirore yap aXXw 
avyKaTaOrjao/iieOa r) ov (pavraaua KaTaXrjinLKi-j 

5 yiverai. 6 vlo<^ direOave. tl iyevero ; 6 vlo^ 
direOavev. dX\o ovSev ; ovSe ev.^ to ttXoIov 
aTrciiXero. tl iyevero ; to irXolov dircoXeTO. et? 
(f)vXaKT]v d-7T)jy(^0)]. ri yeyovev ; eU (pvXafcrjv 
dn/jx^V' '^^ ^' OTt " KaK(o<; TreV/oa^^ej^ " ef avrov 

^ Schweighiluser : &\\o ouSe eV 5*. 6.\\o ouSey ; ovZef Trin- 
cavelli and most editors. 

^ The (pavraaia KaTa\r}irTiKr], a term peculiar to Stoic 
ps\'ehology, is "an impression so distinct and vivid and 
consistent and permanent as to carry its own conviction of 
certainty and to be its own criterion of truth" (P. E. More, 
Hellenistic Philosophies, 85). See Bonhiitfer, Epiktet und die 
Stoa, 160-7, 228-32. Among recent writers E. R. Bevan, 
Stoics and Sceptics, 36, renders the phrase "grasping im- 
pression " ; G. Murray, I'he Stoic Philosophy, 27 and 44, 
"comprehensive sense-impression." Cf. R. M. Wenley, 


BOOK III. VII. 36-viii. 5 

decent behaviour. You need not look for greater 
injuries than these. 


Ho7v ought ive to exercise ourselves to deal with 
the impressions of our senses ? 

As we exercise ourselves to meet the sophistical 
interrogations, so we ought also to exercise ourselves 
daily to meet the impressions of our senses, because 
these too put interrogations to us. So-and-so's son 
is dead. Answer, " That lies outside the sphere of 
the moral purpose, it is not an evil." His father 
has disinherited So-and-so ; what do you think of it ? 
" That lies outside the sphere of the moral purpose, 
it is not an evil." Caesar has condemned him. 
*' That lies outside the sphere of the moral purpose, 
it is not an evil." He was grieved at all this. 
"That lies within the sphere of the moral purpose, 
it is an evil." He has borne up under it manfully. 
'• That lies within the sphere of the moral purpose, 
it is a good." Now if we acquire this habit, we 
shall make progress; for we shall never give our 
assent to anything but that of which we get a con- 
vincing sense-impression.^ His son is dead. What 
happened t His son is dead. Nothing else ? Not 
a thing. His ship is lost. What happened ? His 
ship is lost. He was carried off to prison. What 
happened ? He was carried off to prison. But the 
observation : " He has fared ill," is an addition that 

Sluicism, 87, for the metaphor in the adjective : "Conviction 
of truth must . . . involve an unshakable grip upon the 



6 €f(aaTO<; TTpoariOtjatv. " aX,X' ov/c 6pOco<i ravra 
o Zi€v<i iToieiy Bin Tt ; otl (T€ vTro/jLevt/riKou 
eiroiriaev, otl ^ley a\ oy\rv ^ov , otl acpelXev avTcov 
TO elvaL KaKci, otl e^ecFTLV gol Trda)(^ovTL TavTa 

€vBaL/jLOV€LV, OTt GOL TlfV OvpUP l]vOL^eV, OTUl' GOL 

/It) TTOty ; av6p(07re, e^eXOe kul /jlt] eyicdXeL. 

7 TIw? exovGL 'FoifialuL tt/oo? (f)L\oG6(f)ov^ av 
OeXrj^ yvMPaL, clkovgov. 'IraXf/iro? 6 fxdXLGTa 
hoKwv avTMV ^lX6go(^o<s eh'UL 7rap6vTO<; iroTe /jlov 
')(aXe7n')va'^ tol<; lBlol'^, co? du/)KeGTa iraG^oiV, 
" Ov Svva/xaL,'' €(f)ri, " (pepeiv uTToXXvTe fie, 
7roL7]G€T€ fi6 TOLOVTov jeveadaL,^' Sel^a^i ifie. 

0'. FTpo? TLi>a pt'iTopa civlovtu ei? 'Pm/xtjv 

6TtI SlKT). 

1 EtVfX-^oi^To? St' Tivo<; 7r/309 avTuv, o? et? 'Pcofiijv 
dvyjeL Elk7]u e^oiv irepi TLfxi]<i tPj^; auTOV, irvOo- 

1 Compare I. 9, 20; III. 13, 14. and Vol. I. p. xxv f. 

2 For the particular expression here, see II. G, 122. 

^ The of this curiou.s and apparently quite detached 
anecdote, which has puzzled some scholars, seems to be that 
the otherwise quite unknown Italicus, who was clearly not a 
philosopher propria jiersona, but merely enjoyed some local 
reputation among people at Rome for dabbling in philosophy, 
was being urged by his friends to submit to some hardship 
in a truly philosophic manner, and resented the implication 
that he actually icas a philosopher like the mean and humble 
slave or freedman Epictetus. Roman popular feeling about 


BOOK III. VIII. 5-ix. I 

each man makes on his own responsibiHty- " But/' 
you say, '^Zeus does not do right in all this." What 
makes you think so.'' Because He has made you 
capable of patient endurance, and high-minded, 
because He has taken from these things the quality 
of being evils, because you are permitted to suffer 
these things and still to be happy, because He has 
opened for you the door/ whenever they are not 
to your good ? ^ Man, go out, and do not complain. 

Hear how the Romans feel about philosophers, if 
you care to know. Italicus, who has a very great 
reputation among them as a philosopher, once, when 
I was present, got angry at his friends, as though he 
were suffering something intolerable, and said, '' I 
cannot bear it : you are the death of me ! you will 
make me just like him," and pointed at me ! ^ 


To a certain rhetorician who was going to Rome for a 

There came in to visit Epictetus one day a man who 
was on his way to Home, where he was engaged in a 
lawsuit involving an honour to be bestowed on him.* 

philosophy is probably not greatly overdrawn in the well- 
known advice of Eunius (frag. sc. .376 Vahlen) to taste of 
philosophy, but not to gorge oneself upon it ; and the jest of 
Plautus {Captivi, 284), apropos of a reckless romancer, that 
"he is not simply lying now, he is philosophizing." 

* The situation seems a bit strange to us, but the famous 
lawsuit between Aeschines and Ctesiphon, in which Demos- 
thenes delivered the oration De Corona, technically, indeed, 
in behalf of Ctesiphon, but actually in his own cause, offers a 
close parallel. 



fievo<; TJjv alriav, Bl i)v tiveiaiv, i'nepcoTi]aavTo<^ 
6K6LV0V, TLva ji>u)/j,r]v ex^i- irepl rod 7rpdy/jLaro<;, 

2 Et fMOV iTVvOdvr), t'l 7rpd^€i<i iv 'Pcofirj, (f)y(TLU, 
TTorepov KaTopOcoa€i<; r; dirorev^T], Oecopyjfia tt/Oo? 

TOVTO OVK €')(^CO- €1 3e ^ TTVuOdvrj, TTW? 7rpd^€lS, 

rovro el-nelv, on, el fiev opOd 86yfu.aTa e;^e^?, 
Ka\(o<;, el Be (pavXa, KaKO)<;. Travrl yap alTLov 
Tov irpdaaeip ttcd? to ^ hoyfia. ri ydp eanv, 

3 8i' ^ e7re6vfjiriaa<; 7rpo(TTdTT]<; )(^eipoTOvrjd7]i>ai 
KvwaLcov ; to 86y/Jia. t'l eVrtV, hi o vvv et? 
'V(t)/jirju nvep')(r] ; to hoyfxa. Koi fieTa ')(^eificovo<s 
Kal KLvhvvov KoX dv d\(o fidT 03V ; — WvdyKrj ydp 

4 icTTLv. — Tt9 (Tot Xeyet tovto ; to Soyfia. ovkovv 
el TrdvTcov aiTia to, SoyfiaTa, (pavXa Si ri? ex^i- 

807/xaTa, oloP dv fl TO aiTLOV, TOiOVTOV Kal TO 

5 diroTeXov/ievov. dp* ovv Trai^re? exojuev vyiij 
Soy/xaTa koI av fcal 6 dvTiBLK6<; aov ; Kal ttws" 
Siacpepeade ; dWd av fidWov rj iKelvo<^ ; Sid 
TL ; SoKel croi. KaKeivw Kal toI<^ /j.aivo/jL€i>oi.<;. 

6 TOUTO ITOVrjpOV KpLT7]pL0V. dWd Sel^OV flOLf otl 

€7riaKey}rLV TLva Kal eTri/jieXeiav ireTroiriaaL tmv 
cravTOu SoyiidTwv. Kal o)? vvv el<i 'Fd)/Jiy]v TrXet? 
€7rl Tft) 7r/50(jTaT?;? elvac Kvayalcov Kal ovk i^apKel 
(joL fieveLV iv oIkw Tat; Tifid<; e^ovTC a? 6t;^69, 
dXXd /^ovo'^ tivo<^ imOv/jLel^ Kal iiricpaveaTipov, 
TTOTe oi/Tft)? eirXevaa^; vnep tov ra SoyfiaTa 

7 iinaKiy^aadaL ra aavTov Kal el tl (pavXov e;^ez9, 

1 Schenkl : iil. S, or ifxf (Allen). 

2 irwsTdOldfa.ther : TTpda-a-eii'TiSSynaS. The sharp contrast 
between ti irpd^cis and ttus Trpd^fis above, which is the whole 
point in tlie present passage, is completely falsified by the 
reading in S. 

^ Si' added by Shaftesbury. 

HOOK III. IX. 1-7 

Epictetus asked what the reason was for the trip 
to the Capital, and the man proceeded to ask 
wliat opinion he had about the matter. If you 
ask me what you are going to do in Rome, says 
Epictetus, whether you will succeed or fail, I have 
no precept to offer. If, however, you ask how you 
are going to fare, 1 have this to say : If you have 
sound judgements, you will fare well; if unsound 
judgements, ill; since in every case the way a man 
fares is determined by his judgement.^ For what is 
it that made you eager to be elected patron of the 
people of Cnossos.''^ Your judgement. What is it 
that impels you now to go up to Rome ? Your 
judgement. And that in stormy weather, in danger, 
and at expense ? — Yes, but I have to. — Who tells you 
that .^ Your judgement. Very well, then, if a man's 
judgements determine everything, and if a man has 
unsound judgements, whatever be the cause such also 
will be the consequence. Do we all, then, have sound 
judgements, both you and your opponent? If so, 
then how do you come to disagree? But do you 
have sound judgements rather than he? Why? 
You think so. So does he, and so do madmen. 
This is a poor criterion. But show me that you have 
made any study of your own judgements and have 
paid attention to them. And as now you are sailing to 
Rome so as to become patron of the men of Cnossos, 
and you are not satisfied to stay at home and keep 
the honours which you had, but you have set your 
heart upon something greater and more conspicuous, 
so did you ever make a voyage for the purpose of 
studying your own judgements, and of rejecting one, 

^ See critical note. 

2 The principal city of Crete, 



eK^aXelv ; tlvi irpoaeKyfKvOa^ rovrov eveKa ; 
irolov \p6vov iirera^a^ aavTco, iroiav ifkiKiav ; 
eireXOe aov tou? ^(povov<^, el i/ie ai(T')(vvr], avTo<; 

8 Trpo? aavTov. ore Trat? ^?, €^)jra^e<; ra cravrov 
Boy/Jiara ; ov^l S* to? irdvra 7roi€L<;, 67roL€L<; a 
eiroieL^ ; ore he /jbeipuKiov ijSrj Kal tmv prjropcop 
r}Kove<; koI avTo<; e/xeXera?, rl aot Xeiireiv ecpav- 

9 rd^ov ; ore he veavlaKO^; Kal tjBtj eTroXtrevov kuI 
StVrt? avTo^ eXeye<; Kal ev8oKLfiei<;, rt? croc en 
tao<; e(f)aLV€TO ; irov 8' av rjve.G'yov vtto tipo^ 

10 €^eTa(^6fj,€vo<;, otl vovrjpd e-)(eL^ Boyfiara ; tl ovv 
aoL deXei^ etirw ; — ^oi^OTjaov /jlol et? to irpayfjia. 
— OvK eyw iTpo<^ TOVTO decopyjfiara- ovSe av, el 
rovTov evcKa eXi]Xv6a'; irpo^ e/xe, co? tt/qo? <piX6- 
ao(f)OV eXrjXvOa^, dXX' o)? tt/jo? XaxavoTrcoXrjv, 

11 aX,A,' &)? TTyooQ aKvrea. — Up6<; tl ovv ey^ovaiv ol 
(f)LX6ao(f)OL 0ecop7]/jLaTa ; — IT/jo? rovro, 6 rt av 
aTTO^fj, TO riye/jLOVLKOv rj/xcov Kara (pvaiv €)(^et.v 
Kal Bie^dycLV. fxiKpov <tov BoKel tovto ; — Ot;* 
dXXa TO /jLeycarov. — T^ ovv ; oXlyov ')(^p6vov 
Xp€iav ex€i Kal eari irapepxofJievov avro Xa^elv ; 
el Bvvaaaiy Xd/ju/Save. 

12 EZt' epet? " avvefiaXov ^KiriKTi^Ta) w? XiOrp, w? 
dvSpidvTi.^' etSe? yap fxe Kal irXeov ovSev. 
dvdpdiirw S' o)? dvOpd>7r(p av/x/SaXXeL 6 rd 

BOOK III. IX. 7-12 

if it is unsound.^ VVIiom have you ever visited for 
this purpose ? What time have you set yourself, 
what period of your hfe ? Review the periods of 
your Hfe, all to yourself, if you are ashamed to do so 
before me. When you were a boy were you in the 
habit of examining your judgements ? Did you not 
habitually do wliat you then did just as you do 
everything now ? And when you grew to be a youth 
and were attending the lectures of the rhetoricians, 
and were yourself practising, what did you fancy that 
you yet lacked ? And when you were a young man 
and began to take part in politics, and to plead 
cases yourself, and to have a good reputation, who 
any longer seemed in your eyes to be your equal ? 
Would you under any circumstances have submitted 
to be put through an examination on the charge that 
you had wretched judgements ? Very well then, 
what do you wish me to say to you } — Help me in 
this affair. — I have no precepts to offer for this ; and 
you too, if you came to me for this purpose, have 
not come to me as to a philosopher, but as to a 
vegetable-dealer, as to a cobbler. — To what end, 
then, do philosophers have precepts to offer? — To 
this end, that whatever happen, our governing 
principle shall be, and abide to the end, in accord 
with nature. Do you regard that as a trifle ? — No ; 
it is of the utmost moment. — What then ? Does 
this require only a little time, and is it possible to 
acquire it on a passing visit ? Acquire it, then, if 
you can ! 

Then you will say, " VV^hen I met Epictetus it 
was like meeting a stone, a statue." Yes, for you 
took a look at me, and nothing more. The person 
who meets a man as a man is one who learns to 



hoy/iaTa avrov Karafxai-Oaixov fcal er rw fiep€L 

13 ra I'Sia Sclkvixov. KaTcifiaOe /xov ra Soy/xara, 
Sel^op fxoL ra aa fcal ovrco^; Xeye av/j,/3e^X7]K6vai 
/LLoi. eXey^wiiev dXX/]Xov<;' €l re e-)(u> kukov 
Boy/xa, acpeXe avro' et tl ex^t-^i, Oh et? to /xeaov. 

14 Tovro icTTL (piXoaocprp (TVfiSdXXeiv. ov' dXXd 
" irdpoho's iari kol cco? to ttXoIov fiLaOovfieOa, 
Bvpdfieda Koi ^ETTLKTrjrop IBelv iScofiev, tl irore 
Xeyei.'^ elr i^eXOcov " ovSh r)v 6 'ETTt/cTy/To?, 
eaoXoiKLi^eVy i^ap^dpc^eiK^* rivo's yap aXXov 
fcpLTal €l(Tep')(^e(Tde ; 

15 ** 'AX-V av TTyoo? TouTOi?," (f)7]crLV, "w, dy pov 
ov^ ^I'W ^? ovBe av, iroTTjpca dpyvpd ou;^ 
€^co ft)9 ovSe av, KTi^vrj KaXd &)? ovhe av.^^ 

16 7r/309 ravra Tcro)? dpKcl €K€lvo elirelv otl 
" dXXd y^peiav avrwv ovk e'x*^* ^^ ^' ^^ rroXXa 
Kr)]ar], dXXcov ^pelav 6;\;et?, ^eXet? ov ^eXet?, 

17 'TTr(jd')(OT6p6<i piovy — IWo? ovv €)(^co y^pelav ; — Tov 
aol fir] iTap6vT0<^' tov evaraOelv, tov Kara (f)vatp 

18 €)(€LV Trjv Sidvoiav, tov fir] TapaTTeaOai. ird- 
rpwv, ov irdTpwv, tl fioi fieXei ; aol fieXec. ttXov- 
aLC0T€p6<i aov elfir ovk dycoi^ico, tl (Ppovrjaec irepl 
ifjLov 6 Kataap' ovheva KoXaKevo) tovtov eveKa. 
TavTa e)(w dvrl tmv dpyvpayfidrcov, dvTL tcov 
')(^pva(jOfidT(DV. av ')(^pvad a/c€V7], oaTpuKivov top 
Xoyop, Tci BoyfiaTU, Ta9 avy Karad eaeL<i , Ta? 

19 opfid^;, Ta? ope^ei^. orav he TavTa e^^o) kuto, 
(f)vaiv, Sid TL fMT] (piXoTe^vijao) kol nepl top 

BOOK III. i.v. 12-19 

understand the other's judgements, and in his turn 
exhibits his own. Learn to know my judgements; 
sliow me your own, and then say you liave met me. 
Let us put one another to tlie test ; if I cherish any 
evil judgement, take it away ; if you cherish one, 
bring it forward. That is what it means to meet a 
philosopher. Oh no ; but your way is : ^' We are 
passing, and while we are hiring our ship, we have a 
chance to take a look at Epictetus ; let's see what in 
the world he has to say." Then you leave with the 
remark : " Epictetus was nothing at all, his language 
was full of solecisms and barbarisms." What else 
were you capable of judging, when you came in like 
that ? 

" But," says someone, " if I devote myself to these 
things, I shall not own a farm any more than you do, 
I shall not have silver goblets any more than you, or 
fine cattle any more than you." To all this it is 
perha])s enough to answer : *^ I do not need them ; 
but you, even if you acquire many possessions, need 
still others, and whether you will or not, are more 
poverty-stricken than I am." — What, then, do I 
need? — What you do not have; steadfastness, your 
mind in a state of conformity with nature, freedom 
from vexation of spirit. Patron or not patron, what 
do I care ? But you care. I am richer than you 
are ; I am not worried about what Caesar is going to 
think of me ; I flatter no man for that purpose. All 
this is what I have as an offset to your silver plate, 
and your gold plate. You have furnishings of gold, 
but your reason, your judgements, your assent, your 
choice, your desire— of earthenware. But when I 
have these in a state of conformity with nature, wiiy 
should 1 not take up logic also as a sort of hobby ? 



Xoyov ; evcr^oXo) ydp' ov TrepiaTraTai /jlov 77 
Scdvoia. ri iroLi](T(o fxr) 7r€pia7r(o/x€uo<; ; tovtov 
ri dvd poiTT LKcoTepov e^co ; vfiel^ orav fitjSev exv^^t 

20 rapdaaeaOe, et? Oearpov elaep^^eaOe r) dvaXvere' 
hiCL ri 6 (f>L\6cro(f)o<; fjurj e^epydarjTac rov avrov 

21 Xoyov ; crv KpvardXXcva, iyo) ra rov ^evhojjLevov 
av fxovppiva, eyoi ra rov ' h^iro^da Kovro'^. aol 
iravra /xi/cpd (^aiverat a e%6t9, efjLol ra ifia Trdvra 
/leydXa. dirXi^ptoTO'^ aov eorriv r) eTTiOuiJila, rj 

22 €fir] TreirX)] pcoTUi. tol<; Traihioi^;^ et<? arevo- 
^poyyov KepdjiLOv KaOietaiv t)]v X^'^^P^ '^^^ 
eK(f)epovaLi> laxahoKdpva ravro ^ av/jL^aivei' av 
TrXTjpcoarj Ti]v %6t/3a, i^eveyKelv ov Bvvarat, elra 
xXdci. d(f)6'^ oXiya ef avTcov koI efotVet?. koX 
av a^6? Tyjv ope^iv fir) iroXXcov iTTiOv/xei Koi 

l\ riw? (pep€Lv Bel Ta(; voaov^ ; 

R/cdarov S6yfxaT0<; orav y) X/oeta irapfj, irpoXjEi- 
pov avTO e^GLV Sel' err dpicTTw rd irepl dplcrrov, 
iv ^aXaveiw rd irepl /SaXaveiov, ev kolttj rd irepX 

^ raibiois supplied by Wolf. * Capps: tovto S. 

' Wolf plausibly suggested €vpor]<T€is, "you will prosper," 
for this extremely abrupt and obscure locution. 

1 See note in 11. 17, 34. 

" Highly coloured and very expensive glass. 


BOOK 111. IX. 19-X. I 

For, I have plenty of leisure ; my mind is not being 
dragged this way and that. What shall I do, seeing 
there is nothing that disturbs me.'* What have I 
which more becomes a man than this ? You and 
your kind when you have nothing to do are restless, 
go to the theatre, or wander up and down aimlessly. 
Why should not the philosopher develop his own 
reason ? You turn to vessels of crystal, I to the 
syllogism called "The Liar";^ you to myrrhine 
ware,2 I to the syllogism called "The Denyer."^ 
Everything that you already have seems small in 
your sight, but everything that I have seems 
important to me. Your strong desire is insatiate, 
mine is already satisfied. The same thing happens 
to the children who put their hand down into a 
narrow-necked jar and try to take out figs and nuts : 
if they get their hand full, they can't get it out, and 
then they cry. Drop a few and you will get it out. 
And so do you too drop your desire ; do not set your 
heart upon many things and you will obtain.^ 


11 ON' ought we to bear our illnesses ? 

When the need arises for each separate judgement, 
we ought to have it ready ; at lunch our judgements 
about lunch, at the bath our judgements about a 
bath, in bed our judgements about a bed. 

3 The exact nature of this argument is unknown, although 
Chrysippus wrote two works on the subject (Diog. Laert. 7, 
197), and it is casually mentioned also by Clement of 
Alexandria, Strom. 0, 11. 

* See critical note. 



2 fujS' vTTi'oi' /xaXaKolaiu eV 6fi/j,a(TL -npoahe- 

7rp\v Toiv y)fji6pLi'oyv^ epywv XoyicraaOaL exaara' 

3 " TT/} Trape/Syi' ; ri 6' epe^a ; tl /j,ol heov ov 

rereXecrraL ; " ^ 
dp^cLfxevo^ S' cLTTO rovrov ^ erre^iOr kol p,ere- 


BeiXa fiev ovv^ pe^a^ eTTLTrX/jaato, ^prjaTO, Be 

4 Ka\ TOVTOV<; rov<; <7Tt;)^of9 KaTe)(eLv '^(^prjaTiKco'i, 
ou)(^ ipa St' avTMv dva(f)(i)ucop,€u, w? Sia rod Uaiav 

5 " AttoXXov. ttuXlv iv irvperoi ra 7rpo<; rovro' 
/X1J, av 7rvpe^(o/jL€v, d(f)i6vat, rrdvra kol eTriXavOd- 
veaOai,' *' av i'yoo en (l)iXoao(p}]aci}, o deXet 
yiviaOo). TTOv ttot' inreXOovja tov aco/xarLov 
€77 LfieXelaO at Set." ^ et ye ^ kol irvpero^i ovk 

Q epxeTau. to he (f)LXoao(f)i^iaai rl earlp ; ov)(l 
rrapaa/cevdaaaOaL irpo^ rd avfj-^aivovra ; ov 
ira puKoXovOel'^ ovv, on tolovtov n Xey€i<;' " dv 
€Ti €70) 7rapaaK€vdaa)p,aL Trpo? to 7rpa(o<i (pipeiv 
ra avfx^aivovTa, o OeXeu yiveaOo) " ; olov et Ti<i 

^ Corrected from the ordinary text by Schweighauser : 
T)fi(pioiy S. 

^ C. Schenkl : iKTCT4\f<TTai S ; but tlie ordinary text ovk 
irtkfffdv appears also below in iv. 6, 35. 

^ II. Schenkl: roGSt S: irpwrov the ordinary text (and 

* odv added by C. Schenkl : fKirpri^as the ordinary text (and 


BOOK III. X. 2-6 

" Also allow not sleep to draw nigh to your 

lantriiorous eyelids, 
Ere you have reckoned up each several deed of 

the daytime : 
'Where went I wrong? Did what? And what 

to be done was left undone r ' 
Starting from this point review_, then, your acts, 

and thereafter remember : 
Censure yourself for the acts that are base, but 

rejoice in the goodly."^ 

And keep these verses on hand to use, not by 
w^ay of exclamations, as we cry, " Paean Apollo I " 
Again, in a fever have ready the judgements which 
apply to that. Let us not, if we fall into a fever, 
abandon and forget all our principles, saying: ''If I 
ever study philoso})hy again, let anytliing happen that 
will I I'll have to go away somewhere and take care of 
my poor body." Yes indeed, if fever does not go 
there tool- But what is philosophy ? Does it not mean 
making preparation to meet the things that come 
u])on us? Do you not understand, then, that what 
you are saying amounts to something like this : " If 
I ever again prepare to bear quietly the things that 
come upon me, let anything happen that will"? 

^ The Golden Verses, vulgarly ascribed to Pythagoras, 40- 
44, with several vaiiations in detail. 

2 The sense of this difficult and corrupt passage seems to 
be that Epictetus sarcastically approves the plan, with, 
however, the proviso, that there be no fever where his 
interlocutor plans to go ; which was impossible, because 
there was no such place. In other words, one cannot avoid 
hardships by changing one's residence ; therefore, prepare to 
meet them wherever you are, 

' Stt added by Upton. * Schweighauser : re S. 



7r\j]ya<s \al3cov aTToarair] rou irayKpaTui^eiv. 

7 aW' €K€L fxev e^earc KaraXvaai koX fxrj SepeaOai, 
€iO(i6€ 5' av KaToKvacofxev <f)i\ocro(f)Ovi^r€<;, ri 
o^eXo^ ; TL ovv Bel Xeyeiv 7rp6<; avrov^ e<^' 
ifcuarov icov rpa)(^6a)v ; otl " eveKa tovtov eyv/j,- 

8 va^oixifv, irrl tovto i'jaKovi'.'' 6 de6<; aoL Xeyec 
" 3o? /xoi cnroheL^Lv, el vofxl/xco^ rjOXy^cra'i, el 
ec^aye^ 6a a Set, el eyv/xvciaOij^;, el rov dXeiTrrou 
y)/covcTa<;'' elr eV avjov rov epyov Kara/jia- 
XaKii^Tj ; vvv Tov TTvpeTTeiv KaLp6<^ eariv, tovto 
AraXco? yiveaOw tov hLy\rav, Slyjra /caXw?* tov 

d 7r€ivdv, Tveiva KaXco<;. ovk eaTiv eirl croi ; tl<; 
ae KCdXvaei ; dXXa irielv /xev KcoXvaei 6 laTp6<;, 
KaXcDf; Be Bi\lrdv ov SvvaTar Koi (payelv fiev 
KwXvaei, Tveivdv Be KaXw'^ ov Bvi'aTat. 

10 'AW ov (f)tXoXoya) ; — TtVo? 8' evefca cpiXo- 
XoyeL<; ; dvBpdiroBoVy ov^ "^cl evpof]<; ; ov)(^ Xva 

evaTaOf}<^ ; ov^ 'iva /caTa (f)vaLP ex]]^ fcal Bce^d- 

11 7?;? ; TL KcoXvec irvpeaaovTa KaTa (^vaLV e-^eiv 
TO i)yepovLK6v ; evOdB' 6 eXeyxo'^ tov 7Tpdy/iaT0<;, 
T) BoKLfiaala tov <^lXo(JO(^ovvto^. fiepa yap iaTt 
KOI tovto tov ^Lov, ft)? 7repL7raT0<;, ax; irXov^, cu? 

12 oBoLTTOpla, ovTCi)<; Kal TTvpeTO^. fir) tl TrepLiraTcou 
dvayLyvoL>aKeL<^ ; — Oi;. — 0{5t&)9 ovBe irvpeaawv. 
dXX^ dv KaXco<; 7repL7raTfj<;, e)(^eL<; to tov TrepLira- 

^ Kronenberg (after Schegk) : X^yety av t6v S. 

^ See note on III. 1, 5. 

2 The same phrase appears in 2 Timothy ii. 5. 

^ At Olynipia, for example, men had to practise under 
supervision and observe a strict diet for one whole month 
before the games. 


BOOK III. X. 6-12 

It is just as if a man should give up the pancratium ^ 
because he has received blows. The only difference 
is that in the pancratium a man may stop, and so 
avoid a severe beating, but in life, if we stop the 
pursuit of philosophy, what good does it do? What, 
then, ought a man to say to himself at each hardship 
that befalls him ? " It was for this that I kept 
training, it was to meet this that I used to practise." 
God says to you, " Give Me proof, whether you have 
striven lawfully,^ eaten what is prescribed,^ taken 
exercise, heeded your trainer." After that, do you 
flinch when the time for action arrives? Now it is 
time for your fever, let it come upon you in the right 
way ; for thirst, bear your thirst in the right way ; 
to go hungry, bear hunger in the right way. It is not 
in your power, you say ? Who is there to prevent you ? 
Nay, your physician will prevent you from drinking, 
but he cannot prevent you from thirsting in the 
right way ; and he will prevent you from eating, but 
he cannot prevent you from bearing hunger in the 
right way. 

But am I not a scholar ? — And for what purpose 
do you devote yourself to scholarship ? Slave, is it 
not that you may be happy ? Is it not that you may 
be secure ? Is it not that you may conform to nature 
and live your life in that way. What prevents you, 
when you have a fever, from having your governing 
principle conform with nature? Here is the proof 
of the matter, the test of the philosopher. For this 
too is a part of life ; like a stroll, a voyage, a journey, 
such is also a fever. I presume you do not read 
while taking a stroll, do you? — No. — No more than 
when you have a fever. But if you stroll in the 
right way, you perform what is expected of a stroller ; 



Tovi'TO<;' ai> AraXw? 7rvpe^ij<;, €)(€L<; ra tov Trvpecr- 

13 croi'TO?. Tt earl Ka\co<; irvpiaaeLV ; fii] Oeov 
/xe/iyjraaOat, /j,)) avO panrov, jjli] 0\L/3P)vaL vtto to)v 
^ivofieviov, ev /cal /caXw^; 7rpoaB€)(^eaOai top Odva- 
Tov, iroLelv ra TTpoaraaau/jLeva' orav 6 larpo^! 
€l(T€p)(y]Tai, /JL7] (f)o^elaOa(, tl eiTrrj, /a7;S' av eLirr} 
" KOfi\jr(o<; e;!^€t?," v'7rep')(aipeLV' rl yap aot ayaOov 

14 clirev ; ore yap vytatve^, rl aoi r)v ay aOov ; 
/x>/S' av etTTT) " Ka/cax; e;^ef?," aOvfielv' rl yap 
iajL TO fcaKCt)^ e^x^eLv ; eyyt^eiv rw BiaXvOtjvai 
Ti-jv ■\jrv)^7]v aiTo tov crcoyLtaro?. Tt ovv Beivov 
ecTTLv ; iav vvv /jlt) iyyiarj<;, varepov ovk iyyieU ; 
aWa 6 Kocrpio^ pbiWei avaTpe-TreaOai crov airoOa- 

15 vovTo^i ; TL ovv KoXaK€V€L<; TOV laTpov ; Tl \eyei,<i 
" iav (TV OeXr)<;, Kvpie, KaXw<; e^co " ; tl Trapex€i<i 
avTW a<l)op/JLr)v tov iirdpai ocppvv ; ov)(l 5e Tr]v 
avTov d^iav avrSi diroBiBod's, o)? (jKVTel irepl tov 
TToSa, o)? TeKTOvL irepl t))v olkluv, ovtco^j kuI tw 
laTpw irepl to aco/xaTtov, to ovk i/nov, to (f)va€i 
v€Kp6v ; tovtcov 6 Kaip6<; Icttl tm irvpeaaovTi' 

16 CIV TUVTa CKTrXyj payer rj, €)(€l to, avrov. ov yap 
iaTiv epyov tov (piXoTocfiov ravTa Ta €kto<; 
r^jpelv, ovre to olvdpiov ovre to eXdSiov ovt6 
TO awfjidTiov, dXXa tl ; to 'lSlov i)yepovLK6v. to, 
S' 6^0) TTW-? ; P'^XP^ '^^^ l^h dXoyiaT(D^ Kara 

17 ravTa dvaarpe^eaBuL, irov ovv €tl Kai.pb<i tov 

^ Tliat is, matter which is only temporarily endowed with 
life by virtue of union for a short while with the soul. 

BOOK III. X. 12-17 

if you have fever in the right way, you j^erform tlie 
things expected of the man who lias a fever. What 
does it mean to have fever in the right way ? Not 
to blame God, or man, not to be overwhelmed by 
what happens to you, to await death bravely and in 
the right way, to do what is enjoined upon you ; 
when your physician comes to see you, not to be 
afraid of what he will say, and at the same time not 
to be carried away with joy, if he says, " You are 
doing splendidly''; for what good to you lay in 
that remark ? Why, when you were well, what good 
was it to you ? It means not to be downhearted, too, 
if he says, "You are in a bad way,'' For what does 
it mean to be in a bad way ? That you are close to 
a separation of the soul from the body. What, then, 
is terrifying about that? If you do not draw near 
now, will you not draw near later ? And is the 
universe going to be upset when you die ? Why, 
then, do you wheedle your physician ? Why do you 
say, "If you wish, Master, I shall get well"? Why 
do you give him occasion to put on airs ? Why not 
give him just what is his due ^ As I give the shoe- 
maker his due about my foot, the builder his due 
about my house, so also the physician his due about 
my paltry body, something that is not mine, some- 
thing that is by nature dead.^ These are the things 
that the moment demands for a man who is in a 
fever ; if he meets these demands, he has what 
properly belongs to him. For it is not the business 
of the philosopher to guard these external matters 
— neither his paltry wine, nor his paltry oil, nor his 
paltry body — but what ? His own governing principle. 
And how treat externals? Only so far as not to act 
thoughtlessly about them. What proper occasion is 



(^ojBelaOaL ; ttov ovv ctl Katp6<; 6py)]<; ; ttov (po^ov 

18 irepl royv dWorplcov, irepl row /i^/Se/'o? d^icov ; 
Bvo yap ravra nrpoyeipa eX'^tv Bel- on e^co ttj^ 
Trponipeaeoys ovhev eariv ovre dyaOuv ovre Ka/cov 
Kal OTt ov Bel TrpoyiyeiaOac rcov irpaypdroyv, tiW' 

19 iirafcoXovOelv, ** ovk eBei ovt(d<; /jLol irpocre- 
vex^^ivai Tov dBeXcpov. ' ov' dWd rovro fiev 
€K6Lvo<; oyfreraL. iyco B\ cu? dv irpoaevexOf), avTO<; 

20 &)? Bel ^/9r;cro^ai Tol<; Trpo? eKelvov. rovro 'yap 
i/xov eanv, eKelvo 8' dWorpiov rovro ovBe\<^ 
KcoXvaai, Bvvarai, eKelvo KcoXverai. 

La. 'ZiTOpdBiiv rivd. 

1 EtVt Tii'e? &)? eK vo/jLov Biarerayfievac KoXdaei^ 

2 rot? direidovai rfj Oeia BiocKtjaet' " o? dv dWo 
ri rjytjarjrat dyaOov irapd rd TrpoaiperiKd, (f)0o- 
veirco, iTriOvfieirco, KoXa/cevero), rapacraeaOo)' o? 
dv dWo KaKov, XuTreiaOco, TrevOelrcOy OprfveirWy 

3 Bvarv)(^eir(D,^^ Kal 6/jlco<; ovro3<i 7riKpa)<^ KoXa^o- 
fievoi dTToarrjvat ov BvvdpeOa. 

4 ^epvqao, rlXeyei 6 7ron]Tt)i; irepl rov ^evov 

^elv\ ov fJLOL 6epL<^ eVr'/ ovB^ el KaKLcov aeOev 

^elvov drififjcraL' tt^o? yap Ato<f elaiv drravre^ ^ 
^elvoi re iTrci)X,oL re. 

s : eari koI S. 

f\6oi . . . airai'Tis supplied by Schenkl : (re0€»'Tt? 5. 


BOOK III. X. 17-X1. 4 

there, then, any lonf^er for fear ? What proper 
occasion, then, any longer for anger ? Or for fear 
about things that are not his own concern, worth- 
less things? For here are the two principles that 
you ought to have ready at hand : Outside the 
sphere of the moral purpose there is nothing either 
good or bad ; and. We ought not to lead events, but 
to follow them. " My brother ought not to have 
treated me so." No; but it is for him to look to 
that. As for me, no matter how he behaves, I shall 
observe all my relations to him as I ought. For this 
is my part, the other does not belong to me ; in 
this nobody can hinder me, the other is subject to 


Some scattered sayirigs 

There are certain punishments, assigned as it were 
by law, for those who are disobedient to the divine 
dispensation. " Whoever shall regard as good any- 
thing but the things that fall within the scope of his 
moral purpose, let him envy, yearn, flatter, feel 
disturbed ; whoever shall regard anything else as 
evil, let him sorrow, grieve, lament, be unhappy." 
Nevertheless, for all that we are so severely punished, 
we cannot desist. 

Remember what the poet ^ says about the stranger : 

Stranger, I may not with right dishonour a 

stranger, not even 
Worse man were he than art thou ; for of God 

are all strangers and beggars. 

* Homer (frequently so designated, especially in late 
antiquity), iji the Odyssey, XIV. 56-8, 



5 TOVTO ovv fcai enl iraTpo^ irpoy^eipov ^)^€ii'' oii 
fjLOL OefiLf; ear ovS^ el KaKLcov ccOev eXOoiyirarep' ^ 
(iTifirjaai' tt^o? yap Afo? elaiv a7raPT€<; rov Tla- 

6 Tpcpov Koi eV dB6\(f)U)' tt/oo? yap Ato<? ela-iv 
a7rain€<s rov 'O/ioyi'iov. Kal oi/to)? Kara ra<; 
d\\a<; a)(^€(T€i<; evpfjao/iev eirorrr'qv rov Ata. 

L^' . Yiepl a(TKi]aew<;. 

1 Trt? aaKyjaei^ ou Sel Bta rcbu rraph (pvcriv /cal 
TrapaBo^cov iroielaOat, iirel roi rwv Oavfiaro- 
TToiwv ovhev hLoiaop.ev o'l Xeyovre^; (piXoaocpelv. 

2 hv(TKo\ov yap ean Kal ro iirl a-x^oiviov irepi- 
rrarelv Kal ov [lovov hvaKoXov, aWa Kal €7n.- 
Kii'Svvov. rovrov eveKa hel Kal y)/^Ld(; fxeXerdv 
irri (T')(OLviov TrepLirarelv rj <^oiviKa lardveiv t) 

3 dvBpLavra^i irepiXafx^dveiv ; ovBafjLM<;. ovk eari 
ro BvaKoXov irdv Kal iiriKLvhwov iTrirjjBeiov 
7Tpo<i daKrjGLv, dXXd ro irpocrc^opov rw irpoKei- 

4 fievw eKrrovTjOrjvai. ri 3' earl ro rrpoKeipievov 
eKTTOvrjOt'ivaL ; ope^ec Kal eKKXiaei dKwXvrw<; 
dvaarpec^eaOai. rovro he ri iariv ; P'^jre ope- 
yofievov aTrorvy^dveLV fjbrjr eKKXivovra irepLiriTr- 
reiv. irpo^ rovro ovv Kal rrjv daKJjaiv peireLV 

* Schweighiiuser : irdrfp S. 

* For this aspect of Zeus see 0. Gruppe, Griech. Mythol. 
etc., p. 1116 ; and especially A. B. Cook, Zeus (index). 

2 " Setting up a palm" niaj^ possibly mean climbing a pole 
with only the hands and the feet, like the climbers of palms, as 
Upton and Schweighiiuser (after Bulinger) suggest. There was 


BOOK III. XI. 4-xii. 4 

This, then, is what one should have ready to use in 
the case of a father : " I may not riglitfully dishonour 
a father, not even if a worse man than art thou 
should come ; for of Zeus, the God of Fathers,^ are 
they all " ; and so in the case of a brother : '• For of 
Zeus, the God of Kindred, are they all." And 
similarly, in the other social relations, we shall find 
Zeus overseeing them all. 


Of training 

We ought not to take our training in things that 
are unnatural or fantastic, since in that case we who 
profess to be philosophers will be no better than the 
mountebanks. For it is a hard thing also to walk a 
tight-rope, and not merely hard but dangerous too. 
Ought we also for this reason to practise walking a 
tight-rope, or setting up a palm, or throwing our 
arms about statues .' - Not a bit of it. Not every 
difficult and dangerous thing is suitable for training, 
but only that which is conducive to success in 
achieving the object of our effort. And what is the 
object of our effort? To act without hindrance in 
choice and in aversion. And what does this mean ? 
Neither to fail to get what we desire, nor to fall into 
what we would avoid. Toward this end, therefore, our 

a "palm-bearer" {(poiyeiKocpopos, or aTrabeiKo(p6pos) connected 
with the gymnasium at Tegea in Arcadia {I.G. V. 2, Nos. 47, 
48, 50, 53), who possibly had charge of the exercise referred 
to here, whatever its exact character may have been. As 
for embracing statues, Diogenes was said to have done that 
nude in cold weather, so as to harden himself. Diog. Laert. 
6, 23. 



5 Sec. eirel yap ov/c eariv ava-TTorevKTOv cr^^elv ttjv 
ope^iv KUL rrjv eKKKiaiv direpiTncoTOv avev /xe- 
yd\i1<; Kol avif€)(ov<i daKijcrecof;, I'aOc ore, iav e^w 
edar)<i uTroarpeipeaOdt avri]v eVt rd dirpoaipeTa, 
ovre rrjv ope^iv iTriTevKTiKrji' e^ei<; ovtc ti)v 

6 €Kk\l(tlv direpi'mcdTov. kol iirel to e'^o? la-^vpov 
irpoyjyyjrai wpo^ /JLova ravra eWicr/jLevayv rjfiMU 
')(^pr)cr6aL ope^ei Kal eKKXiaei, Bel rd) eOei tovtw 
ivavTLov €0o<s dimdelvaL Kal orrov 6 ttoXu? o\ia6o<; 
Td)i' (f)avTacri(bv, €Kel dvTLTiOevaL to dcTK^jriKov. 

7 'Kt €poK\ivd)<; e;^&) Trpo? rjSovyjv dvaTOL')(^}]aco ^ 
eVl TO evavTiov vrrep to /xeTpov tt}? dafcjjaeco's 

6V€Ka. 6KK\LTLh:d)<; €)(^fO TTOVOV TpLyp-Q) flOU Kal 

yvfivdao) 7Tp6<; tovto Ta? (pavTaala'^; vrrep rov 
d-TToaTr^vaL ti]v eKKXiatv diro irapTo^i tov tolov- 

8 tov. Tt? ydp ecTTLv daKriTrj<s ; o fieXeTMV ope^et 
pev pLT]^ ')(p7]a0aL, eKKXlaet Be tt/jo? fiova Ta 
irpoaipeTiKa ^(^pijadaL, Kal p^eXercov pdWov ev 
Tot? BvaKaTaTTOpyjTOL'^. KaO' o Kal dXXo) Trpo? 

9 dXXa fidXXov daKrjreov. tl ovv cjBe iroiel to 
(f)0iVLKa (JTr)aai t) to GTey-qv Bepp^aTLV-qv Kal 

10 oXpLov Kal vrrepov irepi^epeLV ; dvOpcoire, dcrKr]- 

^ Bentley (anticipating Schweighauser) : hv a . . . . -r^aw S. 
* fi-f) supplied by Gataker. 

^ For the " palm tree," see above, note on § 2. As for the 
other items, it is conceivable that some Cynics may have 
carried about with them such equipment ostentatiously to 
indicate that they had all they needed for life ; that is, 
shelter and the simplest utensils to prepare grain for food, 
somewhat as Diogenes was content with his pithos and a cup 
(although eventually he discarded even the latter). But it 
must be confessed tliat the passage is very obscure. Seneca, 
De ira, 2, 12, speaks somewhat disparagingly of ille qui 



training also should tend. For since it is impossible 
without great and constant training to secure that our 
desire fail not to attain, and our aversion fall not into 
what it would avoid, be assured that, if you allow 
training to turn outwards, towards the things that 
are not in the realm of the moral purpose, you will 
have neither your desire successful in attaining what 
it would, nor your aversion successful in avoiding 
what it would. And since habit is a powerful in- 
fluence, when we have accustomed ourselves to employ 
desire and aversion only upon these externals, we 
must set a contrary habit to counteract this habit, 
and where the very slippery nature of sense-impres- 
sions is in play, there we must set our training as a 
counteracting force. 

I am inclined to pleasure ; I will betake myself to 
the opposite side of the rolling ship, and that beyond 
measure, so as to train myself 1 am inclined to 
avoid hard work ; I will strain and exercise my 
sense-impressions to this end, so that my aversion 
from everything of this kind shall cease. For who 
is the man in training? He is the man who 
practises not employing his desire, and practises 
employing his aversion only upon the things that 
are within the sphere of his moral purpose, yes, and 
practises particularly in the things that are difficult 
to master. And so different men will have to 
practise particularly to meet different things. To 
what purpose is it, then, under these conditions, to 
set up a palm tree, or to carry around a leather tent, 
or a mortar and pestle ? ^ Man, practise, if you are 

meditcUus est . . . sarciriae ingenti cervices supponere (that is, 
" the man wlio has practised carrying about enormous 
burdens on his back "), pretty clearly in reference to this 
same custom, but without throwing much light upon it. 



croz', €L 70/3709 el, \oiSopov/jL€j'o<; dve^ecrOaL, dri- 
fiaaOels /j,y] dxOeaOrjvai. eW ovtcd^ irpo^jjarj, 
'Iva. Kciv TrXij^T] ai ti<;, €L7rr)<; avTo<; tt/jo? avTov 

11 OTL " ho^ov uvhpidvTa TrepieiXycpepaL.'^ elra koI 
OLvapiw KOfiy\rCo's ')(pr)(j6aL, fii) ei? to ttoXv iriveLV 
(koI yap irepl tovto eirapicnepoi ciaKi^rai elcnv), 
dWa TTpcoTov 669 TO drroax^crOai , Koi Kopaaihiov 
d'Tre')(e(T6aL kol irXaKovvrapLov . elrd ttotc virep 
SoKi/jLaaia<i, el apa, Kady'jaec; €VKaipco<; avro^; 
aavToi' virep tov yvcovat, el o/jLOLo)^ ijTTWcrip ae 

12 a! (pavraaiaL. ra irpcora Se (f>€uye fxaKpdv diro 
tCov laxvpoTepwv. aviao^ 7) fid')(7] KopaaiSUp 
Kop'^uf 7rpo<i veov dp')(^6pevoi> c^iXoaoc^eli'' ')(^vTpa, 
(paaL, Koi ireTpa ov avpLcfxovel. 

13 Merci rT)v ope^iv fcal ttjv eKKXtaiv hevTepo<; 
TOiTO'^ ^ 6 irepl rrjv op/xjjv kol dc^oppi'-jv tV ^ 
evireidrj'^ tw Xoyw, Lva p,r] irapd Kaipov, p,Tj 
irapci TOiTov, pr] irapd aXXrjv tlvcl roiauTTjv 

14 TyotT09 irepl Ta9 avyKaradecreL';, 7rpo<; rd 

15 iriOavd koI eXKvariKd. 0)9 yap 6 ^coKparrj^ 
eXeyev dve^eracrrov /Slop fir] ^rjv, ovro)^ due^era- 
arov (pavraalav p^rj 7rapahe-)^eadaL, dXXd Xeyeiv 
" eKBe^ai, d(f)€<; lSco, tl<; el kol iroOev epxy,^' a)9 
ol vvKT0(f)vXaKe(i " Sel^ov pioi rd auvOtjparay 

^ S (but only the first letter ia by the first hand ; 
rpSiros, which was probably the original reading, s). 
2 'ly' supplied by Shaftesbury, 
^ Reiske : aav^jx^Tpiav S. 

* Compare the fable about the earthenware pot and the 
bronze jar in Babrius 193 (Crusius) = Aesop 422 (Halm), 
Avianus 11, etc. 


BOOK III. MI. 10-15 

arrogant, to submit when you are reviled, not to be 
disturbed when you are insulted. Tiien you will 
make such progress, that, even if someone strikes 
you, you will say to yourself, " Imagine that you 
have thrown your arms about a statue." Next train 
yourself to use wine with discretion, not with a view- 
to heavy drinking (for there are some clumsy fools 
who practise with this in mind), but first for the 
purpose of achieving abstention from wine, and keep- 
ing your hands off a wench, or a sweet-cake. And 
then some day, if the occasion for a test really comes, 
you will enter the lists at a proper time for the sake 
of discovering whether your sense-impressions still 
overcome you just as they did before. But first of 
all flee far away from the things that are too strong 
for you. It is not a fair match that, between a pretty 
wench and a young beginner in pliilosophy. " A 
pot," as they say, " and a stone do not go together." ^ 

After your desire and your aversion the next 
topic 2 has to do with your choice and refusal. Here 
the object is to be obedient to reason, not to choose 
or to refuse at the wrong time, or the wrong place, 
or contrary to some other similar propriety. 

The third topic has to do with cases of assent ; 
it is concerned with the things that are plausible 
and attractive. For, just as Socrates used to tell us 
not to live a life unsubjected to examination,^ so 
we ought not to accept a sense-impression un- 
subjected to examination, but should say, " Wait, 
allow me to see who you are and whence you come " ■* 
(just as the night-watch say, "Show me your 

* Upon this division of the field of philosophy, which 
appears to be peculiar to Epiotetus, see note on III. 2, 1. 
3 See note on I. 26, 18. * Compare II. 18, 24. 



** €')(^€i(; TO irapa r^? (f)ua€0)<; aufi^oXov, o Bel rrjv 

16 Trapahex^V^o/JLeuTjv ex^^^ (pavraaiai' ;^' kuI \ol- 
iTov baa tco aco/xaTi TrpoaaycTai vtto rwv yv/jLva- 
^oi'Tcov avTO, av jiiev cjSe ttov perrr] 7rp6<; ope^w 
Kal €Kk\l(tlv, ety] av Kal avra daKyriKa' av he 
7r/3o? eTrihei^Lv, e^o) vevevKoro<^ ^ iarl Kal a\Xo 
Tt Ot]p(i)/jL€Vov fcal 6eaTa<; ^rjTOvvTO<; tol/? epovvra^; 

17 " o)^ /jL€yd\ou avdpcoTTOv" Sid tovto KaXco^ 6 
'AttoWcopio^; eXeyev on " orav Oe'\Tj<; aavrw 
daKrjaai, Siyfrcov Trore Kav/iaTo<i icpeXKuaac 
fipoyxov -^jrvxpov Kal eKirrvaov Kal /jLtjBevl 

cy' . Tl €p7]fXLa Kal irolo^; €p7jfxo<;, 

1 *Rpi]fiLa earl Kardaracri^ Ti9 d^oyO/jrov. ov 
yap 6 ii6vo<^ cov €vOu<; Kal 6/077^^,09, wcnrep ovK 6 

2 iv iroXXoh mv ovk €pT}po<;. orav yovv diroXeaco- 
fiev Tj dheXc^ov r) vlov rj (piXop, (o irpoaavairavo- 
pLcOa, Xeyo/jLCv d7roX€X€L(f)0 at epy]/jL0i, ttoXXuki'^ iv 
^Pco/jlj) ovtc^, roaovTOV oyXov rj/ilv diravTcoi'TO^ 

1 Wolf : yev(vK6s 8. * \V(,if . ^^ ^_ 

* A token or mark of identification was frequently called 
for in ancient times by tlic police (especially at night), much 
as in some of the occupied and annexed districts of Europe 
since the Great War. 


BOOK III. XII. 15-xni. 2 

tokens ").^ " Do you liave your token from nature, the 
one which every sense-impression which is to be 
accepted must have?" And, in conclusion, all the 
methods which are applied to the body by the 
persons who are giving it exercise, might also tiiem- 
selves be conducive to training, if in some such way 
as this they tend toward desire and aversion ; but if 
they tend toward display, they are characteristic of 
a man who has turned toward the outside world, 
and is hunting for something other than the thing 
itself which he is doing, and is looking for spectators 
who will say, " Ah, what a great man ! " It is this 
consideration which renders admirable the remark 
that Apollonius used to make: "When you wish 
to train for your own sake, then when you are thirsty 
some hot day take a mouthful of cold water, and spit 
it out — ^ and don't tell anybody about it 1 " 


The meaning of a forloiii state, and the kind of 
person a forlom man is 

A FORLORN state is the condition of one who is 
without help. For a man is not forlorn merely 
because he is alone, any more than a man in the 
midst of a crowd is necessarily not forlorn. At all 
events, when we have lost a brother, or a son, or a 
friend with whom we have shared the same bed, we 
say that we have been left forlorn, though often we are 
in Rome, with such large crowds meeting us in the 
streets, and so many people living in the same 

2 Something of the same sort is said, but upon somewhat 
dubious authority, to have been an exercise often practised 
by Plato (Stobaeus, Flor. III. 17, 35). 




Oo<; 8ovX(i)v €)(ovT€<;. OeXet yap 6 €f)}]/j.o<; Kara 
ry-jv evvoiav d/3otjO)]T6<: ti<; elvai kuI iKK€L/j.€vo<; 

3 TOi<^ /SXaTTTeiv /3ovXo/xei>OL^. Sea rovro, orav 
ohevcjjfiev, rore /idXiara ipy^fiov^ Xeyo/jbev eav- 
TOv<i, orav et? XT^crra? ifjuireaco/iei'. ov yap 
di^OpcoTTOv o'v/^i? i^aipecraL iptj/xla's, ciXXd inarov 

4 Kal alSij/iovo'i Kal ox^eXl/jLOV. enel el to jjlovov 
elvai dpKel 7rpo<; to epi^fiov elvai, Xeye otl Kal 
Zei)? eV TTj eKTTvpciiaeL €py]p6<; iaTt Kal KaTa- 
KXaieL avTO^ eavTov- '* TdXa<; iyco, ovt€ ttjp 

llpav €)((o 0VT6 TTjV 'AO)]vdu ovTe Tov WiToXXwva 

ovTe oXco? 7J dSeX(f)bp i) vlov y eyyovov rj avy- 

6 yevYj^ TavTa Kal Xeyovai tlv€<; otl Troiel /jl6vo<; 

iv TTJ ifCTTupcoaei. ov yap eirivoovat, Sie^aycoyrju 

p,6v0V^ dlTO TlP0<i (pVaLKOU 6p/JL(t)/jL€V0L, dlTO TOV 

(^v(T€L KOivwvLKOv slvaL Kttl (f)t.XaXX7]Xov Kal 7;8e&)<» 

6 (jvvavaaT pec^eaOaL dv6p(joiTOi<s. dXX! ovhev r)TT0V 
hel TLvd Kal 77/309 TOVTO ivapaa K6vi]v e)(eLv to 
BvvaadaL avTov kavTW dpKelv, hvvaaOai avTov 

7 eavTw dweivar ci)? 6 Zei*? avTo<; kavTU) avveaTiv 
Kal y)av)(^d^eL icf)^ eavTOv Kal ivvoel ttjv BiOLKtjaiv 
TTjv eavTov oia ecrrt Kal iv €'mpoLaL<; yivsTai irpe- 
TTovaai^ kavTW, ovtw<^ Kal ijp.d'^ hvvaaOai avT0v<^ 
€avTOL<i XaXelv, fii) TrpoahelaOai dXXwv, Siay(oyf]<i 

1 Kal added by Schegk. 

2 Kai after this word was deleted by Reiske. 

^ The periodic consumption of the universe by tire, and its 
rebirth, a doctrine which the Stoics inherited from Hera- 
cleitus. Even the deities, witli the exception of Zeus, succumb 
in the Oottenldnimerung. Precisely tlae same situation as 



house with us, and sometimes even tliough we have 
a multitude of slaves. For according to the nature of 
the concept the ' forlorn ' means the person who is 
without help, and exposed to those who wish to 
injure him. That is why, when we go on a journey, 
we call ourselves forlorn most especially at the 
moment that we encounter robbers. For it is not 
the sight of a human being as such which puts an 
end to our forlorn condition, but the sight of a 
faithful, and unassuming, and helpful human 
being. Why, if being alone is enough to make one 
forlorn, you will have to say that even Zeus himself 
is forlorn at the World-Conflagration,^ and bewails 
himself : " Wretched me ! I have neither Hera, 
nor Athena, nor Apollo, nor, in a word, brother, or 
son, or grandson, or kinsman." There are even 
those who say that this is what he does when left 
alone at the World-Conflagration ; for they cannot 
conceive of the mode of life of one who is all alone, 
starting as they do from a natural principle, namely, 
the facts of natural community of interest among 
men, and mutual afl^ection, and joy in intercourse. 
But one ought none the less to prepare oneself for 
this also, that is, to be able to be self-sufficient, to be 
able to commune with oneself; even as Zeus communes 
with himself, and is at peace with himself, and con- 
templates the character of his governance, and 
occupies himself with ideas appropriate to himself, 
so ought we also to be able to converse with ourselves, 
not to be in need of others, not to be at a loss for 

that described here is referred to by Seneca, Ey. Mor. 9,16 : 
Qualis est Iovis{vita), cum resoluto mundo et dis in unum con- 
fvsis paulisper cessante natura adquiescit sihi cogitationibus suis 



8 fxif aiTopelv' icpLardveiv t/; Oela StoiKijaei, rf) 
avTMV 7rpo<; raWa axeaer eiri^XeiTeiv, irax; 
irporepov el'^o/iev irpo<i ra avfi^aivovTa, irod^ vvv 
riva earlv eVi ra OXi^ovra' ttw? civ OepairevOf} 
Kal ravra, ttw? e^atpeOf)- el riva €^€p'yaaia<; 
Belrai rovrcov,^ Kara rov avrcov^ \6yov i^epyd- 

9 'Opare yap, on €lpi]iniv fieydXrjv 6 Kalaap 

llfllv SoK€L 7Tap6)^€tl', OTL OVK elalv OUKeTL TToXe/jLOL 

ovBe ixd^^ai ovSe X-rjanjpia /leydXa ovSe ireipa- 
TLKd, dW e^eariv irdar] copa oheveLv, irXelv dir 

10 dvaToXoiv inl Svcrfid'^. /a?; tl ovv kol utto 
irvperov SvvaraL i)ijuv elpy]viiv 7rapacr'X^6Li\ /xy ri 
Kol diTO vauayuov, /nj tl Kal diro ifjurprjaiiov rj 
aTTO aeiafjLOv rj diro Kepavvov ; dye air epwro^ ; 
ov Bvvarai. drro 7revOou<; ; ov Svvarai,. dirb 
(f)66vov ; ov Svvarai. avr' ov8er6<; avrXft)? tov- 

11 Tcov 6 Be X0709 o t6)v (f)iXoa6(f)coi' v7rLa)(^veLTai 
Kal diTo Tovrwv elpijvijv Trapex^iv- Kal ri Xeyei ; 
" dv fiot irpoae^V^^y ^ dvOpcoiroL, ottov dv yre, 
6 Tl dv TTOLfire, ov XynijO/jaeaOe, ouk 6pyia6)j- 
aeaOe, ovk dvayKaaOi'-jaeaOey ov KcoXvOrjcrecrOe, 
diradel^; he Kal eXevOepoi Std^ere drro TrdvTcov^ 

12 TavTip' TTjV elp7]vt]v rt? '^X^^ KeK7]pvy/jL€vy]v ovx 
VTTO Tov lvaLaapo<; (jToOev yap avrd) TavTtjv 
K7]pv^aL ;), dXX' vtto tov Oeov K€K7]pvy/jLevr)v Bed 

13 TOV Xoyov OVK dpKelTai, orav 7; ^ /xovo^, eiri- 
/SXeTTCov Kal evOvfiovpevo'^ " vvv epiol Kanov ovBev 
Svvarat av/j,f3P)vai, e/xol X/;crT;)? ovk eaTiv, e/xol 
aeiafiof; ovk eaTLV, irdvTa elpyjvi]<i /xecrra, irdvTa 

^ Schenkl : tuv S. ' Reiske (after Schegk) : avTov S. 

3 j} supplied by Sb. 

BOOK III. xiM. 7-13 

some way to spend our time ; we oufrht to devote 
ourselves to the study of the divine governance, and 
of our own relation to all other things ; to consider 
how we used to act toward the things that happen 
to us, and how we act now ; what the things are 
that still distress us ; how these too can be remedied, 
or how removed ; if any of these matters that I have 
mentioned need to be brought to perfection, to 
perfect them in accordance with the principle of 
reason inherent in them. 

Behold now, Caesar seems to provide us with 
profound peace, there are no wars any longer, nor 
battles, no brigandage on a large scale, nor piracy, 
but at any hour we may travel by land, or sail from 
the rising of the sun to its setting. Can he, then, 
at all provide us with peace from fever too, and 
from shipwreck too, and from fire, or earthquake, or 
lightning ? Come, can he give us peace from love ? 
He cannot. From sorrow? From envy? He can- 
not — from absolutely none of these things. But the 
doctrine of the philosophers promises to give us 
peace from these troubles too. And what does it 
say ? " Men, if you heed me, wherever you may 
be, whatever you may be doing, you will feel no 
pain, no anger, no compulsion, no hindrance, but you 
will pass your lives in tranquillity and in freedom from 
every disturbance." When a man has this kind of 
peace proclaimed to him, not by Caesar — why, how 
could he possibly proclaim it ? — but proclaimed by 
God through the reason, is he not satisfied, when he 
is alone ? When he contemplates and reflects, 
^' Now no evil can befall me, for me there is no such 
thing as a brigand, for me there is no such thing as 
an earthquake, everything is full of peace, everything 

VOL. 11. D 


drapa^ia*;' iraaa 6h6<;, jrdaa TroXi?, 7r«? ^ avvo- 
So<;, y€LT(OP, Koivcovo^ (//9X,a/3/;?. aWo? irapex^^i 
Tpocf)(i<;, (p /xeXei, aX\o<; iaSrjTa, d\\o<; alaOyjaet^; 

14 eS(i)K€v, d\\o<; 7rpo\yj^6i<;. orav Be /jltj irapexj] 
ravayKala, to avaK\i)TLKov arj^iaLvei, rr^v Ovpav 
i]vot^€v Kal Xeyei aoi ' ep)(^ov.' ttov ; eh ovhev 
heivov, aW^ 66 ev eyevov, el<; rd (f)LXa Kal avy- 

15 yevi], eh rd aroi^ela. oaov rjv iv aol 7rvp6<;, 
et? TTvp direLaiv, oaov tjv yrjhiov, eh yrjSiov, oaov 
TTvev/jLaTLov, eh Trvev/xdrLov, oaov vBaTiov, eh 
vSaTLov. ovBeh "AiSi]<; ovS^ ^A^epwv ovBe Kw- 
KVTO<; ovhe TIvpL(f)\eyeOa)V, dWd irdvTa dewv 

16 fieard Kal BaLfiovwv.'' ravrd Ti<i evOvpLelaOat 
€)(fov Kal ^XeTTcov rov ijXtov Kal aeX^jvijv Kal 
daTpa Kal yi]<; dvoXavcov Kal OaXdaai-j^ epr]/x6<; 

17 eariv ov fiaXXov ?) Kal d^oi]6riTO<;. " ri ovv ; 
dv Tt? eireXdoiv /jlol fiovw dTroacpd^rj /ne ; " /uaype, 
ae ov, dXXd to aco/xdriov. 

18 YLoLa ovv en epjj/xia, Troia aTTOpla ; ri ^et/ooz^a? 
6afT0L/? TTOtcbfMev Tcov TTaiSaplcov ; d riva orai' 
dnoXeKpOrj fjLova, TL TTOiel ; dpavra oarpuKia Kal 
airohov otKoBop^ec ri ttotc, elra KaraaTpecpei Kal 
ttuXlv dXXo OLKoBofJiel' Kal oi/toj? ovSeirore diro- 

19 pel 8iaya)yr](;. 670) ovv, dv TrXevarjre vfjieh, /neXXfo 
Ka6>]fievo<i KXaieiv otl yLtoi'o? d7reXei(f)0t]v Kal 
ep)]/j.o<i ovTw<; ; ovk oarpuKia e^o), ov arroBov ; 

^ Schweighauser (as in II. 14, 8 ; IV. 1, 97) : irno-a S. 

^ A reverent expression for God. See note on III, 1, 43. 

BOOK III. XIII. 13-19 

full of tranquillity ; every road, every city, every 
fellow-traveller, neighbour, companion, all are harm- 
less. Another,^ whose care it is, supplies food ; 
Another supplies raiment ; Another has given senses ; 
Another preconceptions. Now whenever He does 
not provide the necessities for existence, He sounds 
the recall ; He has thrown open the door and 
says to you, '^Go." Where? To nothing you need 
fear, but back to that from which you came, to 
what is friendly and akin to you, to the physical 
elements. 2 What there was of fire in you shall pass 
into fire, what there was of earth into earth, what 
there was of spirit into spirit, what there was of 
water into water. There is no Hades, nor Acheron, 
nor Cocytus, nor Pyriphlegethon, but everything is 
filled with gods and divine powers." ^ A man who 
has this to think upon, and who beholds the sun, 
and moon, and stars, and enjoys land and sea, is no 
more forlorn than he is witliout lielp. " Why, what 
then } What if someone should attack me when I 
am alone and murder me ? " Fool, not murder ijou 
but your trivial body. 

What kind of forlornness is left, then, to talk 
about ? What kind of helplessness ? Why make 
ourselves worse than little children? When they 
are left alone, what do they do ? They gather up 
sherds and dust and build something or other, then 
tear it down and build something else again ; and so 
they are never at a loss as to how to spend their 
time. Am I, then, if you set sail, to sit down and 
crv because I am left alone and forlorn in that fashion ? 
Shan't I have sherds, shan't I have dust? But they 

2 Compare the Introduction, p. xxv f. 

^ A doctrine ascribed to Thales, Diog. Laert. 1, 27. 



dW' t'fC€Lva viT a<^po(T-uvi)<; ravra iroiel, i)/J,eL<; S' 
VTTO (f)poi'i]a€U)<; hvaTV)(^ov[i€V ; 

20 nd(Ta fieydXT] Svi'a/jLi<; eV^cr^aXr/? ro) cip^o- 
fLei'fo. 4)€p€iv ovv Bet rd Totavra Kara Bvpa/juiv, 
nWd Kara (f)vaiu . . . -^ aX,X,' o^X^ "^V ^^i'^'^'^^J* 

21 peXeTi-jcrov iroje Siaycoytji' o)? dppcoaTO<;, (va ttoO^ 
0)9 vyialvcov htaydyrj<;. dainiaov, vSpoTToryjaov 
drr6a)(^ov irore TTavTuTraaLV 6pe^ew<^, iva Trore Koi 
€u\6ya)<; 6pe)(0r]<;. el S' €v\6y(o<;, orav ey^? ti 

22 ev aeavTcp dyaOov, €v 6pe')(^0i]<Tr). ov' a\X' 
evOeco^ CO? aocpol Bidyeiv iOeXofieu Kal dxpeXeiP 
di>6pr^7Tov<;. iroiav oi^tXeiav ; tL iroiel^ ; aavrov 
fydp (i)(j)e\y(ja'^ ; dWd Trporpe^ai avTOu<; deXea. 
CFV yap TTporerpe^ai ; 6eX€i<; avTOV<; dxpeXPiaac ; 

23 cel^ov avTol's eirX aeavrov, o7ov<; rroiel cf)i\oao(f)La, 
Kal /XT] (f)\viipei. eadiwv tol/? avv€a6iovTa<; 
dx^eXei, irlvoiv TOv<i 7TLi'ovTa<;, glkcoi' Trciai, irapa- 
y^apMV, dve')(^6pevo<;, ovtco<^ avTois oo^jieXeL Kal /j,ij 
KUTe^epa avTon> to aavrov ^\eypa. 

^ Reiske indicated the lacuna. 

^ The change in subject-matter is so abrupt that some- 
thing may perhaps have fallen out in some ancestor of S, or 
perhaps the next chapter-heading has become displaced !>}' a 
few lines. Yet there are similarly abrupt transitions in III. 
8, 7 and III. 15, 14. 

2 Something like * ' Give food (or wine) to the healthy man " 
(Reiske), or " Wrestling is very good for the healthy man" 
(Schenkl), has probably fallen out at tiiis point. 


BOOK III. XIII. 19-23 

act thus out of folly, and are we miserable out of 
wisdom ? 

^ Great power is always dangerous for the be- 
ginner. We ought, therefore, to bear such things 
according to our power — nay, in accordance with 
nature ... - but not for the consumptive. Practise 
at some one time a style of living like an invalid, that 
at some other time you may live like a healthy man. 
Take no food, drink only water ; refrain at some 
one time altogether from desire, that at some other 
time you may exercise desire, and then with good 
reason. And if you do so with good reason, 
whenever you have some good in you, you will 
exercise your desire aright.^ No, that's not our 
way, but we wish to live like wise men from the 
very start, and to hel}) mankind. Help indeed ! 
What are you about } Why, have you helped your- 
self? But you wish to help them progress. Why, 
have you made progress yourself? Do you wish to 
help them ? Then show them, by vour own 
example, the kind of men philosophy produces, 
and stop talking nonsense. As you eat, help 
those who are eating with you ; as you drink, 
those who are drinking with vou ; bv yielding to 
everybody, giving place, submitting — help men in 
this way, and don't bespatter them with your own 

3 "It is one of the pariidoxesof conduct that a man cannot 
will to do good until in a sense he has become good, but 
Epictetus would doubtless admit that the will must from the 
first have exercise." Matheson, I. 32. 

* Referring, no doubt, to the sputtering of excessively 
ardent lecturers. 



lS' . ^lTOpdhl]V Tivd. 

1 'n? 01 KaXoi ^ rpayrpSol /xopol aaac ov hvvavraL, 
dWa fiera iroWcoVy ouro)? evioL fiovoi TrepL-rra- 

2 T?)aaL ov hvvavraL. dvOpco'TTe, el TL<i el, koI 
/nouo^; TTepiTrdrfjaov Koi aaurw XdXr/aov Kal firj 

3 ei' TO) X^PV fcpvTTTOv. aKcocpdyjTL TTore, irepi- 
/SXeyjrai, ivaeladijTL, h>a yvw^i, rt? eZ. 

4 ''Orav tk; vhcop irivr) t) iroirj tl daKyjTLKov, €k 
irdar]^ d(f)0p/jLT]<; Xeyei avro Trpo^s TraVra?* " eyo) 

5 vScop TTtz^o)." Sid yap tovto vCcop 7Tlp€i<;, Sid 
yap TO vScop TriveLV ; dvOpcoire, el aot XvaneXet 

6 TTLpecv, irlve- el he pn], yeXoUo^ iroiel^;. el he 
avp.(f)€pet croL /cal Trli^ei^, aicoira tt/jos" rov'i hvcra- 
pecrTovPTa<s toiovtol^;^ dvOpdiiroL^;. tl ovv ; avTol^ 
rovToi^ dpeafceiv OeXeL<; ; 

7 'Vmi' irparropevcov rd p.ev 7rpo)]youp.eucO'i irpdT- 
rerai, rd he Kurd Treplaracnp, rd he kut oIkuvo- 
piav, rd he Kard crvp,7repi(f)opdv, rd he Kar 

8 \vo ravra e^eXelv tIov dvOpcoTrcop, onjan' Kal 
diriaTiav. on]aL<; p.ev ovv earl to hoKelv pi)]hevo<; 
irpoahtladaL, d-niaTia he to VTroXap/Suveti' yu,/; 

^ This has been read uniformly KaKoi ever since ihe lime 
of Wolf. But it is clear from Aristotle, Pol. 3. 13, 21 that 
superior solo voices were not used in the chorus, and it is a 
notorious fact that excellent choral effects are secured with 
voices which are not suitable for solo performance. 

- Meibom : toIs S. 




Some scattered sayings 

As tlie good cliorus-singersin tragedy cannot render 
solos^ but can sing perfectly well with a number 
of other voices, so some men cannot walk around 
by themselves. Man, if you are anybody, both walk 
around by yourself, and talk to yourself, and don't 
liide yourself in the chorus. Let yourself be laughed 
at sometimes, look about you, shake yourself up, so 
as to find out who you actually are. 

Whenever a man drinks water only, or has some 
ascetic practice, he takes every opportunity to talk 
about it to everybody: " I drink water only." Why, 
do you drink water just for the sake of drinking 
water ? Man, if it is good for you to drink water, 
drink it ! Otherwise your conduct is absurd. But 
if it does you good and you drink water onlv, 
don't say a word about it to the people who are 
annoyed by such persons. Why, what's your object ? 
Are these just the ones you wish to please ? ^ 

Among actions some are performed primarily on 
their own account, others on occasion, or as a matter 
of good management, or as required by tact, or as 
part of a formal plan. 

Here are two things of which one must rid men, 
conceit and diffidence. Now conceit is to fancy that 
one needs nothing further. And diffidence is to 
assume that one cannot enjoy a life of serenity 

^ That is : If you drink water only, do it to please your- 
self, and not for the sake of impressing others ; above all, 
not for the sake of trying to impress those who dislike 



hvvarov elvai evpoelv ^ roaovTMV TrepieoTiiKOTCdV. 

9 T/;i' [.L€V ovv oXi]criv eXey^o^; e^aipet, fcal rovro 

TTpoiTov iTOiel ^coKpdT7]<; . . . ^ oTt 8' ovK dhvva- 

Top iart TO Trpdypa, (jK€.y\raL kol ^j]Tr]aop — ovSev 

10 (76 ^Xdyjrei t) ^i']Ti)aL<; avTrp koI (tx^Sou to (piXo- 
ao(f)€CV TOUT eaTi, ^i]T€cv, ttcT)? eV8e;^eTat dnapa- 
TToSlcTTcof; ope^et, ')(^pP]crdaL kol €KKXla€L. 

11 " Kpelaacov etfu aov' 6 yap ttut/jp p,ov viraTiKO'i 

12 eajLv.'^ aXXo^ Xeyei " ^yo) S€S>]p,dp)(^rjKa, crv 8' 
oi;." el 8' LTTiroi rj/jLep, eXeye^ av ort " o iraT/jp 
/xou o}/cvT€po<; rjv^ rj ^ otl " eyco e^f^ TroXXa? 
Kpidd<; Kal ^opTOv^^ rj otl " Kojuyjrd irepiTpa- 
XvXia.'' TL ovv el^ TavTci aov XeyovTO^ elirov otl 

13 " earo) TavTa, Tpey^cofiev ovv " ; dye, eV dvOpco- 
TTOV ovv ovSev ecTTL TOiovTov olov €(f)* 'lttttov 
S/30/I.09, e'^ ov yv(0(T6i]aerat 6 ')(tipcov Kal 6 

KpCLTTCOV ; flljlTOT eaTLV alScO^, TridTL^, hcKULO- 

14 avvT] ; tovtol^ Eel/cvve Kpeirrcva creavTov, iv o)? 
dvOpwTTo^ ^9 ^ KpeLTTwv. dv fjiOL X6y7j<; otl 
" fieydXa XaKTL^co,^^ ipo) aot Kuyo) otl " eVt ovov 
epyw p.kya (ppovel';.'^ 

1 Schenkl (after Wolf) : evpih' a S (mostly b}- Sc in an 

* Reiske observed the lauuna. 
' ^ supplied b}' Hense. 

* Ti oZy (I Oldfather: ei ovv S. t'lr' ovy or rt ovy Keiske. 


BOOK III. XIV. 8-14 

iir.der so many adverse circiinistances. Now conceit 
is removed by cross-examination, and this is what 
Socrates starts with. . . . ^ But that the matter is 
not impossible, consider and search — this kind of 
search will do you no harm ; and, indeed, to 
I)hiloso])hize practically amounts to this, that is, to 
search how it is possible to employ desire and 
aversion without hindrance. 

" 1 am superior to you, for my father has consular 
rank." ^ Another says, " I have been a tribune, and 
you have not." And if we were horses, you would 
be saying : "- My sire was swifter than yours," or, " I 
have quantities of barley and fodder," or, ^'^ I have 
pretty neck-trappings." What then, if, when you 
were talking like this, I said, " Granted all that, 
let's run a race, then " } Come now, is there, 
then, nothmg in man like running in the case of 
a horse, whereby the worse and the better 
will be recognized ? Isn't there such a thing as 
reverence, faith, justice ? Prove yourself superior 
in these points, in order to be superior as a human 
being. If you tell me, " I can deliver a mighty 
kick," ^ I shall say to you in my turn, "You are 
])roud over what is the act of an ass." 

^ There is no clear connection here with the preceding, 
and the topic of the removal of diffidence could scarcely have 
been passed over. 

^ The subject-matter of this is closely paralleled in frag. 
18, Knchciridion 44, and in the fiorilegia. It was clearly a 

3 Much practised by the pancratiasts, who struck both 
with the heel and with the knee. 

^ In Schweighjiuser without comment, after Schegk : ^ S. 



le . 'On Stl irepieaKefijievay^; idpy^eadai ecf)* 


1 '^Kucnov epyov aKorrei ra Kadi^yovixeva teal ra 
(iKoXovda /cal ovT(t)^ epy^ov iir avro. el 8e /j./), 
Tijv p.€v TrpcoTTjv >)^et? TrpoOvfxw^ lire /jLrjSev tChv 
t"^>}9 ivreOu/jLy/jL€i^o<i, vcrrepov 3' dvaf^avevraiv 

2 TLvodv aia)(pci)'s aTroartjcrrj. " deXco 'OXv/xiria 
I'CKpjaai." aWa (TKoirei to, fcaOrjyov/icva avrov kol 
TO, dfcoXovOa' KOL oi/TO)? av aoi XvcnTeXfj, ainov 

3 Tov epyov. helae evraKTelv, dvayKOc^ayelv, aTre^^- 
gOcil TTefi/jidrcou, yvfjLvdKeaOaL irpo^; dvdyKy-jv, copa 
reray/jLepj], ev KavfiaTi, ev -^vy^ei' /xi] yjrv)(poi^ iriveLV, 
jjLrj oivov or ervx^V dirXw^ &)? larpM ^ TrapaSe- 

4 BcoKevai aeavTOv tm eiTLardTr)' elra ev rut dyuivt, 
TrapopvacreaOai, eariv ore X^^P^ e/c^aXelv, a(j)v- 
pov^ arpe\\raL, iroWrjv d(f)T)v KaraTTielv, fiaaTi' 
ycoOtjuai' Kal fieja tovtcov irdi'Tcov eaS' ore 

5 vLK)]Ot]vai. ravra XoyiadfX€vo<i, av en OeX;j<:, 
epxov eTTL TO dOXelv el Be fn], opa on ax rd 
rraihia dvaarpa^rjcrr), a vvv fxev dOXrjrdf; irai^eL, 
vvv Be fxovofidxoy^i vvv Be adXiri^eL, elra rpa- 

6 ywcel 6 re av ^ I'Brj Kal Oavfjuday, ovt(o<; Kal av 

^ The text of the Encheiridion: an\u's larpcj) yap S 

2 The text of the Encheiridion: 6(ppvv S (originally), 
changed to oa<pvv. ^ Reiske : orav S. 

^ Repeated with slight variatious in Encheiridion, 29. 

^ See note on Ench. 29, 2. 

^ A technical term (Diog. Laert. 6, 27) of somewhat 
uncertain meaning, but iirobabl}' referring to a preliminary 
wallowing in ilust or mud before the wrestling match at the 


BOOK 111. XV. I 6 


Thcd we ought to approach each separate thing with 

In each separate thing that you do consider the 
matters which come first, and those which follow 
after, and only then approach the thing itself. Otiier- 
wise, at the start you will come to it enthusiastic- 
ally because you have never reflected upon any of 
the subsequent steps, but later on, when some of 
them appear, you will give up disgracefully. " I 
wish to win an Olympic victory." But consider the 
matters which come before that and those which 
follow after ; and only when you have done that, then, 
if it profits you, })ut your hand to the task. You have 
to submit to discipline, follow a strict diet, give up 
sweet-cakes, train under compulsion, at a fixed 
hour, in heat or in cold ; you must not drink cold 
water,2 nor wine just whenever you feel like it; 
you must have turned yourself over to your trainer 
precisely as you would to a physician. Then when 
the contest comes on, you have to "dig in" beside^ 
your opponent, sometimes dislocate your wrist, 
sprain your ankle, swallow quantities of sand, take 
a scourging ; ^ yes, and then sometimes get beaten 
along with all that. After you have counted up 
these points, go on into the games, if you still wish 
to ; otherwise, I would have you observe that you 
will be turning back like children. Sometimes they 
play athletes, again gladiators, again they blow 
trumpets, and then act a play about anything that 
they have seen and admired. So you too are now 

* Tiiat is, for any fuul committed. 


vvv fiev aOXijT)]'^, i>vu he fioi'o/iid)(^o(;, elra (^L\oao- 
<^o'9, elja f)i)Ta}p, 6\y he rj} "^vj^f) ovBev, a\X' 009 6 
7riOr]Ko<; irav civ iSt]<; fiifJif] teal aei croL aWo e^ 

7 tiWou dpea/cei, to avv)}06<^ 5' dirapeaKei,. ov yap 
/jLerd (TKey\re(jo<; yXOe^; eirl ri ouSe 'TTepLohevaa<^ 
oXov TO Trpdyfia ovhe /3aaaviaa<;, a\V elxP] Kal 
KaTCL y^vy^pdv iinOvpLav. 

8 Oiiro)? Tii'e<; i86ifT6<; (piXoaocpov zeal dKovaavT6<i 
Ttro<; oi/TO)? XeyovTO^, o)^ Kv(f)pdTri<; Xeyet, (KaiTOL 
Ti? oi/Tfo? hvvaTaL elirelv 6l>^ €K€lvo<; ;), Oekovatv 

9 Kal avTol (^iXoao^elv. avOpwTre, (TK€\lrai irpoiTov 
TL eaTL TO irpdyfxa, etTa Kal Tt)i> aavTOv (f)vaiv, tl 
hvvaaat ^aardaac. el iraXaiaTyj^;, ISov gov 

10 Tov^ Mixovs, TOL'9 [xi]pov<;, TTjv 6a(f}vp. dXXo<; yap 

TT/OO? dXXo Tl 7r6(f)VK€l'. ^O/Cet? OTl TavTa 

iroLOiv hvvaaai ^iXoaoc^elv ; Bo/celf; otl Bvvaaai 
0DaavTCO<; iaOleiv, diaavTco<^ TTiveiv, 6/xolco(; opyi^e- 

11 adac, o/i-oto)? hvaapeaTelv ; dypvirvrjoraL hel, 
TTovvjcjaL, viKYjaai Tiva^ eTTLOvjiia^, direXOelv diro 

TCOV OLK€LO)V, VTTO TTaihapLoV KaTacfipOVijO P]l-'aL, VTTO 

TMV diravTiovTfov KaTayeXaa9?]vaL, ev irainl 

12 eXaaaov €)(€lv, ev dpy^fj, ev Ti/ifj, ev diKrj. TavTa 
7repi(TKe\lrdfjL€vo<^, €l aoc Bo/cel, Trpoaep^ov, el OeXec^; 
dvTLKaTaXXd^aaOai tovtcov dTrdOetav, eXevOepiav, 
aTapa^iav. el Be /x>;, /xr/ irpoaaye, fii] &)? to, 

1 Although tlie expression (lit. "with cold desire") seems 
a bit strange, because the fault seems to lie especially in the 
lack of forethought and circumspection, still it is supported 
by the version in the En/:heiridion, and particularly by the 
phrase, *' yet with your whole soul nothing," in §(3 above. 
Mere desire, without reason and deliberation, is apparently 
regarded by Epictetus as a weak thing. 

BOOK III. XV. 6-12 

an athlete, now a gladiator, tlien a philosoplier, 
after that a rhetorician, yet with your whole soul 
notliing, but like an ape you imitate whatever you 
see, and one thing after another is always striking 
your fancy, but what you are accustomed to bores 
you. For you have never gone out after anytliing 
with circumspection, nor after you have examined 
the whole matter all over and tested it, but you act 
at haphazard and half-heartedly.^ 

In the same way, when some people have seen a 
pliilosopher and heard someone speaking like 
Euphrates- (though, indeed, who can speak like 
him?), they wish to be philosophers themselves. 
Man, consider first what the business is, and then 
your own natural ability, what you can bear. If 
you wish to be a wrestler, look to your shoulders, 
your thighs, your loins. For one man has a natural 
talent for one thing, another for another. Do you 
suppose that you can do the things you do now, and 
yet be a philosopher ? Do you suppose that you can 
eat in the same fashion, drink in the same fashion, give 
way to anger and to irritation, just as you do now? 
You must keep vigils, work hard, overcome certain 
desires, abandon your own people, be despised by 
a paltry slave, be laughed to scorn by those who 
meet you, in everything get the worst of it, in 
office, in honour, in court. Look these drawbacks 
over carefully, and then, if you think best, approach 
j)hilosophy, that is, if you are willing at the price 
of these things to secure tranquillity, freedom, and 
calm. Otherwise, do not approach ; don't act like 

2 An eminent Stoic lecturer, high!}- prai?ed by Pliny 
(Ep. I. 10), and a bitter enemy of Apollonius of Tyana. 
A specimen of his eloquence is given below, IV. 8, 17-20. 



rraihia vvv /.i€i> <pt\6ao<po<i, varepov Be reXcovrj^;, 

13 elra pyjrayp, elra i7rLTpo7ro<; Kaiaapo^. ravra ov 
crvp(f)(ov€L' eva ere Bel avO pwirov elvat 7; dyaOov rj 
KaKov T) TO ii'yepoviKov ere hel e^epya'CeaOai ro 
aavrov y ra €KTo<i' r) rrepi ra ecro) (f)t\o7rov€Li> ^ /; 
TTfpl Trt €^Q)' TOVT caTi <pi\oa6(pov (jTaGiv eXeiv 
y iStcoTOV. 

14 'Vov(j)fp T/9 eXeyev Td\/3a a(f)ay6iT0<; on 
" Nuz' irpovola o Koa-pc^ BioiKeiTaL ; " o he " M?) 
7rap€py(o<; ttot'," e</)7;, " uTrb V(i\f3a KareaKevaaa, 
OIL TTpovoia 6 K6ap,n<; Bioifcelrai ; " 

if'. "On ei^XaySw? Bel avyfcaOievac et? 

1 WvuyKTj rov avyKaOievTa rialv €7rt7rXeoi> 7} et? 
XaXtdv 7; et? crvp^iroaia rj avrXw? et? avfi^lwaip ij 
avTov eKeivoL^ i^opoicoOfjvai 7; eK€ivov<s /lera- 

2 Oelvac lirl ra avrov. Kal yap dvOpaKa direafS^a- 
pLevov civ 6fj irapd tov Kaiopievov, r] avT0<; €K€lvov 

3 u7ro(T/3€(7€i^ 7} €K€U'o<; TOVTOV eKKavasL. rj]Xi- 
KOVTOv ovv TOV KLvhvvov oVto? evXa^co<; Sel rot? 
iBuoTat(; (TvyfcaOUaOaL 6/'? ra? TOiai>Ta<^ avpirepL- 
(f)npd<; p,€pvijp€vov<;, otl dpii]-^ai>ov tov avvavaTpi- 

1 Meibom : (piKoirui/a S. 

^ anoa^icrfi supplied by the Salamanca edition, after 

1 See note on III. 13, 20. 

2 The Roman emperor ; the incident took place in a.d. GD. 



a child — now a philosoplier, later on a tax-gatherer, 
then a rhetorician, then a procurator of Caesar. 
These things do not go together. You must be 
one person, either good or bad ; you must labour to 
improve either your own governing principle or 
externals ; you must work hard either on the inner 
man, or on things outside ; that is, play the role 
of a philosopher, or else that of a layman.^ 

When Galba^ was assassinated, someone said to 
Rufus,^ " Is the universe governed now by Provi- 
dence .' " But he replied, ''Did I ever, even in 
passing, take the case of Galba as the basis for an 
argument that the universe is governed by Provi- 
dence ? " 


That one should enter cautiously into social intercourse 

The man who consorts frequently with one person 
or another either for conversation, or for banquets, 
or for social purposes in general, is compelled either 
to become like them himself, or else to bring them 
over to his own style of living; for if you put by 
the side of a live coal one that has gone out, either 
the dead coal will put the live one out, or the latter 
will kindle the former. Since the risk, then, is so 
great, we ought to enter cautiously into such social 
intercourse with the laymen, remembering that it 
is impossible for the man who brushes up against 

3 Musonius Rufus, the distinguished philosopher and 
teacher of Epictetiis, to whom the latter was greatly indebted. 
See the indices to the two vols, of this translation, and Vol. 1. 
Introduction, p. viii. 



^ofievov TM i)a^o\(Dfievo) firj fcal avrov cnroXavcraL 

4 t/}? aaiSuXy)^;. ri yap iroiijcrei^, av irepl /jlovo- 
fidy^Mv \a\fj} tiv irepX iinrwv, tiv nrepl (WXjjtmp, 
av TO en TovTwv ')(elpov'Trep\ avOpoiircov " 6 helva 
K:aK6<i, 6 Beira dya06<;' tovto Ka\cj<; iyevero, 
TOVTO KaKa)<;"' en dv aKOiTrrrj, dv yeXoid^r), dv 

5 KaKOTjOi^yjraL ; eX^t^ t^? v/jlcov irapaaKevrjp o'lav o 
f(iOapicrTiKo<; T-t-jv \vpav Xa/Scov, coar €vOu<^ 
dyjrd/Lievo'i rwv ^^phoiv yvwvai, ra? dau/jL(f)(i)POv<; 
KOI dp/j,6aaa6aL to opyavov ; olav elx^^ Svpa/niv 
^(OKpuTy]<i, Mar' evirdarj av/j,7r€pL(f)0pa^ dyeiv eirl 

6 TO auTov Tou? avv6vTa<; ; iroOev Vfxlv ; ciXV 
dvdyfci] VTTO roiv ISlmtcop ufjLd<; 'jrepidyeaOai. 

7 Atd TL ovp eKelvoL vjiwp iaX^'porepOL ; on 
€K6LP0i fJLep rd aairpa ravra diro Soyfidrcop 
XaXoucrtp, v/j,6l<; Be rd K0ixy\rd utto ro)p ^e/Xwi^* 
Sid tovto aTOpd eaTC fcal vsKpd, koI aiK^dpai 
eaTip dfcovopTa ufxcop tou? TrpoTpeTTTLKOv<s fcal ttjp 
dpeTYjP T7]p TaXaLTTcopop, ?) dpco kutco 6 pvXelTai. 

8 OL/Tco? yyLta? ol IhiOdTai vLKOiCTLP. TTavTaxov yap 

9 lax^pop TO Soyfia, dpiK7]T0P to S6yf.ia. /ji€xpi<; 
dp OVP iraycoatp ep vfxip al K0/u,\lral vTroXijyjreL'^ 
Kol SvpafiLP TLPairepLTTOLi^cn-jaOe rrpo<; dacpdXeiap, 
(TV/jL/3ouXev(o v/jLlp €vXa/3w<; tol<; lBicoTai<; avy- 
KaTafiaipeiP' el Be /jli], kuO' yjuepav w? K}jpo<; a' 
rjXifp BiaTaKijaeTai, vfiCov el' TLPa ep Trj crxoXrj 

10 eyypdcpeTe. /.cafcpdp ovp diro tov ijXtov irov ttots 
vrrdyeTe, p.expL<; dp K7]pipa<; Ta<? v-noXijylreK; exrjTe. 

1 1 Bid TOUTO Ka) TOdP TTaTpiBcop avp [SovXevova LP 

* Sclnveighauser : AaXfjtj 5. 

2 Wolf, after 8cliegk : avjxfpopa S. 


BOOK 111. XVI. 3-11 

the person who is covered with soot to keep from 
getting some soot on himself. For what are you 
going to do if he talks about gladiators^ or horses, 
or athletes, or, worse still, about people : " So-and- 
so is bad, So-and-so is good ; this was well done, 
this ill " ; or again, if he scoffs, or jeers, or shows 
an ugly disposition ? Has any of you the capacity 
of the expert lyre-player when he takes up his lyre, 
which enables him, the instant he touches the strings, 
to recognize the ones which are off pitch, and to 
tune the instrument? Or the power that Socrates 
had, which enabled him in every kind of social inter- 
course to bring over to his own side those who were 
in his company ? How could you have ? But you 
must necessarily be converted by the laymen. 

Why, then, are they stronger than you are .'^ 
Because their rotten talk is based on judgements, but 
your fine talk comes merely from your lips ; that's 
why what you say is languid and dead, and why a 
man may well feel nausea when he hears your exhor- 
tations and your miserable "virtue," which you 
babble to and fro. And thus the laymen get the 
better of you ; for everywhere judgement is strong, 
judgement is invincible. Therefore, until these fine 
ideas of yours are firmly fixed within you, and you 
have acquired some power which will guarantee you 
security, my advice to you is to be cautious about 
joining issue with the laymen ; otherwise whatever 
you write down in the lecture-room will melt away 
by day like wax in the sun.^ Retire, then, to some 
spot or other far away from the sun, so long as the 
ideas which you have are waxen. It is for this 
reason that the philosophers advise us to leave even 

^ Such lecLure-notes were written on wax tablets. 



(ITT (>)(^(i) pelv 01 (f>L\6aoif)oiy on ra iraXaLa eOt] 
irepiaiva Koi ouk ia fipxh^ yevecrSai riva aWov 
iOia/jLOV, ov^€ (f)€po/.L€J' Tou? airavrwvra^i KalXeyo- 
vTa<; " l8' 6 ^elva (j)cXoao(f)€L, o roLO<; kul 6 roto?. * 

12 ovT(o<; Kai a! larpoi tou? fiaKpovoaovvTa^ iKirep.- 
Trover IV e/? ciWijv -^copav koI aWa akpa /ca\o)<; 

i;> 7Toiovvr€<i. Kal v/jLt^U dvT6LaaydyeT6 dWa eOrj- 
TTij^aTe vfiwv ra? v7ro\7]-\jr€L<;, evadXelre avral^. 

14 oil' dXX^ evOev iirl decopiav^ €t? ixovofiay^iav, €i<; 
^vcTTov, 64? KipKov elj eKeWev o)he Kal irdXiv 

15 ei Oev €K€L 01 avrol. Kal e6o<; Ko/xyjrov ov^ev, ovre 
TTpoao'y^j] ovT eTricTTpocj)}) e^' avrov Kal irapa- 
Ti]p->i(JL<^ ** TTW? ')(po)fiai TaU IT poairLirr overate 
(f)avTafTLaL<; ; Kara (f)vaiv rj jrapd (pvaiv ; ttw? 
diroKpivcofiat Trpo? avTa<; ; co? hel ?; co? ov Bel; 
einXeyo) ro?<s dirpoaipeTOL^;, otl ovSev irpo^ e/xe ; '* 

16 €1 yap /ji7]7r fo ol/to)? €)(rjT€, (f}€vy€T€ eOy] rd irpore- 
pnv, (f)€vy6T€ TOL/? lSicoTa<;, el OeXere dp^aaOai 
TTore m'e<i elvai. 

tt' . Wepl TTpovoia^;. 

1 "Orav ry vpovuia iyKaX7J<;, e7ri(TTpd(by}flt Ka\ 

2 yvdxTij, on Kara Xoyov yeyovev. " vai, d\X^ o 

^ Where the athletes exercised in winter, or in bad 


BOOK 111. X 

VI. 1 I-XVII. 2 

our own countries, because old liabits distract 
us and do not allow a beginning to be made of 
another custom, and we cannot bear to have men 
meet us and say, "Look, So-and-so is philosophizing, 
although he is this sort of a person or that." 
Thus also physicians send away to a different 
region and a different climate those who are suffer- 
ing from chronic disorders, and that is well. 
Do you also introduce different habits ; fix your 
ideas, exercise yourselves in them. But no, you go 
from the class-room to a show, a gladiatorial combat, 
a gymnasium-colonnade,^ a circus ; and then you 
come back here from these places, and you go back 
there again from here, and remain the same persons 
all the time. 2 And so you acquire no fine habit; 
you pay no regard or attention to your own self; 
you do not observe : '' How do I deal with the 
external impressions which befall me ? In accordance 
with nature, or contrary to it? How shall I respond 
to these impressions? As I should, or as I should 
not? Do I declare to the things which lie outside 
the sphere of my moral purpose that they mean 
nothing to me ? " Why, if you have not yet acquired 
this state of mind, flee from your former ha])its, flee 
from the laymen, if you would begin to be somebody 
some time. 


Of Providence 

WnENKVER you find fault with Providence, onlv 
consider and you will recognize that what happens 
is in accordance with reason. " Yes," you say, 

2 Cf. " ... But evermore came out by the same door 
wliere in I went." — Omar Khayyam (Fitzgerald), 27. 



d^iKO<; TrXeov e'x^^-'* ^^ '^'^'^'^ > ^^ cipyvpifo' tt/jo? 
yap rovTo aov Kpeirrcov eariv, otl ^ KoXuKevei, 

3 aj'rti(7;^L'^'Tet, aypv-TTvel. ri Oav/iaaTOP ; aW' 
€Keh'o /SXeire, el iv tm TTfcjTo? elvai TrXeov aov 
e^ei, el ev tco alh)'}p.(ov. ou yap evpi]aei'^' aXX 
OTTOU Kpeirrcov, eVet cravrov evpi]aei^ irXeov 

4 e'Yorra. Kuyco iror elirov rivi uyavaKrovvri, 
on ^iX6aropyo<i evrv^^el, "H^eXe? av av /xera 
'Eovpa KOLfJLaaOaL ; — " M^ yevoiro" ^rjcrlv, " e- 

5 KelvT] T) rjfiepa!^ — TZ ovv ayavaKrel^, el Xa/x^dvet 
ri dvO' ov TTcoXel ; r) ttw? fiaKapi^€L<i rov Sid 
rovrrov, a av direv^r), Krcofievov etcelva ; rj ri 
KaKov iroiel rj rrpovoia, el rol<; Kpeirrocn rd 
Kpelrrd) SlScoctlv ; i) ovk eari Kpelrrov alS/jpova 

6 elvac rj TrXovaiov ; 'flp^oXoyei. Tt ovv aya- 
va/creU, dvOpwne, e-^wv ro Kpelrrov; iiefivi-jaOe 
OVV del Koi rrpo^eipov e^ere, on v6/jlo<; olro^ 
^V(JLK0<^ rov Kpeirrova rov ')(eipovo<; rrXeov e^euv, 
tV (p Kpeirrcov eariv, koi ovheiror dyavaKrijcrere. 

7 " dXX' T) yvvij pLOi KUKox; ')(priraL.^' KaXco<;. dv 
ri<; aov irvvOdvijrai, ri earl rovro, Xeye " i) 
yvvi] piOi KaKM<; ^pfjrat.^' " dXXo ovv ovhev ;^^ 

8 ovoev. " 6 rrar-qp pot ovBev SiScoaivy . . .^ on 
5e KaKov eartv, rovro eacoOev avrcp Sel rrpoa- 

1 Wolf and Upton's "codex " : '6 S. 
* Lacuna observed by Wolf. 

1 Probably the Palfurius Sura \vho had been expelled from 
the Senate under tlie Flavian emperors. Suet. iJoni. 13, 2. 

I lO 

BOOK III. xv.i. 2-8 

"but the wicked man is better off"." In 
respect? In money; for in resj)ect to that he is 
superior to you, because he flatters, is shameless, 
lies awake nights. What is surprising in that .'^ But 
look rather and see if he is better off than you 
are in being faithful, and considerate. For you will 
not find that to be the case ; but where you are 
superior, there you will find that you are better off 
than he is. And so I once asked a man who was 
complaining about the prosperity of Philostorgus, 
"Would you have been willing to cohabit with Sura.-^"^ 
"May that day never come ! " said he. Why, then, 
are you indignant if he gets sometiiing for what he 
sells .'* Or how can you deem him blessed who 
acquires what he has by means which you abhor? 
Or v.hat harm does Providence do if it gives the 
better thing to the better men? Or is it not better 
to be considerate than to be rich ? He agreed 
that it was. Why, then, are you indignant, man, 
when you have the better part? I would have the 
rest of you always remember, then, and be ready 
to apply the following truth : That this is a law of 
nature for the superior to have the better of the 
inferior, in the respect in which he is superior ; 
and then you will never be indignant. "But my 
wife treats me badly." Very well ; if someone asks 
you what this amounts to, say, "My wife treats me 
badly." "Nothing else, then?" Nothing. "My 
father doesn't give me anything " . . .^ But is it 
necessary in your own mind to add to the preceding 
statement, that to receive nothing from your father 

^ The lacuna is probably to be filled out thus: What 
does this amount to? Merely that your father doesn't give 
you anything. 



1) Oelvai KUL TTfJOaKarayj/evaacrOaL ; 8ia tovto uv 
hcl rijv ireviav eK^dWeiv, aWa ro hoyfia to 
rrepl aurPj^, koI outo)? €vpo)jcro/x€V. 

I)]'. 'On ou Set 7rpo<; Ta<; dyy€\La^ 

1 "Otclv aoL TL 7rpuaayye\0fj rapUKriKuv, hKelvo 
€X€ irpox^i'pov, OTi dyyekio rrepl ouSeuo'^ irpoai- 

2 periKou yiveraL. pn] ri yap hvvarai aoi ri^ 
dyy€i\at, OTL KaKM'i V7re\a/3e<i ?} KaKO)<s w/^e;^^?;? ; 
— OuSayuwv. — 'Aw' OTL diredavev tl<;' tl ovv 
TTpo^ ae ; otl ae KaKco<; Tf? Xeyei' ft ovv tt^oo? 

3 ae ; otl 6 TraTyp TaSe tlvcl eTOip^d^eTai' iirl 
TLva ; p.)') Tl eirX Tr]v Trpoaipeaiv ; iroOev hvvaTaL ; 
dXV iirl TO awp^aTLOv, iirl to KTrjaeiSiov 

4 eacodj]^;, ovk eiri ae} tiXX,' o KpLTr]<; aTrocpalpeTai 
OTL r)ael3t]aa<i. irepl ^wfCpdT0v<; S' ovk uttc- 
(^I'jvavTO ol hLKaaTai ; pLi] tl aov epyov iaTL to 
eKelvov uTrocp/jvaaOaL ; — Ov. — Tt ovv ert aoL 

5 p,e\€L ; eaTL tl tov irarpo<; aov epyov, o av /xt) 
€/c7r\t]pcoaij, uTTcoXeaev tov iraTepa, tov (f)L\6- 
aTopyov, TOV •yj/aepov. dWo ce puyjSev ^^jreL 
TovTov eveKa avTOV diroXeaaL.^ ovheiroTe yap 
ev dWfp p,ev rf? dpiapTdrei, eU uWo Be /SXdn- 

* ovKovv after at is omitted iu s. 

• Wolf : aiTo\(<TOai S. 

BOOK III. XVII. 8-xMii. 5 

is an evil, and at that to add a lie too .-^ For lliis 
reason we ought not to cast out poverty, but 
only our judgement about poverty, and so we shall 
be serene. 


That we ought not to allow any news to disturb us 

Whenever some disturbing news is reported to 
you, you ought to have ready at hand the following 
principle : News, on any subject, never falls within 
the sphere of the moral purpose. Can anyone bring 
you word that you have been wrong in an assumption 
or in a desire } — By no means. — But he can bring 
you word that someone is dead. Very well, what 
is that to you ? That someone is speaking ill of 
you. Very well, what is that to you ? That your 
father is making certain preparations. Against 
whom? Surely not against your moral purpose, is 
it? Why, how can he? But against your paltry 
body, against your paltry possessions ; you are safe, 
it is not against you. But the judge condemns you 
on the charge of impiety. And did not the judges 
similarly condemn Socrates? Surely it is no concern 
of yours that the judge pronounced you guilty, is it? 
— No. — Why, then, are you any further concerned ? 
Your father has a certain function, and if he does not 
perform it, he has destroyed the father in him, the 
man who loves his offspring, the man of gentleness 
within him. Do not seek to make him lose anything 
else on this account. For it never happens that a 
man goes wrong in one thing, but is injured in 



6 T€Tat. iraKiv aov epyov ro aTToXoyifO rfvai 
€V(TTa6o)<;, alhyf fxovwf; f a(ipy)']r(o<;. el Be fxt], 
a-noiXeaa^ fcal crv top vlov, rov alS/j/jLova, top 

7 yevvalov. ri ovv ; 6 KpLT}]<; aKivhvvo<; eariv ; 
ov' aWa KuKelvq) ra taa Kii'Svueverai. tl ovv 
€Ti (f)o/3Tj, rl €KeLvo<; Kpivel ; ^ rl ao\ Koi rw 

8 aX\oTpL(p KaKw ; aov KaKov ecm to KaKM<; 
a7To\oy7)0i]vaL' tovto ^vXdaaov piovov KpL6i)vaL 
S' Tj pLT] KpiOPjj'at uicirep aWou iaTiv epyov, 

9 ovTCi)<; KaKov aXXov eaTiv. " cnreiXel (TOl 6 
Selvay epoi ; ov. " yjreyei ae" avTo<; oxjreTai, 
TTWv;' TTOiel TO Ihiov epyov. ** peWei ere kutu- 
KpLvelv ahiK03<;.^^ d6Xio<;, 

i6' . Tt? aTdaL<i IBlootov kol (jaXoaoc^ov ; 

1 '11 TTpcoTi] hia^opri IBi'OTOV Kal (f)iXoau<pov' 
6 fjiev XeyeL " oval p-oi Slcl to TraiSapiov, Sid tov 
doeXcpov, oval Std tov rraTepa,' 6 B\ dv ttot 
elirelv avayKaaOfj, " ovai pLot ' eVdcrr/ycra? Xeyei 

2 " Bl' e'/LteV' Trpoacpeaiv yhp ovhev SvvaTac KcoXvaai 

3 y) ^XdyjraL aTrpoalpeTov el pir) avTij eavTrjv. dv 
ovv €7tI tovto pe-yjrcopiev Kal avTol, cocr^' oTav 

^ Korites after Schegk : K-piVrji S. 

^ On this point see the Introduction, Vol. I, p. xx : 
"Every man bear.s tlie exclusive responsibility himself for 
his own good or evil, since it is impossible to imagine a 
moral order in which one person does the wrong and another, 
the innocent, suffers" ; or, as here, where a person might do 
wrong in the moral sphere, and yet not suffer also in the 
moral sphere. Compare also the note on I. 28, 10, in Vol. I. 


BOOK III. win. 5-.\ix. 3 

another.^ Again, it is your function to defend your- 
self firmly, respectfully, without passion. Other- 
wise, you have destroyed within you the son, the 
respectful man, the man of honour. What then? 
Is the judge secure.'* No; but he too runs just as 
great a risk. Why, then, are you afraid of what 
decision he is going to render ? What have you to 
do with another man's evil ? Your own evil is to 
make a bad defence ; only guard against that, but 
just as being condemned or not being condemned is 
another's function, so it is another's evil. "So-and- 
so threatens you." Me? No. "He blames you." 
He himself will attend to how he is performing his 
own proper function. " He is on the point of con- 
demning you unjustly." Poor devil I 


ll'hat is the positioti of the layman, a?id tvhat that of 
the philosopher ? 

The first difference between a layman and a 
philosopher: The one says, "Woe is me because 
of my child, my brother, woe because of my father " ; 
and the other, if he can ever be compelled to say, 
"Woe is me," adds, after a pause, "because of my- 
self." For nothing outside the sphere of the moral 
purpose can hamper or injure the moral purpose ; it 
alone can hamper or injure itself. If, then, we too tend 
in this latter direction so that, whenever we go amiss. 

This general position, which as an unverifiable postulate 
underlies the whole Stoic philosophy, and is the very starting- 
point of their whole system of thinking, is what miglit 
be styled tiie irpurov i^eCSoj of Stoicism. 



BuaoC(bfi€i\ avTov<; airiaaOaL Kal fjLeiivi)a6ai, on 
ovhev aXXo rapa)(r)<; rj iiKaraGracria'^ aiiiov 
ear IV rj Boyfia, o/xrvM vjjlIv 7rdvra<; Oeov<i, ore 

4 irpoeKoyjra/jLev.^ vvv S' dWtjv oBbv ef "PX% 
eXyXvOafieif. evdii^ en ttulScov ij/jLOJp ovtwv ?; 
nrO)}, el' iroTe TrpocreTTTaLaa/Jiev p^acr/coi^T69, 
ov)(l ijfjuv €7re7r\7]aaep, aWa top XWov erviTTev. 
Tt 'yap eTTOLycrev 6 \lOo<; ; Sia ri-jv rov iraihiov 

o aov ficoplav eSet /leTafiyvat aviov ; ttuXlv av jxtj 
evpco/j-ev (payelu ex ^aXaveiov, ovBewoO' vfjLcov 
KaracneXXei ttjv eTriOvfiiav 6 TraiSajMyu';, dXXa 
Sepec Tov fxayeipov. dvOpwrce, /irj <ydp eKeli'uv 
ae rraihaycdyov Karear/jaa/jLev ; ciXXd rod irathlov 

fjfjLwv TovTO eiravopOov, rovro ux^eXei. ovT(o<i 
Kal av^i-jOevTe^ (paivofieOa Trailia. iral'i yap ev 
/jLovaiKoU 6 ci/.Lovao<;, ev ypafifiaTi/coU 6 dypdfjL- 
p.aTO<i,^ ev /3lo) 6 diraihevTO^. 

k' , "Otl uttu ttuvtcov rcov eVro? eanv 

1 ^iiirl Toyv OffopyjnKMV (f)avTacn(ov Trarre? 
a-^^^eSbv TO dyaOov fcal to kukov ev i)fxlv dire- 

2 Xlttov, ov')(l S" ev to?? €Kr6^. ovS€l<i \ey6L 
dyaOov to ij/xepav elvai, Ka/cov to vvicra elvat, 
fieyiaTOV Be Ka/ccjv to Tola Teaaapa elvai. 

3 uXXd TL ; Ty]v fiev eTTiar/i/xtjV dyaOov, Tt/v 3' 
dirdTijv fca/cuv, oxJTe Kai irepl avrb to yp-€vSo<; 
dyaOov^ avviaTaaOai, ti]V e-rriar/jpiiv tov yjrtvSo'i 

^ Wolf : TTpoeicorpfu S. ^ s : ay fiafifxaTiKos S. 


lUJOK III. xiv. 3-.\.\. 3 

we blame ourselves, and i)car in mind that nothing 
but judgement is resi)onsible for the disturbance of 
our peace of mind and our inconstancy, I swear to 
you by all the gods that we have been making pro- 
gress. But as it is_, we have taken a different course 
from the start. Even while we were still children, 
our nurse, if ever we bumped into something, when 
we were going along w4th our mouths open, did not 
scold us, but used to beat the stone. Why, what 
did the stone do ? Ought it to have moved out of 
the road because of your childish folly ? And again, 
if we when children don't find something to eat 
after our bath, our attendant never checks our 
appetite, but he cudgels the cook. Man, we didn't 
make you the cook's attendant, did we? but our 
child's. Correct him, help him. So, even when we 
have grown up, we look like children. For it is 
being a child to be unmusical in things musical, to 
he unlettered in things literary, to be uneducated in 


7'/uit it is possible to derive advantage frum eceryihing 

In the case of our intellectual impressions practi- 
cally all men have agreed that the good and the 
evil are in ourselves, and not in externals. Nobody 
calls the statement that it is day, good, or that it is 
night, bad, and the greatest of evils, the statement 
that three is four. But what? They call knowledge 
good, and error evil ; so that even in regard to what 
is false there arises a good, that is, the knowledge 

* Schweighauser : dTrarTjc S. 



4 flvai avTO. €d€t nvv oi/ra)? kcil ein tov ISlov. 
uytLU ayaOov, vvao^ Se KaKov ; ov, avdpcoTre. 
dWa tL ; to kuXox; vyiatveti' dyaOov, to Kafco)^ 
KaKov. — "HcTTe KOI diTo voaov eanv co^eX^;- 
Or/vac ; — Tov Oeov aoi} diro Oavcirov yap ovk 

5 eartv ; drro TDjpcoaeoyf; yap ovk ecrriv ; pLiKpd 
aoi BoKel 6 ^l6voiKeu<; d>(he\i)dy)vai^ oj dirk- 
Bin^GKdv ; — TofauTa ri? elircov dx^eXvideui'^ 61a 
€Kelvo<^ M(f)e\i)Or). — "Ra, dvdpcoTre, ovk ir/jprjaev 


TOV yevvalov ; e7ri^}]aa<; 8e ovk dv^ dTTcoWvev 

6 TiivTa irdvTa ; ov TrepieTTOLecTo tcl ivavTia ; tov 
BclXov ovk dveXdpSavev, tov dyevvPj, tov piao- 
TTUTptv, TOV (f)iX6\lrv)(^ov ; dye hoKel aoi fjLtKpd 

7 (t)(f)eXi]dP]vai diroOavodv ; ov' dXX^ 6 tov ^AS/i7]tov 
7raTT]p /jLcydXa di(^eXi]di) fv'o'^? outco? dyevrco^i 

8 Kal d6Xi(i)<; ; vdTepov yap ovk direOavev ; irav- 
craaOe, tou? Oeov^,'^ ras" uXa? Oaupd^ovT€<i, 
TravaaaO^ eavTov<i BovXov<; 7roLovvTe<i TrpcoTOv tmv 
TTpaypdrcov, elTa Si avTa Kal tcov dvOpooTrcov 
TOiV TavTa TTepLTTOielv rj d(^aipela6aL hvva- 

9 ^'V\aTLv ovv diTO tovtcdv w(f)6X^}0P]vaL ; — 'Atto 
TTuvTcov. — Kal drro tov XoiBopovvTO<; ; — Tt 8 
u)(f)eX6L TOV dOXrjTrjv 6 TTpoayvp^va^opevo^; ; to. 

^ Ben I ley : (tov S. 

2 ^ after this word is deleted b}' s. 

3 av added by Upton, after Schegk. 

* Bentley and Shaftesbury, about the same time : 
uixu>v S. 

BOOK 111. XX. 3-9 

that the false is false. So it ought to be, then, also 
with our life. Is health a j^ood, and illness an evil } 
No, man. What then .'' To be well for a good end 
is good, to be well for an evil end is evil. — So that it 
is possible to derive advantage even from illness, you 
mean? — Why, 1 call God to witness, isn't it possible 
to derive advantage from death ? Why, isn't it 
possible from lameness?^ Do you think that Me- 
noeceus ^ derived but little good when he died? — 
May the one who says anything like that derive the 
same sort of good that he did I - Ho, there, man, 
did he not maintain the patriot that he was, the 
high-minded man, the man of fidelity, the man of 
honour? And had he lived on, would he not have 
lost all these ? Would he not have won the very 
opposite ? Would he not have acquired the character 
of the coward, the ignoble man, the disloyal, the 
lover of his own life ? Come now, do you think that 
Menoeceus derived but little good by his death ? 
Oh, no ! But the father of Admetus derived great 
good from living so ignobly and wretchedly, did 
he? Why, didn't he die later? Make an end, I 
adjure you by the gods, of admiring material things, 
make an end of turning yourselves into slaves, in 
tiie first place, of things, and then, in the second 
place, on their account, slaves also of the men who 
are able to secure or to take away these things. 

Is it possible, then, to derive advantage from 
these things? — Yes, from everything. — Even from 
the man who reviles me? — And what good does his 
wrestling-companion do the athlete ? The very 

^ Perhaps a reference to his own case. See Introd. p. ix. f., 
in Vol. I. 

^ Who gave his life to save his native city, Thebes. 



jxeyiara. kciI ovto<; efiou irpoyvfjivacTTi^'^ yiveTur 
TO (iveKTLKov /jLOV <yvfiV(i^€i, TO dopyyjTov, ro 

10 irpnov. ov' rlXX, 6 fiev ruv Tpa)()')\ov KaOaTrrow 
Ka\ Ti-jV 6a(f)vv [inv kol toi)? o)fxov<; KarapTL^wv 
o)i>e\el fi€ Koi 6 (iXeLTTTyjf; Ka\cb<^ ttoimv \eyei 
" apov v-nepov d/Li(por€pat<;J' ^ kcu ocrw ^apuT€p6<; 
€(TTiv €KeLvo<;, ToaovTcp pidWov (iD(f)€\ov/jLaL iyo)' 
€i Be Ti9 7r/3o? dopyijaiav fxe yvpvi^ei,, ovk 

11 uxpeXet pL6 ; rovr earc to fxy eloevai cltt 
dvdpojTTWV McpeXelaOai.. KaKo<; yetTcov ; auTfp' 
aXX' i/jLol dya06<i' jufiTat^ei fiov to evyvco/xov^ 
TO 67ri€ifC6<i. KaKO<; TTUTy'jp ; avTM- a\X' i/xol 

12 <iya06<;. tovt eaTt, to tou 'Eip/xov pa^dlov 
''oh OeXeL^'' (f>aaiv," '' dy\rai Koi ■)(pvaovv eaTai.'' 
ov' dX}C OeXeL^; (pepe Kayco avTO dyadov 
7roir}(jw. (pepe voaov, (pepe OdvaTOV, ^epe diro- 
piav, (f)€p€ \oi8opLav, Slkijv tijv irepX twv ia-)(d- 
Tcov irdvTa TavTa T(p paiSStoy tov 'Kp/xov 

13 d)(})€\i/j.a eaTai. *'toj' OdvaTOV tl 7roc7]<reL<i ;" 
Tt yap dXXo i) Lua ere fcoa/jDjarj rj Iva S€l^t)<;^ 
epyw hi nvTOv, tl iaTlv dvOpwTro<^ tm ^ovXyj/jLUTi 

14 T/}? <pvre(o<^ 7rapaKo\oud(ov ; "'Tip voaov tl 
7rof//cre/? ; " hei^ro avTr}<^ Tip' (pvcnv, BtaTrpeyjrco 
€v avTTj, evaTaih'jaro, evpojjaw, tov laTpov ov 

\'> KoXaKevao), ov/c ei'^o/xat dTTodavelv. Tt €tl 
dXXo ^7]TeL^ ; irdv o dv Sy<;, iyco avTO TTonjcrro 
/xa/cdptov, evbai/jLOVLKov, aepvov, ^t]X(OTOV. 

^ Schweighiinser : virtp a./j.(poT(pas S. 

2 Upton: <pri(Tiv S. Cicero, Cff. I. 158: Quod si oinnia 
nobis . . . quasi rirgula divina, ut aiunt, snppcdilarent, shows 
olearh' that this is a proverbial saying. 

^ iieiske : hfi^v at S. 

BOOK ill. XX. 9-15 

greatest. So also my reviler becomes one \\\u) 
prepares me for my contest ; he exercises my 
patience, my dispassionateness, my gentleness. You 
say: No. 13ut the man who lays iiold of my neck 
and gets my loins and my shoulders into proper 
shape helps me, and the rubber does well when 
he says, "Lift the pestle with both hands," ^ and 
the heavier it is, the more good I get out of doing 
so ; whereas, if a man trains me to be dispassionate, 
does he do me no good? Your attitude means that 
you do not know how to derive advantage from 
men. Is your neighbour bad? Yes, for hiuiself; 
but for me he is good ; he exercises my good dis- 
position, my fair-mindedness. Is your father bad ? 
Yes, for himself; but for me he is good. This is 
the magic wand of Hermes. " Touch what you 
will," the saying goes, "and it will turn into gold." 
Nay, but bring whatever you will and /will turn it 
into a good. Bring disease, bring death, bring poverty, 
reviling, peril of life in court; all these things will 
become helpful at a touch from the magic wand of 
Hermes. " What Avill you make of death ? " Why, 
what else but make it your glory, or an opportunity 
for you to show in deed thereby wjiat sort of })erson 
a man is who follows the will of nature. " What 
will you make of disease?" I Avill show its char- 
acter, I will shine in it, I will be firm, I will be 
serene, I will not fawn upon my physician, I will 
not pray for death. What else do you still seek ? 
Everything that you give I will turn into some- 
thing blessed, productive of happiness, august, 

^ Tlie physical exercise referred to in III. 12, 9. 


16 Ou' dWa " f3\€7r€ /jlt] poaijar)^' kukoi' ecrriv^^ 
olov et Tf? eXeyev " /SXeVe ^r] \df37j<; irore (pavra- 
aiav Tov rd rpia reaaapa elvai' kukou iariv.^^ 
dvOpwire, ttw? kukov ; dv o 8et irepl avrov 
v7ro\(i^a), TTw? erL fie fiXdylrei ; OL';^t 8e fidWov 

17 Kal a)(f)€\7]aeL ; dv ovvrrepl irevia'i o Set VTToXd/Sw, 
dv Trepl vocrov, dv irepX dvapx^CL^t ovk dpKel fioi ; 
ovK dx^eXifia earai ; ttw? ovv en iv rot? eKro<; 
rd KaKa Kal rdyaOd Set fie ^yrelv ; 

18 'AXXd Tt ; ravra fiexpi- wSe, et? oIkov S' ovBeh 
d7ro(pep€i' a\X' evOv^; tt/jo? to Traihapiov iroXe- 
fjbo^, 7rpo<^ Tou? <yeLTOva<;, 7rpo<; tou? aKco-yjravra^i, 

19 Trpo? Tou<s KarayeXdaavra^. Ka\Co<; yevoiro 
Aea/Slfp, on, /.le Kad' ij/xepav i^eXeyx^t' fi^l^ev 

Ka . 11/909 Toix; evKoXro'^ iirl to ao(f>iaTeveLV 

1 'On ol^ rd Oewpi]fxara dvaXa^6vTe<; yjriXd 
€u6v<; avrd i^efieaai OeXovaiv aj? o'l aro/jiaxiKol 

2 Trjv Tpo(f)7]V. irpwrov avrd ^ ireyjrov, elO' ol/to)? 
ou ^ fiTj €^€fi6aij<;' el Be fn'], €f.ieTO<; ra> ovn 

3 yiverai, Trpciy/jL UKaOapjov '^ kol d/3p(OTOv. aXX' 

^ ol added by Schenkl. ^ Richards : avT6 S. 

3 Kronenberg : ovto ixt) S. 

* Wolf: KadapSv S. But possibly the reading can he 
retiiitied (with Schegk) in the sense : " What was clean 
food becomes mere vomit and unfit to eat." 

^ That is. no farther than the class room. 

2 Presumably some scoffer or irritating person known to 
the audience. 

BOOK III. XX. 16-XX1. 3 

Not so you ; but, " Watch out tliat you don't ^et 
ill ; it's bad." Just as if someone said, " Watch out 
that you never get tlie impression that three are 
four; it's bad." Man, how do you mean "bad"? 
If I fi^et the right idea of it, how is it going to liurt 
me any more ? Will it not rather even do me good? 
If, then, I get the right idea about poverty, or 
disease, or not holding office, am I not satisfied? 
Will they not be helpful to me ? How, then, would 
you have me seek any longer amongst externals for 
things evil and things good ? 

But what? These things go thus far,^ but nobody 
takes them home with him ; nay, as soon as we 
leave here, there is war on with our slave attendant, 
our neighbours, those that mock, and those that 
laugh at us. Blessed be Lesbius,^ because he con- 
victs me every day of knowing nothing ! 


To those fvho ejiler light-hearitdly upon the pj-qfession 
of lecturing 

Those who have learned the principles and nothing 
else are eager to throw them up immediately,^ just 
as persons with a weak stomach throw up their food. 
First digest your principles, and then you Mill surely 
not throw them up this way. Otherwise they are 
mere vomit, foul stuff and unfit to eat. But after 

* Compare Schiller : 

" Was sie gestern gelernt, das wollen sie heute schon 
lehren ; 
Ach, was haben die Herrn doch fiir ein kurzes 



air^ iiinoov avaho6evT(Ov hel^uv Tiva 7]/.uv fiera- 
(BoXi-jV roil yp/efi'^viKOv rod (reavTov, co? oi dOXrjrai 
TOi)? a)/jLOV<i, d(f)' cjv iyv/Ji'(iaO)]aap Kai e^ayov, 
CO? 01 ra? T€')(^ia<; dva\a(36vTe<;, a^' (x)v efiadov. 

\ ovK €p)(6Tai, 6 T€KT(ov KoX XeycL " (iKOvo-are fiov 
SiaXeyo/jLevov irepX rcov t€ktoviko)v^^ dXX' eKfiLa- 
Oco(Td/jL€vo<; oUlav ravrrjp Kara(7Kevd(Ta<; BeuK- 

f) vvaiv, on e;^6t rrjv Te\vriv. tolovtov tl koI av 
TTOLy-iaov' (fidye co? av6 pwiro^, irie co? dvOpwrro^;, 
Koaf.ii]6i]TL, ydprjaov, iraiOoiroiTicTov, iroXiTevaaL' 
dvda)(^ov XoiBopia<i, eveyice dSeX<f)ov dyvcofiova, 

6 eveyKe irarepa, eveyKe vlov, yeirova, crvvoBov. 
ravra i)plv hel^ov, iv thcDpev, on fiejidO-qKa^ ral^i 
dXy]0€iat<; n roiv (j)iXoa6(j)fjov. ou' dX)C " iXOov- 
T€<; dKovcrare jjlov a^oXLa XeyovTO<;.^* viraye, 

7 ^y]T€L rivwv Kare^epdaei^. *' /cal fiT)v iyco vfjuv 
i^r]yt](7nfiai rd ^pvaLTTTreia a>^ ovSei,'^, ttjv Xe^iv 
SLaXvaco KaOapcoTara, TrpoaOtjaco dv ttov Kal 
WvnTrdrpov Kal Wp)(eS})/jL0v (f)opar." 

8 EiTa TovTov €i'6Ka dTToXiird'cnv 01 vtOL Td<; 
iraTpiSa^ Kal rou<; yovel^ tou? auTOiv, <V iXOovre^: 

9 Xe^eiSid aov i^>]yov/jLevov dKouawaiv ; ov Bel 
avT0v<=; viTOcnpey\raL dveKnKov<;, avv6pyrinKov<;, 
diraOeL'^y drapd^ovs, €)^ovTd<; n icfyoSiou roiovrov 
et? Tuv ^Lov, dcf)* ov opfKo/xePOL cpepetv Suv)]aovTat 
rd av/uLTTLTrrorra /caXw? Kal KoafielaOaL iirr* 

10 avru)V ; Kal iroOev aoL ixeraOihovai rovrMV oiv 
ovK e;!^€t? ; avro^ yap dXXo n €7rou]aa<; ef dp^f^i^ 

^ Called priiLcipes dialccticorum by Cicero, Acad. II. 


BOOK 111. xx\. 3-IO 

you have digested these principles, show us some 
change in your governing principle that is due to 
them ; as the athletes show their shoulders as the 
results of their exercising and eating, and as those 
who have mastered the arts can show the results of 
their learning. The builder does not come forward 
and say, " Listen to me deliver a discourse about the 
art of building " ; but he takes a contract for a 
house, builds it, and thereby proves that he possesses 
the art. Do something of the same sort yourself 
too ; eat as a man, drink as a man, adorn yourself, 
marry, get children, be active as a citizen ; endure 
revilings, bear with an unreasonable brother, father, 
son, neighbour, fellow-traveller. Show us that you 
can do these things, for us to see that in all truth 
you have learned something of the philosophers. 
No, but " Come and listen to me deliver my com- 
ments," you say. Go to ! Look for people on 
whom to throw up ! '' Yes, but 1 will set forth to 
you the doctrines of Chrysippus as no one else can ; 
his language 1 will analyse so as to make it perfectly 
clear ; possibly I will throw in a bit of the vivacity of 
Antipater and Archedemus." ^ 

And then it's for this, is it, that the young men 
are to leave their fatherlands and their own parents, 
— to come and listen to you interpreting trifling 
phrases ? Ought they not to be, when they return 
home, forbearing, ready to help one another, tranquil, 
with a mind at peace, possessed of some such provision 
for the journey of life, that, starting out with it, 
they will be able to bear well whatever happens, and 
to derive honour from it ? And where did you get 
the ability to impart to them these things which you 
do not possess yourself? ^^ hy, from the first did 


17 irepl ravra KaT€Tpi^r}<;, ttw? ol avWoyia/jLol 
ava\vO)]aoinaL, ttw? ol ixejairiTTTOVTe^, 7rw9 ol 
Tw r)p(i)rP]o-0at rrepaivovre^; ; " aX,\' o Lelva 

11 axoXriv fc'%6f hia ri fir) Kayo) (tX^ ' " ^^^ elxi] 
Tuvra jLverai, avSpciTTohov, ovS^ &)? eVf^ei^, aWa 

12 KOL ifKiKiav elvai hel /cal ^iov koI 6eov i^yejJLova. 
ov' aX)C aiTO \L/j,evo<; ^ fxev ovBeU dvayerat /jlt) 
Ovaa<; roi? deolf; koI 7rapaKaXeaa<^ avTov^ ^orj- 
6ov^ ovhe aireipovaiv dXXa)<; ol dvOpwnoi el firj 
rrjv ^rjiJLriTpa iTTLKaXead/ievor rrjXifcovrov 8' 
epyov dy^dfjbf.vo^ tl^ dvev Oeojv cia-cpaXco'^ dy^erai 

13 Kai ol TOVTW TrpoaiovTe^; euru^^co? 'jrpoaeXevaov- 
rai ; rl dXXo iroiel's, dvOpwire, rj rd /jLvarijpia 
^^opXV '^^^ Xiyei^i " oiKij/jud ean Kal iv ^KXevalviy 
ISov Kal evOdSe. ixel l€po(pdvTr)(;' Kal iyco 
7roLr}(T(o lepo^dvTtjv. €K€l KTJpv^' Kayo) KtjpvKa 
Karaaryjao). eVet SqSovxo'i' Kuyo) hahovxov, 

14 6K6l 8aS6<i' Kal evOdhe. al (fxoval al avral' rd 
yivofieva ri Stacpepet ravra eKeivwv ;^^ ; dae- 
^ecrrare dvOpcdire, ovSev hiac^epei ; Kal irapd 
rorrov ravra ^ cocpeXei Kal irapd Katpov ; ov' 
dXXd ^ Kal p-erd 6vaia<; he Kal evx^^v ^al 
iTpor)yvevKora Kal irpohiaKeipjevov rfj yvcop^rj, on, 

^ Wolf : a.iro\nr6u€vos S. 

^ Oldfather : Kal irapa r6iroy ravra u<pe\€7 Kal Trapa Kaip6v 
Koi /uerd dvaias S and all editors, except Upton, who saw 
that the passage was corrupt, but not how to heal it. 
ravra is ambiguous and misses the obvious point. Besides, 
within eight lines, to ha^e exactl}' the same phrases, Trapa 
r6irov and irapa Kaip6v, in a diametrically opposite sense, 
where the text is certainly sound, seems to me intolerable. 
The plain sense of the entire context appears to require 
these changes, the first of which is the slightest imaginable, 
and the second, not absolutely necessary perhaps, in the 


BOOK III. XXI. 10-14 

you ever do anything but wear yourself out over the 
question how solutions can be ibund for syllogisms, 
for the arguments that involve equivocal premisses, 
and those which derive syllogisms by the process 
of interrogation } ^ " But So-and-so lectures ; why 
shouldn't I too?" Slave, these things are not done 
recklessly, nor at random, but one ought to be of a 
certain age, and lead a certain kind of life, and have 
God as his guide. You say : No. But no man sails 
out of a harbour without first sacrificing to the gods 
and invoking their aid, nor do men sow hit-or-miss, 
but only after first calling upon Demeter ; and yet 
will a man, if he has laid his hand to so great a task 
as this without the hel{) of the gods, be secure in so 
doing, and will those who come to him be fortunate 
in so coming? What else are you doing, man, but 
vulgarizing the Mysteries, and saying, " There is a 
chapel at Eleusis ; see, there is one here too. There 
is a hierophant there ; I too will make a hierophant. 
There is a herald there ; 1 too will appoint a herald. 
There is a torch-bearer there ; 1 too will have a 
torch-bearer. There are torches there ; and here too. 
The words said are the same ; and what is the 
difference between what is done here and what is 
done there ? " } Most impious man, is there no 
difference t Are the same acts helpful, if they are 
performed at the wrong place and at the wrong time .'' 
Nay, but a man ought to come also with a sacrifice, 
and with prayers, and after a preliminary purification, 
and with his mind predisposed to the idea that he 

^ See note on I. 7, 1. 

abrupt and dramatic style of Epictetus, but probably what 
would have been written, had he been writing instead of 



lepol'^ TrpoaeXeuaerac Kal lepot^; 7ra\aioL<;. ovtco^ 

15 Q)(f)€XL/bLa yiverat ra fivaT7]pia, outo)? et? (pavra- 
(Tiav ep')(^o/^teOa, otl iirX rraiheia Kal eTrai'opOcocret 
Tov ^iov /caTeardOr} Trdvra ravra virb rcbv ira- 

16 XaiMV. (jv S' e^ayy6Wei<; avrd kol i^op^^fj irapa 
Kaipov, irapa roirov, avev Ovfidrcov, avev dyi>€ia<;'^ 
ovK iaOrjTa €)(^6l<; r)v hel tov i€po<f)dvT7]v, ov KopLrjv, 
ou arpo^tov olov Bel, ov <p(ovr}v, ov^ i^XiKiav, ov^ 
rjyv€vica<; co<; eKeivo'^, dXX avrd^ /j,6va<^ Ta<; (j)(i)va<; 
dv€t\r}(pci)<; Xeyeif;. lepai elonv at cpcoval avral 
KaO' avrd<^ ; 

17 " AWov rpoTTOv hel eirX ravra iXOelv \xkya 
earl ro Trpdyfia, fxvariKov iariv, ov)(^ co? erv\ev 

18 ovhe rw rv^ovrt hehojievov. aW' ovhe crocf)ov 
elvai rv)(ov e^aptcel irpb^ ro i7rijU€\')]d7)i'aL vecov 
Bel Be fcal irpox^i'pbrrjrd riva elvai Kal iirirr)- 
Becorrjra 7r/309 rovro, vrj rov Ata, Kal acofia rrotov 
Kal TTpb irdvrwv rov Oebv av/x/3ov\€vei,v ravrriv 

19 rrjv ')(^d)pav Karaa'x^elv, o)? ^wKpareu avve^ov- 
\evev rrjv eXeyKriKtjv '^(^capav ey^eiv, oi)<; Aioyevei 
ri]v ^aaiXLKTjv Kal iTrcrrXrjKTLKyjv, a)9 Zt]vcovi rrjv 

20 BiSaaKaXiKr/v Kal BoyfiariKyjv. av B' larpelov 
dvolyea dWo ovBev e)(^(ov rj cfydp/iaKa, irov Be rj 
'7rM<; eTTiriOerai ravra, pn'jre elBcof; fjbrjre ttoXv- 

21 rrpay/jL0V7]aa<;. '* IBoij €KeLvo<; ravra rd ^ koX- 
Xupia' Kuyco e')(^co." yu,?; rt ovv Kal r^jv Bvrafiiv 
rtjv ')(^pt]ariK7]v avrol<; ; /xr) ri olBa<; Kal irure 

^ s (and Bentley): vyielas S. 
2 TO. added by Koraes, 


BOOK III. XVI. 14-21 

will be approaching lioly rites, and lioly rites of great 
antiquity. Only thus do the Mysteries become 
helpful, only thus do we arrive at the impression 
that all these things were established by men of 
old time for the j)urpose of education and for the 
amendment of our life. But you are publishing the 
Mysteries abroad and vulgarizing them, out of time, 
out of place, without sacrifices, without purification ; 
you do not have the dress which the hierophant 
ought to wear, you do not have the proper head of 
liair, nor head-band, nor voice, nor age ; you have 
not kept yourself pure as he has, but you have 
picked up only the words which he utters, and 
recite them. Have the words a sacred force all by 
themselves .'' 

One ought to approach these matters in a different 
fEishion ; the affair is momentous, it is full of mystery, 
not a chance gift, nor given to all comers. Nay, it 
may be that not even wisdom is all that is needed 
for the care of the young ; one ought also to have a 
certain readiness and special fitness for this task, by 
Zeus, and a particular physique, and above all the 
counsel of God advising him to occupy this office, 
as God counselled Socrates to take the office of 
examining and confuting men, Diogenes the office of 
rebuking men in a kingly manner, and Zeno that of 
instructing men and laying down doctrines. But you 
are opening up a doctor's office although you possess 
no equipment other than drugs, but when or how 
these drugs are applied you neither know nor have 
ever taken the trouble to learn. "See," you say, 
"that man has these eye-salves, and so have I." 
Have you, then, at all the faculty of using them 
aright ? Do you know at all when and how and for 



22 Koi 7ra)<; toc^eX^/cret Kal Tiva ; tl ovv kv^€V€l<; eV 
TOi? /i€yiaTOL<;, tl paBtovpyec';, tl e7Ti')(eipel<; 
TTpdyfiaTL fJLTjhev ctol irpoarjKOVTL ; a^e? avTO toI<^ 
8vi'a/jLevoL<;, toI<; Koa/novai. firj irpoaTpilBov Kal 
flfL'To? al(T^o<i cf)L\oaocf)La Blcl aavTov, fjbrjhe <yivov 

23 /jL€po<; TMP hia^aXkovTCtiv to epyov. aWa el ae 
ylrv^aycoyel t<z Oecoprj/xaTa, /ca6yfjL6vo<; auTci 
aTpe(f)€ auTo? eVt creavTov' (f)L\6cro(f)ov Be fjnf 
SeTTOT* 6677779 acavTov /jL7jS^ dWov avda')(rj \eyov- 
T09, dWa \eye " ireirXcivr^Tai' eyoi yap out 
opeyofiai aX,Xco? rj irpoTepov ovh^ opfico eir dWa 
ouSe (JvyKaTaTiOefxai dWoL<i ovB' oX-o)? iv ypijaei 
^avTacTLMv irapyjXXaxd tl cltto t?}? TrpoTepov 

24 Acarao-Tao-eci)?." TavTa (f)p6v€L Kal Xiye irepl 
creavTov, el 9e\eL<; tcl KaT d^iav (^povelv el he 
jjLT), Kv^eve Kal iroleL a Trotet?. TavTa yap aoL 

K^\ Yiepl J^vvLa/uiov. 

1 TlvOofievov he twv yvcopi/xcov tlvo<; avrov, 09 
icftalveTO iTTLppeirM^; e^f^v 7r/)09 to Kvvlaai, Hoiov 
TLva elvaL hel tov Kvvl^ovTa Kal Tt9 rj irpo- 
Xijyfrti; rj tov 7Tpdy/j.aT0<;, ^Ke^^ofxeOa KaTO, 

2 a-^oXrjV ToaovTOv 3' e;^&) aoL eliretv, otl 6 hi^a 

* The Cynics were the intransigent and uncompromising 
moralists, resembling the holy men, ascetics, and dervishes 
of the Orient. Epictetus idealizes them somewhat in this 
discourse, regarding them as a kind of perfected wise men, 


BOOK 111. 

XXI. 2I-XXII. 2 

whom they will do good ? Why^ then, do you play 
at hazard in matters of the utmost moment, why do 
you take things lightly, why do you put your hand 
to a task that is altogether inappropriate for you? 
Leave it to those who are able to do it, and do it 
with distinction. Do not yourself by your own 
actions join the number of those who bring disgrace 
upon philosophy, and do not become one of those 
who disparage the profession. If, however, you find 
the principles of philosophy entertaining, sit down 
and turn them over in your mind all by yourself, 
but don't ever call yourself a philosopher, and don't 
allow anyone else to say it of you, but say, rather, 
'' He is mistaken ; for my desire is no different from 
what it used to be, nor my choice, nor my assent, 
nor, in a word, have I changed at all, in my use of 
external impressions, from my former state." Think 
this and say this about yourself, if you wish to think 
aright. If not, keep on playing at hazard and doing 
what you are doing now ; for it becomes you. 


On the calling of a Cynic ^ 

When one of his acquaintances, who seemed to 
have an inclination to take up the calling of a Cynic, 
asked him what sort of a man the Cynic ought to 
be, and what was the fundamental conception of his 
calling, Epictetus said : We will consider it at leisure ; 
but I can tell you this much, that the man who lays 

like some of the early Christian anchorites, but points out 
very clearly that their style of life was not practicable for 
every man, indeed not even for one so luimble and frugal as 
he himself was. 


deov TfjXtKovro) 7rpdy/j,arL iiri^aWofjievof; deo- 
')(^o\(OT6<i iari koI ovSev dWo rj Sy]/jLoaLa OeXet 

3 acr)(rifioveLV. ovhe yap ev olfcia /taXw? OLKOv/ievr] 
nrapeXdoiv ri? avTO<; eavT(j) Xiyei " efie Sec oIko- 
vofiov elvaiy el Be fii], emaTpa^e\<; 6 /cvpio<; 
Kal IScov avTov ao/3apay=; BtaTaaaofievov, k\Kvaa^ 

4 erefiev. ovrco^ ylverai Kal ev rfj /neyaXj] ravrj) 
TTokei. ecTTL ycip rt? Kal evOdS^ oLKoSeaTrorr]^ 

5 eKaara 6 SiaTdcracov. " av i]Xio<i eh Bvuaaai 
Trepiepxo/J'evo'; eviaurov iroielv Kal a)pa<; Kal tov<^ 
KapTTOV'i av^etv Kal rpicpeLv Kal ai^e/xou? Kivelv 
Kal dvtevai Kal ra awfiara tmv dvdpcoircov dep- 
fxaiveiv avfifxerpco^;' viraye, irepLep^ov Kal oi/tcd? 
BtaKivei cLTTo rwv /leyLarcov iirl ra fiLKporara. 

6 (TV jjLOa-'X^dpiov el' orav enLcpavfj \ecov, ra aavrov 
TTpdcrcre' el Be fi7], ol/jL(o^ei<;. crv ravpo^ eZ, irpo- 
aeXdcDv fxd')(ov' <jol yap tovto ein^dWeL Kal 

7 iTpeireL Kal Bvvacrai avro iroielv. av Bvvaaai 
rjyelaOaL rov crrparevaaTO^; eVt "iXioV taOt 
^Ayafie/xvwv. crv Bvvaaai rw "KKTopi jjlovo- 

8 /xa%^o"a^* tadi 'A^tXXei;?." el Be SepaLTr]<; 
irapeXOoiv avreiroLelro t^? ^VX'l*** V ^^f^ ^^ 
eTV')(ev Tj Tvxciiv av r/axv/^^^V^^^^ ^^ TrXeioai 

9 Kal aij ^ovXevaai ^ irepl rov ^ 7rpdyfiaro<; eiri- 
10 /xeXw?' ovK eariv olov BoKel aoi. " rpi/ScoviOv 

Kal vvv (f)op(b Kal rod^ ^ ^'f o),* KOL/nco/jLaL Kal vvv 
aKXr]pM<; Kal Tore Kotfiyjao/jLai, irripiBtov irpoa- 
Xrjy^ofxau Kal ^vXov Kal Trepiepxafxevo'^ alretv 

1 Upton from his "codex" : avi.L^ov\€v(Tai S. 

2 rov added by Reiske. ^ Schenkl : tJt' 8. 
* Salmasius: f(w 8. 

BOOK III. xxii. 2-IO 

his hand to so threat a matter as this without God, 
is hateful to Him, and his wish means nothing else 
than disgracing himself in public. For in a well- 
ordered house no one comes along and says to 
himself, "I ought to be manager of this house"; 
or if he does, the lord of the mansion, when he 
turns around and sees the fellow giving orders in 
a high and mighty fashion, drags him out and gives 
him a dressing down. So it goes also in this great 
city, the world ; for here also there is a Lord of the 
Mansion who assigns each and every thing its place. 
" You are the sun ; you have the power, as you make 
the circuit of the heavens, to produce the year and 
the seasons, to give increase and nourishment to the 
fruits, to stir and to calm the winds, and to give 
warmth in moderation to the bodies of men ; arise, 
make the circuit of the heavens, and so set in motion 
all things from the greatest to the least. You are a 
calf; when a lion appears, do what is expected of 
you ; otherwise you will smart for it. You are a 
bull ; come on and fight, for this is expected of you, 
it befits you, and you are able to do it. You are 
able to lead the host against Ilium ; be Agamemnon. 
You are able to fight a duel with Hector ; be 
Achilles." But if Thersites came along and claimed 
command, either he would not have got it, or if he 
had, he would have disgraced himself in the presence 
of a multitude of witnesses. 

So do you also think about the matter carefully ; 
it is not what you think it is. "1 wear a rough 
cloak even as it is, and I shall have one then ; I 
have a hard bed even now, and so I shall then ; I 
shall take to myself a wallet and a stafF,^ and I shall 

^ Quite like modern dervishes. 



ap^Ofiat T0U9 airavTOivra';, XoiSopelv' Kav Ihco 
riva hpoiiraKL^ofievov, €7TiTi,/jL7Jaco avrw, kclv 
TO k6/xlov irenXaKora i) ev kokklvoi<; ireptTra- 

11 ToOz^ra." el roiovrov n (f)avTdtr] to 7rpd<y/ia, 
fxaKpav a7r' avrov' p-rj 7rpoa6\0r)<;, ovhev iari 

12 7r/309 ae. el S' olor iari (pavTa^6pevo<; ovk 
arra^Lol'^ aeavTov, aKeyp-ai rjXiKw Trpdyp^ari 

13 Wpoyrov ev toI<^ Kara aavTov oviceTL hel ae 
6/jLOiop ev ovSevl <^aivea6ai oh vvv TroieU, ou Oefo 
iyKaXovvTa, ovk dvdpaiirw' ope^cv apai ae ^ Sec 
Trai^reXoi?, €KK\icrLv eVl /nova fieraOelvaL ra 
TrpoaipeTiKci' aol fir] opyyv eivai, /jltj prjviv, /x?; 
(pduvov, fXT] eXeov' p^rj Kopdaiov aoi (paivecrOai 
KoXoVy fir) ho^dpiov, fir) TraihdpLov, fir) irXaKOvv- 

14 rdpiov. eKelvo yap elhevai ae hel, on ol aXXoi 

av6 pWTTOL TOL/? TOt^OL'? TTpO^e^XlJVTaL Kal TCL^ 

olKLa<^ Kal TO aKOTO^y orav n rwv toiovtojv 
TTOiMatv, Kal ra Kpuyfrovra ttoXXo, exovaiv. 
KeKXeiKe rr)v dvpav, earaKev ^ nva irpo rod 
KocT(x)vo<^' " CIV Ti<s eXOrj, Xeye on e^co earlv, ov 

15 a)(oXd^ec" 6 K.vvlko'^ 8' dvrl irdvrcov rovrcov 
ocpelXei, rr)v alSco irpo^e^Xi/adar el Be fi7], yvfivo^ 
Kal ev vTTaiOpcp da')(rjfiovr]aeL. rovro olKta earlv 
avrcp, rovro Ovpa, rovro ol iirl rov Koircjvo^, 

16 rovro aKoro^;. ovre yapdeXeiv n Bel diroKpi/TrreLv 
avrov rcov eavrov {el Se fir), d7rr)Xdev, aTrcoXeae 

^ Wolf : apeaai S, Wolf : iaraKiv 8, 

BOOK III. XXII. 10-16 

beojin to walk around and beg from those I meet, 
and revile them ; and if I see someone who is getting 
rid of superfluous hair by the aid of pitch-plasters, 
or has a fancy cut to his hair, or is strolling about 
in scarlet clothes, I will come down hard on him," If 
you fancy the affair to be something like this, give 
it a wide berth ; don't come near it, it is nothing for 
you. But if your impression of it is correct, and you 
do not think too meanl}^ of yourself, consider the 
mas^nitude of the enterprise that you are taking in 

First, in all that pertains to yourself directly 
you must change completely from your present 
practices, and must cease to blame God or man ; 
you must utterly wipe out desire, and must turn 
your aversion toward the things which lie within 
the province of the moral purpose, and these only ; 
you must feel no anger, no rage, no envy, no pity ; 
no wench must look fine to you, no petty reputation, 
no boy-favourite, no little sweet-cake. For this 
you ought to know : Other men have the protection 
of their walls and their houses and darkness, when 
they do anything of that sort, and they have many 
things to hide them. A man closes his door, 
stations someone at the entrance to his bedroom : 
'^If anyone comes, tell him ^ He is not at home, 
he is not at leisure.' " But the Cynic, instead of 
all these defences, has to make his self-respect his 
protection; if he does not, he will be disgracing 
himself naked and out of doors. His self-respect 
is his house, his door, his guards at the entrance 
to his bedroom, his darkness. For neither ought 
he to wish to keep concealed anything that is his 
(otherwise he is lost, he has destroyed the Cynic 



TOi' Kvi^tfcov, TOP vTraiOpov, tov e\ev6epov, ypKrat 
Tt Twi/ 6KT0<; ^ (^oj^elaOai, r/pKrac ')(^p€Lav e^^LV 
TOV aTTOKpvy^oi'Tos;) ovre orav OeXy Svi'arai. irov 

17 <yap avTOV airoKpyy^rr] rj tto)? ; av 8' (itto rv')(r)<i ^ 
€p,7r6ay 6 Trai^efT?;? 6 koii>6<;, 6 TraiSaycoyo^;, ola 

18 TTciay^eiv avdyKif] ; ravT ovv SeSoi/cora einOappelv 
olov T ere i^ 6\r)<; '^vx^)]<; eTTiararelv toI<; aWoL<; 
avOpt-oiroi^ ; ap.i'j-yavov, ahvvarov. 

19 WpoiTov ovv TO riyefJioviKov ere Set to aavrou 

20 Kadapov Troirjaai koI Ti]V evaracriv ravrrjv *' vvv 
ifiol v\i] iarlv i) ip,y] Sidvoia, o)? tw reKTOVL ra 
^vXa, ft)? T(p (TKVTel TO, Sepfiara' epyov S* opOy 

21 'y(pr]crt<; tmv (f)avTaaicov. to GcopbdrLov 5e ovhev 
Trpo? e'yu.t'' TO, TOUTOV fiepr] ovSev tt/po? i/ie. Odva- 
T09 ; epx^eadw, orav OeXrj, etVe 6\ov etre /jLepov<; 

22 TLVO^. (pvyij ;^ kol ttov Svvarai ri<; eK^aXelv ; 
e^co TOV KoapLOv ov SvvaTai. ottov 5' av aTreXdco, 
EKel //Xfo?, eVet aeXijvr), eKcl ciarTpa, ivvirvta, 
olcovoL, i] 7r/3o? Oeov^ op^tXla. ' 

23 EZ^' oi/Tco? TrapacTKevaad/uLevov ovk eaTi. tovtol<^ 
apKelaOai tov Tat? dXyO€Lai<i VivviKov, d\X^ 
elSei'ciL Set, oVt dyyeXo'; diro tov Ato? direaTaXTaL 

1 Wolf: eVro's S. ^ t^xv^^ S. 

3 Upton : (pivye S. 

' That is, the ti-usted servant who attended constantly the 
boys of the well-to-do families, and in particular watched 
over their deportment and morals. 

2 ^fxirea-eTv seems to me to be used as in III. 7, 12. This is 
a rare meaning, indeed, but supported to some extent also 
by the gloss in Hesycliius : f/xTrea-elv fls dea/xwrvpiov axOrivai. 
The word is also used of getting caught in a trap, Xenophon 
Mem. II. 1, 4 : rols dvparpois iixir'nrrovffi. That is probably the 


BOOK III. XXII. 16-23 

vviLliiii him, the man of outdoor life, the free man ; 
he has begun to fear something external, he has 
begun to need something to conceal him), nor can 
he keep it concealed when he wishes to do so. For 
where will he conceal himself, or how ? And if 
tliis instructor of us all, this "pedagogue,"^ chance 
to get caught,^ what must he suffer ! Can, then, a 
man who is afraid of all this continue with all his 
heart to supervise the conduct of other men? It 
cannot be done, it is impossible. 

In the first place, tlien, you must make your 
governing principle pure, and you must make 
the following your plan of life : '' From now on my 
mind is the material with which I have to work, as 
the carpenter has his timbers, the shoemaker his 
hides ; my business is to make the right use of my 
impressions. My paltry body is nothing to me ; 
the parts of it are nothing to me. Death } Let 
it come when it will, whether it be the death of 
the whole or some part. Exile ? And to what place 
can anyone thrust me out? Outside the universe he 
cannot. But wherever I go, there are sun, moon, 
stars, dreams, omens, my converse with gods." 

In the next place, the true Cynic, when he is 
thus prepared, cannot rest contented with this, but 
he must know that he has been sent by Zeus to men, 

original form of expression from wliich the intransitive use 
derives. SchenkI (not Schweighjiuser, to whom I owe the 
above references to Hesychius and Xenophon) appears to me 
to be wrong in rendering the word "decipior," although 
Matheson is inclined to follow him. Capps suggests that 
"the KOLvos TToiSeuT^s is God," and that i/xv€crr] means "break 
in upon." But that might be somewhat inconsistent with 
ciTro Tvxvs, which seems hardly appropriate of an action on 
the part of God. 



Ka\ 7rpo<; toi;? av6pcJo7rov<; irepl ayaOoiv Kal KaKcoi' 
VTToBei^cov auTot?, on TreTrXdvrjvraL Kal aWa')(ov 
^rjTovac Tr}V ovaiav rod dyaOov Kal rov KaKov, 
OTTov ovK eartv, orrov S' eariv, ovk ivOvjJLOvvraL, 

24 Kal ft)? 6 AioyevT)^; tt7ra;^^et9 tt/do? ^iKlititov /juerd 
Ti]v ev ^aipcovela /jLd')^7]v KaTd(TK07ro<; eivai. rw 
yap ovTt KardaKOTTO's iariv 6 Kvpiko^ rov riva 

25 icrrl rol^ dvdpd)7roi<; (piXa Kal riva iroXefita' 
Kal Sel avrov dKpi^(x)<; KaraaKe^^dp^evov eXOovr 
uTrayyelXai, rdXi^Oy) fii]d' viro <f>6j3ov eKirXayevra, 
coo-re T0U9 fiii 6vra<; iroXepbiov^ Sel^aL, pbrjre rivd 
dXXov rpoTTOv vivo ra)v (pavraaicjv iraparapax- 
Oevra rj avy)(y6evra. 

26 Aet ovv avrov SvvaaOai dvareivd/juevov, dv 
ovrcD<; rv-)(J]> f^^^ ^^r'- o'Kr]vy]v rpayiKrjv dvep^o- 
p,evov Xeyeiv ro rov ^wKpdrov; " Ico dvOpcoTroL,^ 
irol (^epeaOe ; ri TToielre, w rdXaL'Kwpoi, ; co? 
rv(^Xol dvco Kal Kdrco KvXieaOe' dXXrjv oBov 
d'Trep')(eG6e ryv ovaav diroXeXoLTrore'^, dXXa'^ov 
^■tjrelre ro evpovv Kal ro evhaipiOVLKov^^ orrov ovk 

27 eanv, ovK dXXov BeiKvuovro<; iriarevere. ri airo 
efft) ^y]relr€ ; ev ad>p,ari ovk eanv. el diTLarelre, 
there yivpwva, there ^OcjieXXiov. ev Krijo-ei ovk 
ecrnv. el 8' dinarelre, there Kpotaov, there rov<; 
vvv 7rXovaiov<;, 6(TTj<i olpcoyrj<; 6 ^io<; avrwv 
pearof; eanv. ev dp^cf] ovk eanv. el he p^rj ye. 

^ Sohweighiiuser: iwvdpwnoi S : HuOpwiroi Leopold. 
2 Shaftesbury : rjyefxopiKSy S. 


BOOK III. XXII. 23-27 

partly as a messenger, in order to show them that 
in questions of good and evil they have gone astray, 
and are seeking the true nature of the good and 
tlie evil wliere it is not, but where it is they never 
think; and partly, in the words of Diogenes, when 
lie was taken off to Philip, after the battle of 
Chaeroneia, as a scout. ^ For the Cynic is truly a 
scout, to find out what things are friendly to men 
and what hostile ; and he must first do his scouting 
accurately, and on returning must tell the truth, not 
driven by fear to designate as enemies those who 
are not such, nor in any other fashion be distraught 
or confused by his external impressions. 

He must, accordingly, be able, if it so chance, 
to lift up his voice, and, mounting the tragic stage, 
to speak like Socrates : " Alas ! men, where are you 
rushing ? ^ What are you doing, O wretched people } 
Like blind men you go tottering all around. You 
have left the true path and are going off" upon 
another ; you are looking for serenity and happiness 
in the wrong place, where it does not exist, and 
you do not believe when another points them out 
to you. Why do you look for it outside? It does 
not reside in the body. If you doubt that, look 
at Myron, or Ophellius.^ It is not in possessions. 
If you doubt that, look at Croesus, look at the rich 
nowadays, the amount of lamentation with which 
their life is filled. It is not in office. Why, if it 

^ Compare I. 24, 3-10. The philosopher is a sort of spy 
sent on in advance into this world, to report to the rest of us 
what things are good and what evil. 

a [Plato], Cleitophon, 407 A— B. 

^ Probably famous athletes or gladiators of the day ; 
otherwise unknown. 


eSei Tou? St? Kal Tpl<; vTrdrov^; 6vSaL/iova<; elvat' 

28 ov/c elal Be. rlaiv irepl tovtov TriaTevaofiev ; 
v/xLu TOL<; e^coOev ra eKeivcov (BXeirovaLV Kal viro 
T/}? (^avTaaia<; TrepiXa/XTro/jLevoLf; i) avrol<; €K€lvol<;; 

29 TL XeyovcTLV ; aKovaare avrcov, orav ol/icoi^coaLv, 
orav arevccKTiv, orav Bi avra^ Ta<; virareia^; koi 
Tr}P Bo^av Kal rrjv eTTK^dveiav dOXLcorepov otcovraL 

30 Kal iiTLKLvBvvoTepov e^eiv. ev ^aaiXeia ovk 
eaTLv. el Be jjly), 'Nepcov dv evBaipicov eyevero Kal 
'EapBavaTraXXo';. aXX^ ovB' Wyafie/jLVcop evBal/jicov 
r)v Kalroi Koixy^orepo^ wv ^apBavairdXXov Kal 
Ney9ft)2^09, dXXd Twv dXXcov peyKovrcov eKelvo^ ri 
TTOiel ; 

7roXXd<; eK Ke(f)aXrj<i irpodeXvixvov^ eXKero ^alra^. 

Kal avTo<; ri Xeyei ; 

TrXd^o/jLai wSe, 

<j)i]aiv, Kal 

aXaXvKTijfiar KpaBlj] Be fioi e^co 
<jT))6eaiV eKOpojaKei. 

31 TaXa9, TL TMV ao)v e^et KaKco<i ; rj KrvjaL'^ ; ovk 
€X€L' dXXd 7roXv)(pvao<; el Kal 7ToXv)(aXKo<;. ro 
aco/xa ; ovk e%et.^ rt ovv gov Kaicov iariv ; eKelvo, 
6 TL TTore ^ r)fjLeX7}TaL aou Kal KaTe(f)OapTai, w 
opeyofxeOa, co eKKXivofxev, (L opfiwfJLev Kal d(f)op- 

32 ixodfxev. TTW? rjfjieXifTaL ; dyvoel rr^v ovaiav tov 

^ Capps transfers to this position to aufia; ovk ex*', which 
in .S' precede aWa . . . TroAi'xaA-'fos. 
^ rh TtTTOTe Blass, perhaps riglitly. 

^ Iliad, X. 15. 

BOOK III. XXII. 27-32 

were, then those who have been consul two or three 
times ought to be happy men, but they are not. 
Whom are we going to believe about this question ? 
You who look upon their estate from the outside 
and are dazzled by the external appearance, or the 
men themselves? What do they say? Listen to 
them when they lament, when they groan, when they 
think that their condition is more wretched and 
dangerous because of these very consulships, and 
their own reputation, and their prominence. It is 
not in royalty. Otherwise Nero would have been 
a happy man, and Sardanapalus. Nay, even 
Agamemnon was not a happy man, though a mucli 
finer fellow tiian Sardanapalus or Nero ; but while 
the rest are snoring what is he doing .^ 

" Many a hair did he pluck, by the roots, from 
his forehead."^ 

And what are his own words? 

" Thus do 1 wander," ^ 

he says, and 

"To and fro am I tossed, and my heart is 
Leaping forth from my bosom." ^ 

Poor man, what about you is in a bad state ? Your 
possessions ? No, it is not ; ratlier you " are possessed 
of much gold and of much bronze."* Your body? 
No, it is not. What, then, is wrong with you ? VVhy, 
this : You have neglected and ruined whatever that 
is within you by which we desire, avoid, choose, and 
refuse. How neglected ? It remains ignorant o\ 

V. 91. ^ V. 94 f. 

« lliacL XVIII. 289. 


arkian's discourses of epictetus 

a^aOuv irpo^ P]v rreifjvfce /cal t7]v tov /caKov kul 
TL 'iSlov e;\;et /cal ri aWorpiov. fcal orav tl tmv 
ahXorpLcov fcaKco<; €)(^ri, Xeyei " oval jjlol, ol yap 

33 ' ]LWr)V6<; Kivhvvevovcn. ' TdXaiiTcopov ijye/jbovLKov 
/cal jiovov aTTiixekiiTov Kal aOepdirevTov. "/leXkov- 
CTLV cLTToOvTjaKeiv XJTTO TOip Tpcocov dfaipeO evT€^.^' 
av 5' avrov<; ol Tpwe? pbrj diroKTelvwaiv, ou /jL)) 
dnoOdvcoaLv ; " val, dW' ou)(^ v(p^ ev Traz^re?." rl 
ovv SiacpepeL ,* el yap KaKov iari to diroOavelv, av 
re ouov dv re kuO' eva 6/j.olco<^ KaKov eariv. ixi] 
TL dWo TL fieWec ylveaOac ?'} to aco/judTiov ^(^copl^e- 

34 adai Kal r) -^v^^ > ** ovSev.^' (toI Be diroWv- 
fxevcov Tcov 'EWijvcov rj Ovpa Keic\ei(JTai ; ovk 
e^ecFTiv diroOavelv ; " e^ecmi^." ti ovv 7rev6el<s ; 
oval} ^aaikev^ Kal to tov Ato9 aK)]7TTpov e)(^cov. 
drvxv'i /SaaiXeh ov ylverar ov /xdWov r) 

35 druT^^? ^609. Tt ovv el ; Troi/jiyv rat? d\i]9elai^' 
ovT(o<^ yap K\dei<i Q}<i ol TroLfJieve^, orav Xvko<; 
dpTrdat) tl tcov Trpo/Sdrcov avTcov Kal ovtol he 

36 Trpo/SaTa elacv ol viro crov dpyoixevoL. tI he Kal 

1 Oldfather : oha S. 

^ Specifically alluding to the loosition of Agamemnon in 
the situation referred to above. 

2 This is a distinct over-statement of the case. Obviously 
it makes a great deal of difference for a State (and it is in 
his capacity as head of a State that Agamemnon is here 
appearing), whether its fighting men are killed all at once, 
or die one at a time in the course of nature. 

^ Presumably a king is expected to commit suicide before 
becoming "unfortunate," as suggested in § 34. If he sur- 
vived under the circumstances here described, he certainly 
must be " unfortunate," at least as a man, in any ordinary 
sense of the term. Capj^s, however, thinks the meaning of 
Epictetus to l>e that a king qua king, that is, while really 
liolding the sceptre of Zeus, is blessed of fortune. If "un- 
fortunate" he is simply not such a king. This refinement 

BOOK III. XXII. 32-36 

the true nature of the good, to which it was 
born, and of the true nature of the evil, and 
of what is its own proper ])Ossession, and what 
is none of its own concern. And whenever 
some one of these things that are none of its 
own concern is in a bad way, it says, " Woe is me, for 
the Greeks are in danger." ^ Ah, miserable govern- 
ing principle, the only thing neglected and uncared 
for! ^^They are going to perish, slain by the 
Trojans." But if the Trojans do not kill them, will 
they not die anyway? ^^ Yes, but not all at once." 
What difference does it make, then } For if death 
is an evil, whether they die all at once, or die one 
at a time, it is equally an evil.^ Nothing else is 
going to happen, is it, but the separation of the 
paltry body from the soul .^ "Nothing." And is 
the door closed for you, if the Greeks perish } Are 
you not permitted to die ? '^ I am." Why, then, do 
you grieve ? " Woe is me, a king, and holding the 
sceptre of Zeus ! " A king does not become un- 
fortunate any more than a god becomes unfortunate.^ 
What are you, then? Truly a shepherd!* for you 
wail as the shepherds do when a wolf carries off one 
of their sheep ; and these men over whom you rule 
are sheep. But why did you come here ^ in the first 

would be similar to the well-known argument concerning the 
"ruler qua ruler," in the first book of Plato's Republic. The 
more common-sense view of the case is well expressed by the 
Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey XI. 438, thus: "A king is 
unfortunate when his subjects fare ill." 

* Referring to the common Homeric designation of a ruler 
as the " shepherd of the folk." 

^ Capps proposes the novel view that fjpxo^ is from apxouai, 
and '• takes up apxi^H-^foi [35] . . . Agamemnon, by allowing 
himself to be dominated by an a\\6Tpioy irpaytia, has become 
a subject, a sheep." 



i)p\ov ; fjitj n 6pe^L<^ u/jlIv e/civBuvevero, /irj ri 
€KK\Lai<;, fii] Ti 6p/jLy], /xt] n a(f)op/jiij ; *' oi;," cfyrjau', 
" dWa Tou ahe\(^ov fiov ToyvvaiKiipLov rjpTrdyr].'' 

37 ov/c ovv ^ Kepho'^ fie'ya areprjOrjvat p,OL)(^L/<ov yvvai,- 
Kapiov ; " KaTa<p povy]6 m jiev ovv viro tmv Tpanov ; " 

TLVCOV OVTCOV / (fipOVL/jLWV i} d(p pOVCOV ; €l(f)pOVL/ia)V, 

ri at'Tot? TToKefxelre ; el dcppoucov, ri vpuv fieXei ; 

38 "^EjP tlvl ovv earc to dyaOov, erreiBij iv TOvroc<; 
ovK earcv ; elire rjfjLLv, Kvpie dyyeXe koX Kard- 
(TKOirey " OTTOv ov SoKetre ovSe OeK^re ^rirPjaat 
avTO. €1 yap rjOeXere, evpere dv avrb iv vpuv ov 
ou8* dv efo) eirXd^eaOe ovS' dv i^tjrelTe rd 

39 dWorpia o)? iSia. eTTLO-rpi'^are avrol e</)' eav- 
Tou?, Kara/idOere ra? 7r/ooX7;"v/^ei9 a? e^^ere. ttolov 
TL ipavrd^eaOe to dyaOov ; to evpovv, to evBai- 
fjbOVLKOv, TO dirapaTTohtaTOV. dye, p^kya" 8' avTo 
(f)vaiK(o^ ov (^avTd^eaOe ; d^ioXoyov ov (f)av- 

40 rd^eaOe ; d^\a^e<; ov (pavrd^eade ; iv iroia ovv 
v\rj Sel ^^}T€Lv TO evpovv koX dirapaTroBiaTov ; iv 
TTJ SovXrj rj iv Trj iXevOepa ; " " iv ttj iXevOipa." 
" TO aco/LidrLov ovv iXevOepov e^^ere 17 BovXov ; " 
" OVK laixevT " ovk icrre otl rrvpeTOV hovXov 
iaTLV, TToBdypa^, 6(f)6aX/j.La<;y hvaevTspia^, Tvpdv- 
vov, TTfpo?, at8}]pov, 7ravT0<; tov laxvpoTepov ;'^ 

41 " val BovXov.^^ " TTco? ovv eTL dve/JLTToStaTOV elvai 
TL SvvaTat TMV TOV ad)fiaTo<i ; ttw? Be fxiya r) 
d^LoXoyov TO (f)vaeL veKpov, 77 77), irrjXo'^ ; tI ovv ; 

42 ovBev e-)(^eTe iXevOepov ;^^ " yu7;7roT6 ovBevJ*^ '^ kol 

^ ovKovv 8. 2 Wolf : jxerd 8. 

^ See sections 24 and 25 above, and note there. 


BOOK HI. XXII. 36-42 

place? Your desire was not in danger, was it, or 
your avoidance, your choice, or your refusal ? " No," 
he answers, '' but my brother's frail wife was carried 
off." Was it not, then, a great gain to lose a frail 
and adulterous wife.'* '^^ Shall we, then, be despised 
by the Trojans?" Who are they? Wise men or 
foolish ? If wise, why are you fighting with them ? 
If foolish, why do you care ? 

" In what, then, is the good, since it is not in 
these things? Tell us. Sir messenger and scout." ^ 
" It is where you do not expect it, and do not wish 
to look for it. For if you had wished, you would 
have found it within you, and you would not now 
be wandering outside, nor would you be seek- 
ing what does not concern you, as though it were 
your own possession. Turn your thoughts upon 
yourselves, find out the kind of preconceived ideas 
which you have. Wliat sort of a thing do you 
imagine the good to be ? Serenity, happiness, 
freedom from restraint. Come, do you not imagine 
it to be something naturally great? Something 
precious? Something not injurious ? In what kind 
of subject-matter for life ought one to seek serenity, 
and freedom from restraint ? In that which is slave, 
or in that which is free ?" "■ In the free." '^^ Is the 
paltry body which you have, then, free or is it a 
slave?" "We know not." "You do not know 
that it is a slave of fever, gout, ophthalmia, 
dysentery, a tyrant, fire, iron, everything that is 
stronger?" "Yes, it is their servant." "How, 
then, can anything that pertains to the body be 
unhampered? And how can that which is naturally 
lifeless, earth, or clay, be great or precious? What 
then? Have you nothing that is free?" " Per- 



Tt9 v/JLd<; (ivayKaaaL Suvarac (JvyKaradeaOai tm 
yjrevBel (f)aLvo/i6va) ; " " ouSet'?." " rt? he fir) avyxa- 
raOeaOai tw (paivofievrp a\i]6el ; " " OL-^et?." 
" ii'OdS^ ovv Spare, on eari rt, ev vfjuv eXevOepov 

43 (^vaei. opeyeadai S' tj eKKXiveiv rj op/iidv i) d(pop- 
fxdv rj 7rapa(TK6vd^€adaL tj irporlOeadaL rt? v/xcov 
Bvi'arat, fxrj \a,Scov (^avraaiav \vcnTeXov<; ?) jxtj 
KaO}';icovTO<; ; " " oL'Set?." " e;^eT€ ovv Kcil ev 

44 rovTOt<; aKcoXvTov n^ /cal eXevdepov. ToXanrw- 
poiy TOVTO i^epyd^eade, tovtov eV^/xeX-ecr^e, evrav- 
6a ^Tjrelre to dyaOovT 

45 Kai TTCO? evhexerai /xijBev exovra, yvfivov, 
aoLKov, dveariov, av)(^fjL(ovTa, aSovXov,^ diroXiv 

46 Sie^dyeLV evpoco^ ; ISov direcnaXKev v/jLlv 6 ^eo? 

47 Tov Bei^ovra epyw, ore evBexerai. " tSere fxe, 
aoiKO^ 6L/JLL, d'7ToXi,<;, dKTtjpojv, ci8ovXo<;' %ayCtal 
KOL/uLMfiar ov yvvi], ov TraiBla, ov TrpaircoplBLOVf 
dXXd yrj fiovov koX ovpavo<; koI ev Tpi^wvdpiov. 

48 Ka\ ri (jlol XeiTrei ; ovk elfxi dXviTO<;, ovk elp^i 
a(po/3o<;, ovk elpa eXevOepo^ ; irore vpodv elhev jie 
TL<; ev ope^ei dTTOTvy')(^dvovTa, ttot ev efcxXlaeL 
TTepLTTLirTOVTa ; ttot ifxefiy^dixriv rj Oeov rj avOpw- 
irov, TTOT eveKdXead tlvl ; fjnf) rt? v/jlcov ia/cvOpco- 

49 TraKora /le elBev ; ttw? S' ivrvyx^dvco toutol<;, oD? 
uyxet? (f)ofiel(TOe koI Oavfid^ere ; ovx <«*? dvBpa- 
iTohoL'^ ; Tt? pe IScov ov)(l tov ^aacXea tov eavrov 
opuv ohrai kuX heaiTOTriv ; " 

* Tt added by Wolf, after Schegk. 
2 Upton : lovXop S. 


BOOK III. XXII. 42-49 

haps nothing." "And who can compel you to 
assent to that vvliich appears to you to be false .'' " 
" No one." " And who to refuse assent to that 
which appears to you to be true?" "No one." 
" Here, then^ you see that there is something within 
you which is naturally free. But to desire, or to 
avoid, or to choose, or to refuse, or to prepare, 
or to set something before yourself — what man 
amonff vou can do these thinsrs without first con- 
ceiving an im})ression of what is profitable, or what 
is not fitting?" "No one." "You have, there- 
fore, here too, something unhindered and free. 
Poor wretches, develop this, pay attention to this, 
seek here your good." 

And how is it possible for a man who has nothing, 
who is naked, without home or hearth, in squalor, 
without a slave, without a city, to live serenely ? 
Behold, God has sent you the man who will show in 
practice that it is possible. " Look at me," he says, " I 
am without a home, without a city, without projjerty, 
Avithout a slave ; 1 sleep on the ground ; I have neither 
wife nor children, no miserable governor's mansion, 
but only earth, and sky, and one rough cloak. Yet 
what do I lack } Am I not free from pain and fear, 
am I not free } When has anyone among you seen 
me failing to get what I desire, or falling into what 
I w ould avoid .'' When have I ever found fault with 
either God or man ? When have I ever blamed any- 
one ? Has anyone among you seen me with a gloomy 
face ? And how do 1 face those persons before 
whom you stand in fear and awe ? Do 1 not face 
them as slaves ? Who, when he lays eyes upon 
me, does not feel that he is seeing his king and his 
master? " 



50 "iSe KVVLKal (f)Q)vai, cBe ^apaKT)]p, W ein/SoXj]. 
ov' aWa TTTipihiov kol ^vXov Kai yvciOoi fieyciXar 
Kara(f)ay6iv irav o av ^ Sro? rj aTToOrjaavpiaai r) 
TOK airavTMai XoihopelaOat aKaLpco<; rj koKov 

51 Tov w/JLOP BeiKPvetv. t^jXikovto) Trpdy/juarL 6pa<; 
TTw? yu-eX-Xei? ey)(eLpelv ; eaoirrpov nrpCoTov Xa/Se, 
Xhe <Jov TOi'9 oifiov<^, fcardfiaOe rrjv oacfivv, rov^ 
/jLT}pov<;. ^OXvfiTTLa /xeXXei'i diT0<ypd(^ea6aL, ap- 
Opwire, ov)(^L Tivd TTore dyo)va y^vs^pov kui TaXai- 

52 TTwpov. ovK eanv iv 'OXv/i7TL0i<; viKrjdrjvaL 
fiovov Kal e^eXOelv, dXXa Trpoirov puev 6Xr}<; tt}? 
oiKOVfievrji; ^X€7rovcr7j<; Bel da^VZ-^oprjaai, ov^l 
'AOrjj/alcov fxovov rj AaKeSac/jLOVifov rj Nl/cottoXl- 
TMV, elra kol BepeaOai Bel top elKr} i^eXOovra,^ 
irpo Be Tov Baprjvat BLyjrrjaai, Kau/jLaricrOrjvai, 
TToXXrjv d(pi]v KaruTnelv. 

53 Y^ovXevaau eTn/j^eXerrrepov, yvoiOi aavrovy dvd- 
KpLvov TO Baipioviov, Blxcl deov fjirj e7rLX^Lpy}ar]<;. 
av yap avfx^ovXevar}, laOi ore fieyav ae OeXei 

64 yeveaOai rj iroXXa.'^ irXriya'^ Xa^elv. Kal yap 
Tovro Xlav Koixy^rhv tco Kwikw TrapaireTrXeKTar 
Bepeadai avrov Bel co? ovov Kal Bepo/juevov (pcXelv 
avTOv<; Tou? Bepovra^; &)? irarepa Trdvrcov, co? 

55 dBeX(f)6v. OV' dXX^ av tl? ere Bep7], Kpavya^e 
crra? eV tw fieaw " c5 K.aL(jap, iv rrj afj elpi'jvr] 

1 Sclienkl : ^iv S. 

2 elae\d6pTa Meiboni. Compare explanatory note. 

^ Meibom's conjecture, d(reXd6vTa, which is sometimes 
accepted, would mean, " The man who carelessly enters the 
contest." But the punishment of Hogging would probably be 
reserved for the person who failed to appear finally in the 
lists, since everyone had to have a month's preliminary 


BOOK [II. vxii. 50-55 

Lo, these are words that befit a Cynic, this is his 
character, and his plan of life. But no, you say, 
what makes a Cynic is a contemptible wallet, a staff, 
and big jaws ; to devour everything you give him, 
or to stow it away, or to revile tactlessly the people 
he meets, or to show off his fine shoulder. Do you 
see the spirit in which you are intending to set your 
hand to so great an enterprise ? First take a mirror, 
look at your shoulders, find out w-hat kind of loins 
and thighs you have. Man, it's an Olympic contest 
in which you are intending to enter your name, not 
some cheap and miserable contest or other. In the 
Olympic games it is not possible for you merely to 
be beaten and then leave ; but, in the first place, 
you needs must disgrace yourself in the sight of the 
whole civilized world, not merely before the men of 
Athens, or Lacedaemon, or Nicopolis ; and, in the 
second place, the man who carelessly gets up and 
leaves^ must needs be flogged, and before he is 
flogged he has to suffer tliirst, and scorching heat, 
and swallow quantities of wrestler's sand. 

Think the matter over more carefully, know your- 
self, ask the Deity, do not attempt the task without 
God. For if God so advises you, be assured that He 
wishes you either to become great, or to receive 
many stripes. For this too is a very pleasant strand 
woven into the Cynic's pattern of life ; he must 
needs be flogged like an ass, and while he is being 
Hogged he must love the men who flog him, as 
though he were the father or brother of them all. 
But that is not your way. If someone flogs you, go 
stand in the midst and shout, " O Caesar, what do I 

training on the spot, during which time those who had 
entered woukl sufifer tlie inconveniences described be] 



ola irda^fo ; ayayfiev eVt rov avOvirarov.'^ 

56 l^vvLK(p he Kalaap ri icrrlp r) uvOvrraTO^ rj dWo<; 
T) 6 Kararr€7ro^(i>a)<; avrov koI m Xarpevec, 6 
Zei;? ; dWov tlvcl eTTiKaXelrai rj eKelvov ; ov 
TTeireLaTat, S\ o tl av irda^T] tovtwv, oti iK€ivo<; 

57 avTov yvfjLvd^€L ; aXX 6 fxev 'HpaKXi]<; viro 
^vpvaOeco^; <yv/jLva^6/x€vo<; ovk ivo/xL^ev dO\io<; 
elvaiy aW' doKVQ)<; eVeTeXet irdvra rd irpoaTar- 
TOfieva'^ ovTO<i 5' vtto tov Al6<; dOXovfievo<; 
Kal yv/jLva^ofievo^ /jueXXec /ceKpayevat /cal dyavaK- 
relv, d^LO^ (popelv to a/crjirrpov ro AtoyeVou? ; 

58 dKOue, ri Xeyet eKelvo<i irvpeaawv tt/do? tov<s 
TrapLovra^;- " Ka/cai,' ecprj, " icec^aXal, ov fievelre ; 
dXX dOXrjTCOv fiev oXedpoav^ fid)(7)u 6y^6fX€V0L 
dime ohov roaavTrjv et? ^OXvfnriav' irvpeTOv he 

59 Koi dvOpcoTTOv fjbd^rjv Iheiv ov ^ovXeade ; " Ta^u 
y dv 6 roLOVTO<i eve/cdXeaev rw dew fcaraTreTTO/j,- 
(poTL avrov co? Trap* d^i'av avrw y^pwixevco, o? 
ye eveKaXXcoTTL^ero rai<; irepiardaeat Kal dea/na 
elvai rj^LOv ro)V irapiovrcov. errl rivi yap eyKa- 
Xeaei ; on €V(T')(r}/j,oveL ; ri ^ Karrjyopel ; on 
Xa/iiTrporepav eTnheiKvvrai rrjv dperrjv rrjv eav- 

^ Meibom : irpaTrSix^va S. 
2 Blass : oXedpov ^ fj-axv^ S. ^ Elter : '6ti 8. 

^ Referred to also by Jerome, Adv. Jovinianum, 2, 14. 

2 An ancient scholiast, probably Arethas (cf. Schenkl^, 
p. Ixxx), remarks at this point, that Epictetus had probably 
read the Gospels and Jewish literature. But this particular 
passage does not furnish any very cogent argument, for the 
evidence adduced, namely the injunctions about "turning 
the other cheek" and " loving your enemies" {Matth. 5,39 
and 44), has nothing in common with the somewhat vain- 

BOOK III. x.xii. 55-59 

ha\e to suffer under your peaceful rule r let us go 
before the Proconsul." But what to a Cynic is 
Caesar^ or a Proconsul, or anyone other than He 
who has sent him into the world, and whom he 
serves, that is, Zeus? Does he call upon anyone 
but Zeus ? And is he not persuaded that whatever 
of" these hardships he suffers, it is Zeus that is exer- 
cising him? Nay, but Heracles, when he was being 
exercised by Eurystheus, did not count himself 
wretched, but used to fulfil without hesitation every- 
thing that was enjoined upon him : and yet is this 
fellow, when he is being trained and exercised by 
Zeus, prepared to cry out and complain? Is he a 
man worthy to carry the start' of Diogenes ? Hear his 
words to the passers-by as he lies ill of a fever : ^ 
'^ Vile wretches," he said, "are you not going to 
stop ? Nay, you are going to take that long, long 
journey to Olympia, to see the struggle of worthless 
athletes ; but do you not care to see a struggle 
between fever and a man ? " ^ No doubt a man of 
that sort would have blamed God, who had sent him 
into the world, for mistreating him ! Nay, he took 
pride in his distress, and demanded that those who 
passed by should gaze upon him. Why, what will 
he blame God for? Because he is living a decent 
life ? What charge does he bring against Him ? 
The charge that He is exhibiting his virtue in a more 

glorious speech of Diogenes. Probably, however, the 
scholium actually belongs at § 5-4, where there is, indeed, a 
certain resemblance. Fairly apposite, also, is the citation 
of James 1,2: iraaav xapav r)yr}(Taa6e, aSeXcpoi, orav ireipaa^io'is 
Trepiireo-T^Te iroiKiXois, in connection with the next sentence. 
But even at the best, these words from the New Tesiamciit 
are only parallels, certainly not sources. On the general 
question, see Introd., Vol. I., p. xxvif. 


(iO Tov ; aye, ire pi 7revLa<; Se tl XejeL, irep) Oavdrov, 
Trepl TTOvov ; ttw? avveKpivev ryjv euBai/xovlav 
ri-jv avTOU rfj fxeyaXov ^aaiXecL)<; ; fiaWov 5' 

61 ovhe avyKpiTov coero eivai. oirov yap rapa^ai 

KOl \v7rai KOl (j)6^0L /cal 6p€^€L<i dT€\6L<; KcCl 

eKK.\iaeL<; irepirriiTTovaaL /cal (fiOovoi /cal ^r/Xoru- 
TTiai, TTOv i/cel •Trdpoho<; evSai/jL0VLa<; ; oirov S' 
av y aairpa 86y/jiara, i/cel iravra ravra elvai 

62 YluOofievov Be tov veavLcr/cou, el vocn](Ta<^ d^iovv- 
ro<s (filXov 7Tp6<; aiirov eXOeZv Mare voa-oKOfitiGiivai 
viraKovaeiy Yiov he (puXov poi S(i)a6L<i Kvvikou ; 

63 e(f)r]. Sec <ydp avrov dXXov elvai tolovtov, Xv 
d^io^ rj (f)iXo<; avrov dpiOpelaOaL. kolv(ovov 
avTov elvai Set rod a/ctjirrpov /cal rf]<i /3aaLXeLa<; 
/cal Sid/covov d^Lov, el p^eXXet </)tXta9 d^icoOyj- 
aeaOai, co? ALoy€P7)<; ^ Avria6evov<; eyevero, &)9 

64 Kpdrtjf; /\ioyevov<;. rj^ Bo/cel aoL, ore, dv ^alpeiv 
avrfp Xeyrj nTpoaep')(^6p.evo^y <^iXo'^ earlv avrov 

05 /cd/ceLvo<; avrov d^LOV yyijaerai rov Trpo? avrov 
elaeXdelv ; ooare dv aoi Bokt} /cal ev6vpi]6fj<:; n^ 
roLOvrov, Koirplav pidXXov irepL^Xerrov /cop,yfn]v, 
€V y 7rvpe^€L<;,^ dnoa Kerr ova av rov jSopeav, 7va 

66 pLTj irepLy\rvyfj<;. av he poi ho/cel<^ OeXeiv et? ol/cov 
rivo^ drreXOoiv hid ')(^p6vov ')(opraa6)]iat. ri ovv 
aoi /cal eTrLX^ipelv rrpdy/uari rifXiKOvrw ; 

67 Fa/AO? h\ €(p>), /cal Trai^e? '7Tpo7]yov/j,evco<; rrapa- 

1 Schegk : 1] S. ^ Reiske : iudviuT^dTjrt S. 

3 Schweighauser : irvp 'i^eis S. 

1 Of Persia. 

'•^ The word means also "staff," as in 57. 


BOOK III. XXII. 60-67 

brilliant style? Come, what says Diogenes a])out 
poverty, death, hardship? How did he habitually 
compare his happiness with that of the Great King ? ^ 
Or rather, he thought there was no comparison 
between them. For wliere there are disturbances, 
and griefs, and fears, and ineffectual desires, and 
unsuccessful avoidances, and envies, and jealousies 
— where is there in the midst of all tins a place for 
happiness to enter? But wherever worthless judge- 
ments are held, there all these passions must neces- 
sarily exist. 

And when the young man asked whether he, as a 
Cynic, should consent, if, when he had fallen ill, a 
friend asked him to come to his house, so as to 
receive proper nursing, Epictetus replied : But 
where will you find me a Cynic's friend ? For such 
a person must be another Cynic, in order to be 
w^orthy of being counted his friend. He must share 
with him his sceptre ^ and kingdom, and be a wortiiy 
ministrant, if he is going to be deemed worthy of 
friendship, as Diogenes became the friend of Antis- 
thenes, and Crates of Diogenes. Or do you think 
that if a man as he comes up greets the Cynic, he is 
the Cynic's friend, and the Cynic will think him 
worthy to receive him into his house? So if that is 
what you think and have in mind, you had much 
better look around for some nice dunghill, on which 
to have your fever, one that will give you shelter 
from the north wind, so that you won't get chilled. 
But you give me the impression of wanting to go 
into somebody's house for a while and to get filled 
up. Why, then, are you even laying your hand to 
so great an enterprise ? 

But, said the young man, will marriage and children 



\i]^Oi]aovTai vTTo rov K.vvlkov ; — "Ai^ jjlol aocbcov, 
€(pT], Sa)<; ttoXlv, rdxa fiev ovS' y]^6t Ti? paSt'w? 
iirl TO Kwi^eiv. tlvwv yap eveKa dvaSi^tjTai ^ 
08 ravTt]v TTjv Sie^aycoy7]v ; ofjuw^ 8' dv vtt o ay fxeO a, 
ovhev KcoXvaec /cal yfj/jLai aurov /cal iraihoTron']- 
aaaduL. koI yap rj yvvi] avrov earai dWi] 
TOLavrr) fcal 6 rrevOepo^ aWo? toiovto<; Kal rd 

69 irathia ovTCD<; dvaTpa^t]aeTai. T0i.avT7]<; B^ ovar)<; 
Karaar da €(!)<;, o'la vvv ecrrLV, co? eV Traparu^ei, 
/JL7] ttot' aTrepLaTraarov elvac See rov Ivvvlkov, 
oXov 7rpo<^ rfi BiaKOvla rod deov, €7ri<p0LTdv dvOpco- 
TTOi? hwapievov, 01) irpoahehepevov xaOij/covaiv 
lSicorLKOL<i ovS^ ipLTTeTrXeypevov aykaecTLV, a? 
irapa^aivwv ovkstl acoaec to rov fcaXov Kal 
dyadov 7rp6<J(07rov, ry]pcov 8' dTroXel rov dyyeXov 

70 Koi Kardo-KOTTOV Kal Ki^pvKa rcov Oeojv ; bpa ydp, 
on avrov aTroheiKvvvau Bel ^ rtvd rw irevOepw, 
diroBiBovai, rol<^ dXXoi<; avyyeveat rrj^ yvvaiKo^i, 
avrf) rf] yvvaiKL' et? voaoKopLa<; XoLirov eKKXeie- 

71 rat, €1? iropLapLov. 'iva rdXXa dcpco, Bel avrov 


tV ai^To Xovar) eh crKdcp^jv epiBua reKovar] rf] 
yvvaiKL, eXaiov, Kpa/3drrcov, rrori^pLov (yiverac 

72 i]Br) TrXeiw aKevdpia)' rrjv dXXrjV daypXiav, 
rov irepLarraa pov- rrov pioi Xoittov eKeli'0<i o 
^aaiXeii^; 6 Tot? kolvoI<s TrpoaevKaipcjv, 

w XaoL r iircrerpdcfiaraL Kal roaaa pbeprjXev 

1 Schenkl : &»/ S|7jTai S. 

2 Sei" added by Schenkl : Sc (?) has it after Sn. 

1 Homer, Iliad, II. 25. 

BOOK III. XXII. 67-72 

be undertaken \)y tlie Cynic as a matter of prime 
importance? — If, replied Pl,pictetus, you grant me a 
city of wise men, it migiit very well be that no one 
will lightly adoj)t the Cynic's profession. For in 
whose interest would he take on this style of life? 
If, nevertheless, we assume that he does so act, there 
will be nothing to prevent him from both marrying 
and having children ; for his wife will be another 
person like himself, and so will his father-in-law, and 
his children will be brought up in the same fashion. 
Hut in such an order of things as the present, which 
is like that of a battle-field, it is a question, perhaps, 
if the Cynic ought not to be free from distraction, 
wholly devoted to the service of God, free to go 
about among men, not tied down by the private 
duties of men, nor involved in relationships which 
he cannot violate and still maintain his role as 
a good and excellent man, whereas, on the other 
hand, if he observes them, he will destroy the 
messenger, the scout, the herald of the gods, that 
he is. For see, he must show certain services to 
his father-in-law, to the rest of his wife's relatives, 
to his wife herself; finally, he is driven from his 
profession, to act as a nurse in his own familv and to 
provide for them. To make a long story short, he 
must get a kettle to heat water for the babv, for 
washing it in a bath-tub; wool for his wife when 
she has had a child, oil, a cot, a cup (the vessels get 
more and more numerous) ; not to speak of the rest 
of his business, and his distraction. Where, I beseech 
you, is left now our king, the man who has leisure 
for the public interest. 

Who hath charge of the folk and for many a thing 
must be watchful ? ^ 


VOL. II. p 


ou Bel Tou? a\Xov<; €7rL(JK0irelv, toi/? yeya/jLrjKOTa'^, 
Toi/? ireiraihoiroirifxevov^, rt? /caXw? ■)(^pT]TaL rfj 
avTOv jvpaLKc, tU /cukm^, ti? BiacpeperaL, ttolu 
OLKLa evaradel, iroia ov, co? larpov 7r€pL€p)(6fj,€vov 

73 Kal Tcov a(j)vy/ia)v uTTTOixevov ; ** av TrvpeTrec^, 
ai) K€(pa\a\'y€'L'^, av TroBaypa^' av dvdretvov, av 
(fxiye, av akovry^aov ae hel T/jLi]df}i>ai, ae Bel 

74 Kav6?]vaL.^ irov a^oXrj tw el<i ra IBicotlkci 
Ka6))fcovTa evBeBefiepo) ; aye} ov Bel avrbv iropiaai 
llxaTiBia ToU TratBiOL^ ; TTyOo? ypa/jijjLaTcar)]v diro- 
aTeVkai iTLvaKiBLa e^ovra, ypa(})ela, rcrXapia,^ 
KCLiri ^ rovroL<^ /cpa/SdrrLov eroL/xdaaL ; ov yap 
€K tT;? /coiXia? i^eXOovra Buvarat Hvvlkcl elvav 
el Be fiy'], Kpelaaov r/v avrd yevofieva pl-yjrai i) 

75 nvTco<i diroKTelvaL. aKoirei, irov Kardyofiev rhv 

76 KvvLKOv, TTft)? avrov rrjv ^aaiXelav dc^aipovpieOa. 
— Nar dWa KpdTT]<; eyrj/jLev. — Hepiaraaiv p.0L 
Xeyet^ e^ epcoro^ yevopievrjv fcal yvvatKa rideh 
dXXov K/)aT7?Ta. /;/u,et9 Be irepl tcov KOiV(hv ydpwv 
Kal drrepiaTdTcdv ^y]Tov/jLev fcal outo)? ^yjTovvTe<; 
ovx evpiaKopLev ev * ravrrj rfj KaraardaeL 
TrpoTjyov/jLevov tw Y^vvlkw to irpdypa. 

11 n«o<? ovv en, (f)yjaiv, Bcaacooec rrjv KOivwviav ; 
— Tov deov aor^ fxei^ova 8' evepyerovaiv dvdpco- 

^ Transposed to this position by Upton from the beginning 
of the next sentence. 
2 l)u Cange : nWdpia S. 
^ ]^]lter, after Schegk : Kal S. 

* iv added by Upton. 

* Upton : (TOV S. 

* That ancient marriages (which woukl appear to have 
been quite as successful as any other) were very seldom con- 

■ 56 

BOOK III. XXII. 72-77 

Where, pray, is this king, whose duty it is to over- 
see the rest of men ; those who liave married ; 
those who have had children ; who is treating 
his wife well, and who ill; who quarrels; what 
household is stable, and what not ; making his 
rounds like a physician, and feeling pulses? "You 
have a fever, you have a headache, you have the 
gout. You must abstain from food, you must eat, you 
must give up the bath ; you need the surgeon's knife, 
you the cautery." Where is the man who is tied 
down to the duties of everyday life going to find 
leisure for such matters? Come, doesn't he have to 
get little cloaks for the children ? Doesn't he have 
to send them off to a school-teacher with tiieir little 
tablets and writing implements, and little note- 
books ; and, besides, get the little cot ready for them ? 
For theij can't be Cynics from the moment they leave 
the womb. And if he doesn't do all this, it would 
have been better to expose them at birth, rather 
than to kill them in this fashion. See to what straits 
we are reducing our Cynic, how we are taking away 
his kingdom from him. — Yes, but Crates married. — 
You are mentioning a particular instance which 
arose out of passionate love, and you are assuming a 
wife who is herself another Crates. But our inquiry 
is concerned with ordinary marriage apart from 
special circumstances,^ and from this point of view 
we do not find that marriage, under present con- 
ditions, is a matter of prime importance for the Cynic. 
How, then, said the young man, will the Cynic 
still be able to keep society going .^ — In the name of 
God, sir, who do mankind the greater service ? 

cerned with romantic passion, is well known, but seldom so 
explicitly stated as here. 


TTOL*? 01 i) Svo 7/ rpla KaKopv^f-^a iraiSia avO' 
avTMV €iadyoi'r€<; t) ol €7naK07rovvr6<; Trai^ra? 
Kara hvvajjLiv ai'OpcoTrov;, ri ttoioixtlv, 7rw9 
Suiyovacv, tLvo^ eirifieXovvTai, tlvo<; afiekovai, 

78 irapa to TrpoaijKOv ; fcal Srj^atov^; fiei^ova u)<j)€- 
Xifaav oaoi reKvla avTOt<; KareXiirov ^Eirafii- 
vcovSov Tov cireKvov airoOavovro'^ ; koI 'OfjLjjpov 
irXeiova rfj KOivwvia avve/SdXeTO rf/?ta//09 6 
irevTi]KOVTa yevin'-jaa<^ irepiKaOdpfiaTa i) /\avao<i 

79 i) Ai'oXo? ; elra arparyyia fiev rj avvrayjbid riva 
iiTreip^eL yd/iov rj 7raiSo7roua<^ /cat ov Bo^et ovro^ 
dvT ovhevo^i riXXaxOai ti-jv dreKViav, t) Be tov 

80 KvvLKov ^aaiXeia ovk eaTai dvTa^ia ; fiijiroTC 
ovK aladavo/jLeOa tov fieyeOov^; avTOv ovSk 
(^avTa^ofieOa kut d^iav tov 'X^apaKTTjpa tov 
Aioyevov^, dXX' et? tou? vuv diro/SXeTrofiev, tov<; 
TyoaTrefr/a? 1 irvXawpov^, ot ovSev fiifMOVVTai 
€/c€ivov<; rj el tl ^ dpa 7r6pSo)V€<; yivovTai, dXXo 

81 S' ovhev ; eirel ovk dv 7)fid<; eKivet TavTa ovS" 
dv eireOavi-idtoixev, el /jlt) yafiyjaec rj iraLBoiroLi')- 
atTai. dvOpcoTre, 7rdvTa<; dv6p(t)7T0V^ ireiraiho- 
TTolyjTai, T0U9 dvBpa<; viov<; exei, ra? yvvalK,a<s 
OvyaTepa^' irdaiv ovtw's irpoaepxeTai, ovtco<; 

82 irdvTwv /c7]BeTai. ?'} av BoK€t<; vtto Trepiepyia^ 
XoihopelaOai tol<; diravTMatv ; ft)9 TraTtjp avTo 
TTOtel, o)? dSeX(f)o<; Kal tov kolvov iraTpo^; vrrripe- 

T7]<; TOV At09. 

83 *'Av aoL So^y, irvOov fiov Kal el iroXiTevaeTai. 

^ Upton : rpamC^s S. 
2 Schenkl : oti S. 

1 Homer, Iliad, XXII. 69. 

BOOK HI. XXII. 77-83 

Those who bring into the world some two or three 
ugly-snouted children to take their place, or those 
who exercise oversight, to the best of their ability, 
over all mankind, observing what they are doing, 
how they are spending their lives, what they are 
careful about, and what they undutifully neglect? 
And were the Thebans helped more by all those 
who left them children than by Epaminondas who 
died without offspring ? And did Priam, who begot 
fifty sons, all rascals, or Danaus, or Aeolus, contribute 
more to the common weal than did Homer? What? 
Shall high military command or writing a book pre- 
vent a man from marrying and having children, while 
such a person will not be regarded as having ex- 
changed his childlessness for naught, and yet shall 
the Cynic's kingship not be thought a reasonable 
compensation ? Can it be that we do not perceive the 
greatness of Diogenes, and have no adequate con- 
ception of his character, but have in mind the present- 
day representatives of the profession, these " dogs 
of the table, guards of the gate," ^ who follow the 
masters not at all, except it be in breaking wind in 
public, forsooth, but in nothing else ? Otherwise such 
points as these you have been raising would never 
have disturbed us, we should never have wondered 
why a Cynic will never marry or have children. 
Man, the Cynic has made all mankind his children ; 
the men among them he has as sons, the women as 
daughters ; in that spirit he approaches them all and 
cares for them all. Or do you fancy that it is in the 
spirit of idle impertinence he reviles those he meets ? 
It is as a father he does it, as a brother, and as a 
servant of Zeus, who is Father of us all. 

If you will, ask me also if he is to be active in 



84 aavviwv, fiei^ova iroXirelav ^tjrel';, ?;? nroXiTeve- 
rai ; r}^ iv ^A0yjvaiOL<; TrapeXOcov epel tl^ irepl 
rrpoaoBcov rj iropcdv, ov Sec iraaLv avOpco7roi<; 
hiokeyeaOaL, eVtV?;? pev ^AOrjvaioL'^, eVtcr?;? he 
KopivOiOLfi, eVtcTT;? 3e 'Po)p,aLOL(; ov Trepl iropcov 
ovSe Trepl irpoauhwv ovBe irepl €lpy]vr](i rj tto- 
Xepiov, ciWa irepl ev8aip.oi>La<i kol KaKoSaip^ovla^y 
irepl evTvx,ia<^ kol Svarv^^^la^, irepl SouXela^; Koi 

85 e\ev6epia<i ; TrfKiKavTrfV TroXireiav iroXirevo- 
p,€vov avOpcoTTOv (TV p,ov iTvvOdvri el TToXiTevaerai; 
TTvOov piov Kal, el ap^ec ttciXlv epco aor ficopi, 
TToiav ap')(y]V p^ec^ova, ri<; tt/3%6i ; 

86 y^peia pevroi koi crcuyuaro? ttolov tco tolovtw. 
errei tol av (f)OLaLKo<; 7rpoep-)(r]TaL, Xeino'i kol 
coy^p6<;, ovKeji 6p.oiav ep,(paaLV ?) p,apTvpia avroO 

Slex^ t. Sec <yap avrov ov /jlopop to, t?}? -x^u^^? 
eTnSeLKVvovra Trapiardveiv tol<; IBiooTaif; on 
evBe)(eTai Biy^a rcov OavpLa^o/xepcov vir avTcop 
elvai " KaXov kol ci'yaOov, dXXa koI Bia rov 
crco/xaro? evheiKvvaOai, ore r) d(f)eXr}(; koI Xctt) 
KoX v7raL0po<i ciaira ovSe to (7(op.a Xvp.aiveTar 

88 " Ihov Kal TovTov p,uprv<; elpX iyco Kal to aaypLa 
TO €p,6v" o)? /lLoyevr]<; eiroUr aTiXjBwv 'yap 
irepL~t]p\eTO Kal Kar ^ avrb to crM/xa eTrearpecbe 

81> TOL"? 7roXXov<;. iXeov/nepo^ Be Kvpiko^; eVatV/;? 

^ Schvveighauser : €t S. 

2 The Salamanca ed., Wolf, and Salmasius : eJyai vir* 
avToii' S. 

3 Wolf : Kud' S. 

^ Said by the Scholiast to be a reference to the otherwise 
unknown philosopher Sannio ; but this note certainly, as 
Capps suggests, belongs back at § 84, and is there a false 


BOOK III. xxir. 84-89 

politics. Vou ninny, arc 3011 looking for any nobler 
politics than that in which he is engaged ? Or 
would you have someone in Athens step forward and 
discourse about incomes and revenues, when he is 
the person who ought to talk with all men, 
Athenians, Corinthians, and Romans alike, not about 
revenues, or income, or peace, or war, but about 
happiness and unhappiness, about success and failure, 
about slavery and freedom ? When a man is en- 
gaging in such exalted politics, do you ask me if he 
is to engage in politics ? Ask me also, if he will hold 
office. Again I will tell you : Fool, what nobler 
office will he hold than that which he now has ? 

And yet such a man needs also a certain kind of 
body, since if a consumptive comes forward, thin 
and pale,^ his testimony no longer carries the same 
weight. For he must not merely, by exhibiting the 
qualities of his soul, prove to the laymen that it is 
possible, without the help of the things which thev 
admire, to be a good and excellent man, but he 
must also show, by the state of his body, that his 
plain and simple style of life in the open air does 
not injure even his body : " Look," he says, "both 
I and my body are witnesses to the truth of my 
contention." That was the way of Diogenes, for 
he used to go about with a radiant complexion,^ 
and would attract the attention of the common 
people by the very appearance of his body. But 
a Cynic who excites pity is regarded as a beggar ; 

inference from the word aavi'iuiv, which is addressed to the 
5'oung man. For a similar dislocation of a scholium, see the 
note on § 58. 

2 Due in part at least to his regular use of oil for anointing. 
Diogenes Laertius, 6, 81. 



SoKsr 7rdvT€'s a7Toarpe(^onai, Tra/'re? TrpoaKoir- 
TovcFLv. ovhe 'yap pvirapov avrhv Set (^aiveaOai, 
CO? yLtr;8e Kara tovto tou? dvOpcoTTOv^; diroao^elv, 
aXX' avTov top avx/^ov aurou See KaOapov elvai 
Koi dycoyop. 

90 Aei Se Kul X^'-P^^ noWrju irpoaetvaL (j^vat/CTjv 
rw }s.vviK(p fcal o^vrrjTa (et Be fxi], fiv^a yiuerai, 
aWo S' ovSev), u'a erolfico^i Bvvyjrac kol irapa- 

91 K€i/jL€P(o<i 7rpo<; ra i/jLTrLTrrovra diravTav. co? 
Aioyiut]'^ TT/Oo? TOP elirovra ** au el 6 AtoyeV?;? 
6 fi7j ol6/jL€vo<; elvai Oeouf; ;" '' koI ttco?," ecjiri, 

92 '' ae Oeoh ex^pov vo/jll^co ;'' itciKlv Wke^dv- 
Bpw eTrtardvTi, avTa> Koi/jLco/ievcp kol elirovTi 

*' ov XPV Trappuxi'Ov evBeiv ^ou\'i](f)upov cipBpa^* 

€PV7TVo<; €TC ctiv dTTi'jVTrjaev 

'* ct) \aoi T 67rLT6Tpdcl)aTat kol roaaa fxefiifKev.'^ 

93 llpo Trdvrcop Be to ip/efxopiKov avrou Kadapco- 
repov etvaL rou i/Xiov el Be fi)], KV^evrr^v dvdyKj] 
Koi paBioupyov, oari^ epexop'€v6<i tlvl avro<i 

94 KaKw e7ririfi7jaeL rnl'^ dWoi<;. opa ydp, olov 
ecTTiv. TO?? /SaaiXevai tovtol<s kol TvpdvvoL<^ oi 
Bopv(j>6pOL Koi rd oirXa irapelx^ to ^ eTrLTifidp 

^ Schweitfliiiuser : Trupeixiro S. 

^ See Diogenes Laertius, 6, 4C ; the same joke appears 
already in Aristophanes {Eq. 32-4), as Capps remarks. 

2 The same account in Theon, Proaymn. 5 (Stengel, II. 
p. 98). The famous meeting of tliese two men is pretty 
clearly apocryphal, at least in certain details. See Natorp 
in the Real-Encydopddie^, V. 767. 



everybody turns away from him, everybody takes 
offence at him. No, and he ought not to look dirty 
either, so as not to scare men away in this respect 
also ; but even his squalor ought to be cleanly and 

Furthermore, the Cynic ought to possess great 
natural charm and readiness of wit — otherwise he 
becomes mere snivel, and nothing else — so as to be 
able to meet readily and aptly whatever befalls; 
as Diogenes answered the man who said : " Are you 
the Diogenes who dcjes not believe in the existence 
of the gods ? " by saying, " And how can that be ? 
You I regard as hated by the gods ! " ^ Or again, 
when Alexander 2 stood over him as he was sleeping 
and said, 

Sleeping the whole night through beseems not 
the giver of counsel, 

he replied, still half asleep. 

Who hath charge of the folk, and for many a 
thing must he watchful.^ 

But above all, the Cynic's governing principle 
should be purer tlian the sun ; if not, he must 
needs be a gambler and a man of no principle, 
because he will be censuring the rest of mankind, 
while he himself is involved in some vice. For see 
what this means. To the kings and tyrants of this 
world their bodyguards and their arms used to 

3 Homer, Iliad, II. 24 and 25. The only point in the 
anecdote seems to be that Diogenes could say something 
more or less apposite even wlien only half awake ; for the 
Completion of the quotation is in no sense a real answer to 
the reproach. 



Ticrii' KOi ^ hvvaaOaL koI KoXd^eiv tov<; dfMap- 
TavovTa<i Kol avrol's oven KaKol^;, rw Se^ 
Js^vvLKO) dvrl TMU ottXcov Kol T(t)v Sopv(f)6p(ov 
TO avv€i8o<; t?;!^ i^ovalav ravrijv irapahihcoaLV. 

95 orav t^r),^ on VTrepriypvirvriKev vnep dv6 pooirwv 
Kol 7r€7r6pi]Kev kuI KaOapo<i /jL€v KeKOLfjLTjraL^ 
KaOapcorepov 8' avrov en 6 virvo^ d(p7]K€v, 
ivTeOvfii-jTai S\ 6a a evTeOvixi^raL &)? (pi\o<; rot? 
Oeol^, ft)? vTnjperrj^i, co? yLtere^a)!^ t/}? a/);^r)9 rov 
Aio^, Travraxov 8' avro) Trpoxetpov to 

ayov Se fi, o) ZeO, koX <jv y r) UeTrpco/ievr), 

Kot OTL el ravrr) TOt? 66ol<; (fiiXov, Tavrr) yiveaOco' 

96 Sid ri /it] dappyjarj nappyjaLd^eadaL 7rp6<; tou? 
dh€\(t)0v<; Tou? eavrov, Trpo? rd reKva, aTrXw? 
7r/3o? Tou? avyyevel's ; 

97 Aid rovTo oure TrepUpyo'^ oure iroXvTTpdyfJLWv 
eariv 6 ovrco Sia/cel/jL€vo<i' ov yap rd dXXorpia 
TToXvTrpay/jLovel, orav rd dvOpoiTTiva eiriaKOirfi, 
dXXd rd Xhia. el Be fii], Xeye fcal top aTparrjyov 
TToXvirpdyfiova, orav tov<; ar par loot a<s eTria/coTrfj 
KOL i^eTu^y Kal irapacfivXdaar} kol tov<; ukoct- 

98 fjLOVVTa^ KoXd^T). edv 5' viro fidXrj^; 6%a)i^ 
irXaKovvTupiov eiriTipia^; dXXoi<;, epco aoi' ov 
6eXeL<; fxdXXov direXOoov et? yodviav KaTa(^ayelv 

99 eKelvo o KeKXo(^a<^ ; tl Be aol kol TOt? aXXoTpLOi<s ; 

^ Blass very reasonably suspected this word, although the 
text as it stands can be translated after a fashion. 

2 5e added by Upton from his " codex." 

3 Upton from his "codex" : TStjjj S. 

^ The rather curious imperfect tense here (at which several 
scholars have taken offence) may be due to an attempt to 

BOOK III. xxii. 94-99 

afford ^ the privilege of censuring certain persons, 
and the power also to punish those who do wrong, 
no matter how guilty they themselves were ; whereas 
to the Cynic it is his conscience which affords him 
this power, and not his arms and his bodyguards. 
When he sees that he has watched over men, and 
toiled in their behalf; and that he has slept in 
purity, while his sleep leaves him even purer than 
he was before ; and that every thought which he 
thinks is that of a friend and servant to the gods, 
of one who shares in the government of Zeus ; and 
has always ready at hand the verse 

Lead thou me on, O Zeus, and Destiny,^ 

and " If so it pleases the gods, so be it," ^ why 
should he not have courage to speak freely to his 
own brothers, to his children, in a word, to his 
kinsmen ? 

That is why the man who is in this frame of 
mind is neither a busybody nor a meddler ; for he 
is not meddling in other people's affairs when he 
is overseeing the actions of men, but these are his 
proper concern. Otherwise, go call the general a 
meddler when he oversees and reviews and watches 
over his troops, and punishes those who are guilty 
of a breach of discipline. But if you censure other 
men while you are hiding a little sweet-cake under 
your arm, I'll say to you : Wouldn't you rather go 
off into a corner and eat up what you have stolen ? 
What have you to do with other people's business r 

avoid the suggestion tliat the Roman emperors might also be 
evil men themselves. 

2 See note on II. 2.3, 42, in Vol. I. 

3 Plato, Crilo, 43 D. 



Ti9 <yap el ; 6 Tavpo<: el i) y ^aaiXicraa twv 
fieXiaawv ; Seizor /xol ra (Tii/J,/3o\a tT;? ■ijyefiouiaf;, 
old eKeivrj eic (pvcrewf; €X,^i. el Se Ki](f))]v el eiri- 
hLKa^6lJ.evo<i t?}? /SaacXela'^ twv p^eXiacroiv, ov 
Sofcei<; on /cat cre KaTa/SaXovcnv oi av/xTroXL- 
revofxevoL, oo? al /xeXiaaai rov<; Kt](f)P)i'a<; ; 

100 To /jL€u yap aveKriKov roaovrov ex,€cv Sel tov 
K.vvlk6v, Mar avrov avaiaOrjTOv Bofcecp roL<i 
7roXXoL<i Kol XiOoV ovSel^ avrov XoiBopet, ouSeU 
rvirrei, ovSel<; v^pi^et' ro awpidrLOV 8' avrov 
hehuitcev avro^ ')(^pi]aOat, rw OeXovri o)? ^ovXerai. 

101 ^ejjLV^-jraL yap, orv ro ^^Ipov dvayKt] vLKaadat 
VTTO rov Kpeirrovo<i, ottov x^ipov earLV, ro Se 
(Tco/jLariov rodv ttoXXmv ')(^elpov, ro daOevearepov 

102 ro)v la')(yporepcov. ouheizor ovv et? rovrov Kura- 
(SaiveL rov dywva, ottov Svvarac VLK}]0)]vai, dXXa 
ro)v aXXorplcov ev6v<s e^lararai, ra)v BovXcov ovk 

103 avriTTOielrai. ottov Se irpoaipeaL^ kuI -)(^p7Jat^ 
rcov (pavracriMV, eKel 6\lrec, oaa op/iara exei, Xv 
eLTTyj^i, on "Apyo<; rv(j)Xo<; tjv 7rpo<i avrov. 

104 fiyj TTOV avy/cardOecri<^ 7TpoTrer7]<i, fit} irov opfirj 
eLKaia, firj ttov ope^i<; dTTorevfcn/crj, fxr) irou 
eKKXL(7L'=; TrepiTTrcorLKi], fii] TTOV^ eTTi^oXyj dre\t]<;, 
/jL>j TTOV fie fjLyjri^; , /jL7] ttov raTTeivwaL^ tj (f)06vo<^ ; 

105 c53e t) ttoXXt] Trpocyo')(^i Ka\ avvraai^;, ra)v 8* 
aXX(ov eveKa vTTno<; peyKeC elpi'^vj] TTaaa. 
XTjarr]<; TTpoaipeaecti<i ov yiverai, rvpavvo<; ov 

106 yiverai. owpcariov Be ; vai. kol KrijaeiSlov ; 

^ 1X7) TTOV supplied by Schenkl. 

^ That is, actually or effectually, for the mere act without 
any effect is as nothing. 


BOOK III. XXII. 99-106 

Why who are you? Are you the hull in the herd, 
or the queen bee of the hive ? Show me the tokens 
of your leadership, like those which nature gives 
the queen bee. But if you are a drone and lay 
claim to the sovereignty over the bees, don't you 
suj)})0se your fellow-citizens will overthrow you, just 
as the bees so treat the drones .'' 

Now the spirit of patient endurance the Cynic must 
have to such a degree that common peoj)le will think 
him insensate and a stone; nobody reviles^ him, 
nobody beats him, nobody insults him ; but his body 
he has himself given for anyone to use as he sees 
fit. For he bears in mind that the inferior, in that 
respect in which it is inferior, must needs be 
overcome by the superior, and that his body is 
inferior to the crowd — the physically weaker, that 
is, inferior to the physically stronger. Therefore, 
he never enters this contest where he can be 
beaten, but immediately gives up what is not his 
own ; he makes no claim to what is slavish. ^ But 
in the realm of the moral purpose, and the use 
of his sense-impressions, there you will see he 
has so many eyes that you will say Argus was blind 
in comparison with him. Is there anywhere rash 
assent, reckless choice, futile desire, unsuccessful 
aversion, incompleted purpose, fault-finding, self- 
disparagement, or envy ? Here is concentrated his 
earnest attention and energy ; l)ut, as far as other 
things go, he lies flat on his back and snores ; he is 
in perfect peace. There rises up no thief of his 
moral purpose, nor any tyrant over it. But of his 
body? Certainly. And of his paltry possessions? 

^ Like the body, his own or that of another. His rule is 
over tlie mind and the moral purpose. 



vai' Kal (ipx^v kol rtfiMV. rt ovv avTW tou- 
T(ov fieXei ; orav ovv tl<; Sia tovtojv avrbv 
€K(f)o^fj, Xeyei avrw " viraye, ^ijrei ra TraiBla' 
eKeivoi<i ra irpoawiTela (po/Sepd eariv, iyo) S' 
ol8a, OTt oaTpciKivd ianv, eacoOev Be ovBev 

107 Uepl TOLovTOV irpdyixaro^ /SovXevrj. coare edv 
(JOL Bo^r], Tov Oeov aoi, viripOov Kal l8ov (TOL 

108 iTpwrov TTjv 7rapaaK6V7]v. l8ov ydp, tl Kal 6 
"Ektcop Xeyec rfj 'Av8po/jid')(^rj' " virayei'* (j)r)(Tlv, 
*^ /jbdWov €t9 oIkov Kal vcpaive' 

TToXefjLO^ 5' avSpecrai /leXyaeL 
TTCLdi, /jLaXiara 8' e/iot. " ^ 

100 ouTO)<; Kal ttJ? I8ia<^ 7rapaaKevrj<; avvrjaOeTo Kal 
Tri<i €K€LVTj<i dhwafiia'^. 

Ky . TTpo? TOL/? dvayiyvooa KovTa's Kal BiaXeyo- 

/jL€VOV<; eTTiheiKTLKO}^, 

1 Tt9 elvai 6eXei<;, aavrw irpoirov elire' eW^ 
ovTw^ TToiei a iroiel';. Kal yap iirl rcov dXXcov 

2 (T')(^ehov dirdvrwv ovra><; opco/iev yivofieva. ol 
dOXovpre^ Trpayrov KpLUovatv, rtVe? eivat OeXovcnVj 
el6^ ovrco<; rd e^rjs; iroiovaiv. el BoXt,')(^o8p6/io<;, 
TOLavrrj Tpo(f)7], toiovto<^ Tre/otVaTo?, roiaurrj 
rplylrL^;, roLavrrj yvfivaaia' el araSioSpo/jLO^, 
irdvra ravra dXXola' el 7r6VT(iOXo<;, en dXXoio- 

1 iraaiv, i/xo\ 5e p.a.\L(TTa the MSS. of Homer. 

1 Homer, Iliad, VI. 492-3. 
1 68 

BOOK III. XXII. io6-xxni. 2 

Certainly ; and of his ofiices and honours. Why, 
then, does he pay any attention to these .'' So 
when anyone tries to terrify him by means of these 
things, he says to him, " Go to, look for children ; 
they are scared by masks ; but I know that they 
are made of earthenware, and have nothing in- 

Such is the nature of the matter about which you 
are deliberating. Wherefore, in the name of God 
I adjure you, put off your decision, and look first 
at your endowment. For see what Hector says to 
Andromache. " Go," says he, " rather into the 
house and weave ; 

but for men shall war be the business. 
Men one and all, and mostly for me." ^ 

So did he recognize not only his own special 
endowment, but also her incapacity. 


To those who read and discuss for the purpose of 

Tell yourself, first of all, what kind of man you 
want to be ; and then go ahead with what you 
are doing. For in practically every other pursuit 
we see this done. The athletes first decide what 
kind of athletes they want to be, and then they 
act accordingly. If a man wants to be a distance- 
runner, he adopts a suitable diet, walking, rub- 
bing, and exercise ; if he wants to be a sprinter, 
all these details are different ; if he wants to con- 
tend in the pentathlon, they are still more different 



3 repa. ol/tco? €i)p/]aeL<s fcal iirl tmv T€)(i>iOP. el 
T€KT(OP, roiavTa e^et?* el %aXA:6i^?, Toiavra. 
€KaaTOv yap twv yLVO/ievcov v(f)' rjp^wv av /xev 
eVt firjBev ava^epco/iev, eUi} iroirjaofxev iav 8' 

4 e(^' iirj Set, hiea^aXfJievw^. Xolttov t) fiev rt? 
ecTTi KOivrj ava(f)opd, rj 5' loia. irpoirov lv oo? 
av6poiTTO<;. iv rovro) ri, irepiex^raL ; firj 009 
TTpo^arov, elKTj^ eTrieiKw^;' /x?) /SXaTrriKco';^ &)<? 

5 Oyjplov. /; 8' ISla irpo^; to eTTLTi^hevfxa eKuaTov 
KoX TTjv irpoaipeaiv. 6 KiOaprpSo<; co? KiOapcpho^;, 
reKTCov ft)? T€KTa)v, 6 (f)i\6cro(f}o<; &)<? (f)iXoao(f)0(;, 

6 6 p7]TCi)p ft)<? prjrcop. orav ovv Xe<yrf<i " Seure /fat 
(iKovaare /mov avajLyvcoaKovro'; v/jllv'' aKeyjrai 
Trpcorov /xij elfcv) avro nroLelv. elr av €vpr]<;, otl 

7 avacpepei^;, o-fceyjraL, el iff)' o Bel. a)(f)€\rjaat 
OeXeL<; 7) eTTaLve6?)vai ; evdv^i ciKOvetf; Xeyovrof; 
" 6/xol Be Tov irapa rwv ttoXXmv eiraivov xt? 
X0709 ; " KoX KaXco^ Xeyei. ovSe yap rw 
fjLOvaiKO}, KaOo [xovaiKo^ iariv, ovBe t&) yeco/ie- 

8 TpiKW. ovKOvv oxpeXrjcraL 6eX€L<; ; 7rpo<; ri ; 
eiire Ka\ rj/^up, Iva kuI avTol T/)e;^&)/i€i^ et? to 
fiKpoaryjpiov crov. vvv hvvarai t/9 ux^eXrjaai 
aXXov^ /jltj auTO? (jL)(peXt]fi€i'0<; ; ov. ovBe yap 
eh reKTOVLKTjv 6 /ir] t6ktcov ovB^ et? aKvriKrjv 
6 fiT} (TKVTev<;. 

9 OeXt'i? ovv yvMvai, el oxpeXtjaaL ; (f>epe aou 
TO, Boy/xara, (jaXoaoc^e. rU eirayyeXia 6pe^eo)<^ ; 

* *iKT? added b}^ Reiske. Compare § 6. 

^ Schenkl : irpS^a-rov, ei ySAaTTTtw-iT koL eirifiKwi, ws S. 

» See on I. 20, 59, in Vol. I. 

BOOK III. xxiM. 2-9 

You will find the same thing in the arts. If you 
want to be a carpenter, you will liave such and 
such exercises ; if a blacksmith, such and such other. 
P'or in everything that we do, if we do not refer 
it to some standard, we shall be acting at random ; 
but if we refer it to the wrong standard, we shall 
make an utter failure. Furthermore, there are two 
standards to go by, the one general, the other 
individual. First of all, I must act as a man. What 
is included in this.^ Not to act as a sheep, gently 
but without fixed purpose ; nor destructively, like 
a wild beast. The individual standard applies to 
each man's occupation and moral purpose. The 
citharoede is to act as a citharoede,^ the carpenter 
as a carpenter, the philosopher as a philosopher, 
the rhetor as a rhetor. When, therefore, you say, 
'^ Come and listen to me as I read you a lecture," 
see to it first that you are not acting without fixed 
purpose. And then, if you find that you are using 
a standard of judgement, see if it is the right one. 
Do you wish to do good or to be praised ? you ask. 
Immediately you get the answer, " What do I care 
for praise from the mob t " And that is an excellent 
answer. Neither does the musician, in so far as he 
is a musician, nor the geometrician. Do you wish 
to do good, then ? To what end ? men reply. Tell 
us, also, that we too may run to your lecture-room. 
Now can anybody do good to others unless he has 
received good himself? No more than the non- 
carpenter can helj) others in carpentry, or the non- 
cobbler in cobbling. 

Do you wish, then, to know whether you have 
received any good? Produce your judgements, 
philosopher. What does desire promise.^ Not to 



10 /A?) (LTroTvy^dveiv. rt? eKKkiaew^ ; firj TrepiiTiiT- 
reiv. aye, TrXrjpov/jLev avTMv ri-jv eTrayyeXiav ; 
elire fioi rdXrjdrj' dp Se ylrevarj, epco aoi " irpcprjv 
yfrv)(^p6T€p6p (70V rcov aKpoarayv avvekOovTcov Koi 
fiT) eTrifforjcrdvTcop aoL T€Ta7r€iv(o/jL€vo<i i^rjXOe^;' 

11 irpwrfv eiratvedeU iT€pLi]pxov Kal irdaiv eXeye<^ 
* tL aoi eho^a ; ' * Oavfiaarw^;, Kvpie, t7]v ifiijv 
aoL GWTTjpiav. ' ttco? 8' elirov CKelvo ; ' * to 
irolov ; ' ' OTTOV Sieypayfra rov Udva Kal Td<; 

12 Nu/x0a?.' * L/TTe/cx^ 1/609. ' '* elrd fioc X6y€i<;y iv 
ope^ec Kal eKKXiaei Kard (pvaip dvaarpec^ir] ; 

13 viraye, dXXov TreWe. rov helva he irpwrjv ovk 
eirrjvei^ irapd to aol (^aivofjuevov ; tov helva 8* 
OVK €KoXdKeve<; tov avyKXrjTLKov ; ijOeXe^; crov 

14 ra TraiSla elvau ToiavTa ; — M?) ykvoiTO. — TtVo? 
ovv eveKa eirr^vei^ Kal TrepLelire^ avTov ; — Euc^ur/? 
veavLaKO<; Kal Xoycov dKovaTiK6<^. — YloOev tovto ; 
— 'EyLte Oav/jid^ei. — YXprjKa<i Trjv diroSeL^iv. 

EZra TL SoKel aoi ; avToi aov ovtol ov KaTa- 
16 (ppovovaLp XeXT]06T(o<; ; OTav ovv dv6p(07ro<; crv- 
V€iBa)<; eavTM firjOev dyaOov /jLi]Te TreiroLrjKOTt 
p,y]T iv6v/jL0V/jL€va) evpij <^iX6ao(^ov tov XeyovTa 
" /jL€yaXo(f)vr]<i Kal aTrXoO? Kal dKepaco<;,^ tl 
BoKeU dXXo avTov Xeyeiv rj '* ovt6<; Tivd ttotc 
16 jjLov 'xpeiav e;)^6t"; r) elire fjcoi, tl /uLeyaXo(f)Vov<; 
epyov eTTLheheiKTaL ; Ihov avveaTL ctol ToaovTO) 
')(p6v(p, BiaXeyo/jLevov aov dKi]Koev, dvaytyvdia- 

BOOK JII. xxiii. 9-16 

fail in f^ettin<T. What does aversion? Not to fall 
into what we are avoiding. Well, do we fulfil their 
promise? Tell me the truth; but if you lie, I will 
say to you : '" The other day, when your audience 
gathered rather coolly, and did not shout applause, 
you walked out of the hall in low spirits. And 
again the other day, when you were received with 
applause, you walked around and asked everybody, 
' What did you think of me ? ' *^ It was marvellous, 
sir, I swear by my life.' ^ How did I render that 
particular passage ? ' ^ Which one?' ' Where I drew 
a picture of Pan and the Nymphs ? ' '^ It was 
superb.' " And after all this you tell me that you 
follow nature in desire and aversion ? Go to ; try 
to get somebody else to believe you ! Didn't you, 
just the other day, praise So-and-so contrary to your 
honest opinion ? And didn't you flatter So-and-so, 
the senator? Did you want your children to be 
like that ? — Far from it ! — Why then did you praise 
him and palaver over him .^ — He is a gifted young 
man and fond of listening to discourses. — How do 
you know that i^ — He is an admirer of mine. — There 
you gave your proof ! 

After all, what do you think ? Don't these very 
same persons secretly despise you ? When, there- 
fore, a person who is conscious of never having 
either thought or done a good thing finds a 
philosopher who tells him, " You are a genius, 
straightforward and unspoiled," what else do you 
suppose the man says to himself but, '' This man 
wants to use me for something or other" ? Or else 
tell me ; what work of genius has he displayed ? 
Look, he has been with you all this time, he has 
listened to your discourse, he has heard you lecture. 



KovTO^ uKtjKoev. KaTecrraXrai, eTrecrr pair rat e<^* 
avTov ; ijoOijrai., iv o'iol<; KaKol's eariv ; dwo- 

17 f3el3\'y]K6V ohjaiv ; ^i-jrel rov hiha^ovra ; — Z7;T6t, 
(pyjaL — Tor hihd^ovTa, iTM'i Set jBlovv ; ou, ficopi' 
dWd TTw? Bel <ppd^€Li'' rovrov yap ev€Ka Ka\ 
ere Oav/jid^€t. aKovaov avrov, TLva Xeyei. 
" ovTO^ o dvOpro7ro<; irdvv r€')(^vLKcoTara ypd(f)€i, 

Is Sl(ovo<; ttoXv KdWiov. bXou dXXo iarlv. pLrj 
Tt Xeyei " 6 dvOpwiro'^ alS/jpwv earli', outo<; 7nar6<; 
eariv, ouTo<i drdpay^o^; iariv " ; el he koI eXeyev, 
eliTOV av avTO) ** iireiSr) outo? ttktto^ eariv, 
ovTO<; 6 TTtcTTo^ Tt icTiiv / ' KoX el fir] el)(ev etVetz', 
TrpoaeOyjKU dv on " irpodTov p,d6e, ri Xeyec<;, eW 
oi'TO)? Xeye.^' 

19 OvTco<; ovv KaKO)^ hiaKeifievo^; koI ^(^daKCOv irepl 
T0U9 eTraiveaovra^ koX dpiOp,Mv toi)? dKovovrd^; 
aov OeXei^ dXXov<^ ojcpeXelv ; " cr7]fiep6v /jLov ttoXXm 
7rXeL0V€<; ijKOvaav.^' " vai, iroXXoir " hoKovfiev 
on irevTaKoaioir ** ovhev Xey€i<;' Oe<; aLTou? 
;^tXtou?." " At«2'0? ovheiTor i^Kovaav toctovtol.'^ 
" TToOev avrO) ;^' " Kal K0fjL\lrM^ alaOdvovrat X6- 
yoiv^ " TO KoXov, Kvpie, koX X'lQov KLvrjaai 

20 hvvaraiy ISoii (l)(ovaL <^lXo(TO(^ov, Ihov hidOeai^ 
(M)<^eXr]aovTO<; dvOpcoTTOv^' ISov dKi)/<:oco<; dv6paiiro<^ 

^ Probably the famous lecturer of the day, Dio Chrysostom, 
of Prusa. 

2 To be taken as intended for a serious compliment, and 
probably a popular saying (as Upton suggested) like our 
" Music hath charms," or, " The very stones would cry out." 
The idea behind it would be familiar from the story of how 
the trees followed Orpheus, in order to hear his beautiful 
music, or the stones arranged themselves in the walls of 
Thebes, to the strains of Amphion, Capps, however, thinks 


BOOK III. xxm. 16-20 

Has he settled down? Has he come to liiinself? 
Has he realized the evil {)li^lit in which he is ? 
Has he cast aside his self-conceit? Is he looking 
for tlie man who will teach him? — He is looking, 
the man says. — The man who will teach him how he 
ought to live ? No, fool, but only how he ought 
to deliver a speech ; for that is why he admires even 
you. Listen to him, and hear what he says. "This 
fellow has a most artistic style ; it is much finer 
than Dio's."^ That's altogether different. He 
doesn't say, does he, " The man is respectful, he 
is faithful and unperturbed" ? And even if he had 
said this, I would have replied : " Since this man is 
faithful, what is your definition of the faithful man?" 
And if he had no answer to give, I would have added : 
" First find out what you are talking about, and 
then do your talking." 

When you are in such a sorry state as this, then, 
gaping for men to praise you, and counting the 
number of your audience, is it your wish to do good 
to others ? '• To-day I had a much larger audience." 
"Yes, indeed, there were great numbers." "Five 
hundred, 1 fancy." " Nonsense, make it a thou- 
sand." " Dio never had so large an audience." 
" How could you expect him to? " " Yes, and they 
are clever at catching the points." " Beauty, sir, can 
move even a stone." - There are the words of a 
philoso})her for you ! That's the feeling of one who 
is on his way to do good to men ! There you have 

that "to kuXou means 'honour'" here, and that the remark 
is "cynical." He would translate: "Talk of honour, sir," 
etc., adding the explanatory note: "That is, the speaker 
would have had no success with his audience if he had 
preached honour and virtue (as the true philosopher should)." 



\6yov, dpeyvcoKO)'^ ra ^wKpaTtKa w? '^coKparLKa, 
ou)(l 3' (0? Avaiov Koi ^laoKpdrou<;. " 7roW(iKi<; 
iOav/jiaaa, rlaiv irore \6yoi<;. ov' dWd tlvi 

21 TTore Xoyay tout eKeivov Xeiorepov.'' /it] yap 
aXXct)? avrd dveyvcoKare y ci)? a>SdpLa ; oo? el 
ye dveyiyvoiCTKeTe &)? hel, ovk dv irpo's tovtol<; 
eyiveaOe, aX\' etcetvo /xdWov e/3X,e7reT€ " i/ie 3* 
"Ai^fT09 Kal MeX7;T09 diroKrelvaL jiev SvvavraL, 
^XdyjraL 3' ov," Kal on *' co? iyo) del toi.ovto<; 
olo<i fi-qhevl^ iTpo(7e')(eLv rcov epLwv rj rw Xoyw, o? 

22 av fJLOL aKOTTOv/jLepoy ^e\Ti(7T0<; (paivrjrai.^^ Sia 
rovro ri^ yKovae irore '^WKpdrov^ \eyovro<; otl 
" olSd TL Kal Si,Sd(7K0) " ; dXXd dXkov dWa^ov 
eirep^irev. roiyapovv i'jp^^^ovTO 7r/30? avrov d^LOvv- 
T69 <pL\oa6(poi<; viT avTOv avaraOrjvaL KdKelvo^; 

23 dirijyev Kal auvlaravev. ov' dWd irpoGirepiiTwv 
eXeyev ** aKOvaov fxov atjfiepov SiaXeyo/jierov iv 
rfj OLKia Trj KoSparou." 

Tt aov dKovaco ; eirihe'l^ai fiot OeXei^;, otl 
K0fjiy\rM<^ avvTiOel'^ rd ovofiara ; avvTi.6€L<^, dv- 
dpcdire' Kal ri aoL dyaOov iariv ; *'aXX' eVat- 

^ Wolf : yUTjSeV S. 

^ The rhetors must have disputed whether the opening 
words of Xenophon's Memorabilia might not have been 
improved upon by using the singular \6ycf> instead of the 
plural x6yois. 

2 Plato, Apol. 30 C. 

3 Slightly modified from Plato, Crito, 46 B. 

* i.e. to different authorities on special subjects. 

^ Actual instances of such introductions are recorded in 
the Protagoras, 310 E, and the Theaefetus, 151 B. Compare 
also Maximus Tj'rius, 38, 4, b. The personal relations 
between Socrates and the Sophists in general were clearly 
not strained. 


a man who has listened to reason, who has read the 
accounts of Socrates as coining from Socrates, not as 
though they were from Lysias, or Isocrates I '' ' I 
have often wondered by what arguments ever ' — no, 
but ^by what argument ever' — this form is smoother 
than the other !" ^ You have been reading this 
literature just as you would music-hall songs, haven't 
you ? Because, if you had read them in the right 
way, you would not have lingered on these points, 
but this is the sort of thing rather that would have 
caught your eye : " Anytus and Meletus can kill me, 
but they cannot hurt me " ; ^ and : ^' I have always 
been the kind of man to pay attention to none of my 
own affairs, but only to the argument which strikes 
me as best upon reflection." ^ And for that reason 
who ever heard Socrates saying, "1 know something 
and teach it " ? But he used to send one person here 
and another there.'* Therefore men used to go to 
him to have him introduce them to philosophers,^ and 
he used to take them around and introduce them. 
But no, your idea of him, no doubt, is that, as he was 
taking them along, he used to say, '' Come around 
to-day and hear me deliver a discourse in the house 
of Quadratus " ! ^ 

Why should I listen to you ? Do you want to 
exhibit to me the clever way in which you put words 
together.^ You do compose them cleverly, man; 
and what good is it to you? "But praise me." 

* The practice of letting a popular or distinguished scholar 
lecture in one's house was particularly common in Greek and 
Roman times. Several distinguished persons by the name 
of Quadratus were contemporaries of P^pictetus (Prosopo- 
graphia Imperii Romani, Vol. Ill, nos. 6rX)ff.), but it is not 
certain that any one of them is meant, because they resided 
regularly at Rome, and this discourse was held at Nicopolis. 



24 veaov fi€.'' ri X(syei<; to eiraLveaov ; " elire /xoi 
* ovd^ Kol ' Oavfjiaaroi^y^ ISov Xeyco. el 3' 
icrTiv eiraivo^ eKelvo, 6 re irore Xeyovaiv oi 
<pi,\6ao(f)OC T(x)v ev rf} ^ tov ciyadov KaTrjyopLO.,^ 
ri ae exw eiraiveaaL ; el ayaOov earc to (ppdteip 

25 6pdcb<;, hiha^ov fie kol eiraLveaw. tl ovv ; d7]B(o<i 
Sel Tcop TOiouTcov aKOveiv ; /jLT) yevoiTO. eyo) fiev 
ovBe KiOapfpSov drjBo)^ aKOvco' /jlj] tl ovv tovtov 
€V€Ka Ki6ap(phelv fie hel GTavTa j ciKovaov, tl 
\eyei ^(vKpuTrj^i' " ovSe yap dv irpeTroi, u) dvBpe'^, 
TTjSe TTj rjXLKLa Mairep fieLpaKLO) irkaTTOVTL Xoyov^ 
eh vfidt; elcnevaiy " coairep /jLeipaKLO) ' (prjaLV. 

26 €(TTL yap tw ovtl KOfx^jrop to Te-^PLOP eKXe^aL 
opofxdTLa KOL TavTa avpOelvat Kal irapeXOovTa 
eu(f>V(x)(; dpaypMvai rj elrrelp Kal fieTa^v dpayi- 
ypcoaKOPTa eTTLCpdey^aaOai' otl " tovtoi^ ov ttoX- 
Xol SvpaPTaL irapaKoXovOelv, ixa tt)p vfieTepap 

27 <t>LX6ao(po<; 3' eV dxpoaaLP irapaKaXel ; — 
Ov^L 8' &)? 7]Xlo(; dyei avTO's e^' eavTOP tyjp 
Tpo^j]p, ouTO)? 3e /cal ovto^ dyei tou? w^eXr/- 
6i]ao[xepov^ ; ttolo^ laTpo<i irapaKaXel, Ipa t^? 
VK avTov OepairevO?] ; KaLToi pvp dKovco otl 
fcal OL laTpoL TTapaKaXoixTLP ip Pcofirj- ttXtjp eV 

28 e/jLOu TrapeKaXouPTO. " irapaKaXo) ere eXdoPTa 

1 Upton (in part after Wolf) : tcJv tov ayadov S. 
^ Karriyopia S. 

1 Plato, Apology, 17 C. 

2 According to Stoic doctrine the so-called '* rays " of the 
sun were thought to be lines of vapour drawn to the sun in 
order to feed its fires. Zeno, frag. 35 ; Cleanthes, frag. 501 ; 


BOOK I J I. xvin. 2T,-2^ 

\\'li;it do you mean by "praise"? "Cry out to me, 
'Bravo!' or 'Marvellous!'" All right, I'll say it. 
But if praise is some one of those things which the 
philosophers put in the category of the good, what 
praise can I give you ? If it is a good thing to speak 
correctl}', teach me and I will praise you. What 
then? Ought one to take no pleasure in listening 
to such efibrts ? Far from it. I do not fail to take 
pleasure in listening to a citharoede ; surely I am 
not bound for that reason to stand and sing to my 
own accompaniment on the harp, am I ? Listen, 
what does Socrates say ? " Nor would it be seemly 
for me, O men of Athens, at my time of life to 
appear before you like some lad, and weave a 
cunning discourse." ^ " Like some lad," he says. 
For it is indeed a dainty thing, this small art of 
selecting trivial phrases and putting them together, 
and of coming forward and reading or reciting them 
gracefully, and then in the midst of the delivery 
shouting out, " There are not many people who can 
follow this, by your lives, I swear it ! " 

Does a philosopher invite people to a lecture ? — Is 
it not rather the case that, as the sun draws its own 
sustenance to itself,^ so he also draws to himself 
those to whom he is to do good ? What physician 
ever invites a patient to come and be healed by him ? 
Although I am told that in these days the physicians 
in Rome do advertise ; however, in my time they 
were called in ^ by their patients. " I invite you to 

Chrysippus, frags. 579, G52, 658-663, all in Yon Arnini's 
iitoicorum Veterum FragmeMa. 

3 The three slightly varying translations for -n apaKakfTiv , 
"invite," "'advertize," and "call in," seem to be required by 
our idiom. 



(iKovcraL, on aoi KaKO)'^ earl kol irdvrwv fidWov 
eiTLfieXf) rj ou Sec ae eirLixeXelaOai Kal on ay voel^; 
TO, dyaBa Kal rd KaKa Kal KaKohaifiwv el Kal 
hvarv'^i'j^y KOfjuyfry] TrapaKXrjcrif;. Kal firjv dv 
fir] ravra ifiTroifj 6 rod (jii\oa6(f>ov X070?, v€Kp6<; 

29 ean Kal avro^i Kal 6 Xeycov. ei(o6e Xeyetv 6 
'Poi)(/)o? ** el eva-^oXelre eTraLvecraL fie, iyo) 5' 
ovSev Xe7ft)." roiyapovv ovtco<; eXeyev, wo"^' 
eKaarov ij/jlcov KaOrjfievov o'leaOai, on T/9 irore 
avTOV Sta/3e^XrjK€V' ovrco^ rjirrero tmv yiyvo- 
fjLevwv, ouTO)? irpo 6(f)6aXfic!)v kriOei rd cKaarov 

30 ^larpelov eanv, avSpe^;, to rod <j)iXoa6^ov 
axoXeiop- ov Sel i)a6evTa<^ e^eXOeiv, aXX' dXyij- 
aavTa's. ep')(e(70e ydp ov^ vycel'^, dXX! o fiev 
o)/jLov eKJ3e^X7]KO)^, 6 3' dirodrr^fia 6%ft)J', 6 he 

31 Gvpiyya, 6 Be KecjjaXaXycov. elr 670) Kadlaa^ 
v/jLLV Xeyco voij/idna Kal eTricpwvrjfidna, Xv u/uet? 
e-naiveGavTe^ fxe e^eXOtjre, 6 fxev top mjjlov 
eK(f)epo)v olov elajjveyKev, 6 Be rrjv KecpaXijv 
MaavTco^ e\ou(Tav, 6 Be rrjv avpiyya, 6 Be to 

32 diroaTriiJLa ; elra tovtou eveKa dTroBtjfiijauxriv 

dvOpCdlTOL V€(OT6pOL Kal TOU? y0V€l<; TOU? aUTMV 

dTToXLTTcoaiv ^ Kal Tou? (fyiXov; Kal rov<i crvyyeveL<^ 
Kal TO KTrjalBiov, 'Iva aoi ** ova ' (jicoaiv eTTKpaypi)- 
fidna Xeyovn ; tovto 'ScoKpartj^i eiroiei, tovto 
Zyvcop, tovto KXedvOrj<i ; 

^ Koraes : airoKeiTrovffLV S. 

* At greater length in Gellius, 5, 1, 1. 

* So it had, indeed, become in his time. Compare Introd. 
p. xxiv. Thus also one of the great libraries at Alexandria is 
said to have had over its portal : tarpfioy Trjs ^l/vxvs. If the 


HOOK 111. x.xiii. 28-32 

come and hear tliat you are in a bad way^ and that 
you are concerned with anything rather than what 
you should be concerned with^ and that you are 
ignorant of the good and the evil, and are wretched 
and miserable." That's a fine invitation I And yet 
if the philosopher's discourse does not produce this 
effect, it is lifeless and so is the speaker himself 
Rufus used to say, '^ If you have nothing better to 
do than to praise rae, then I am speaking to no 
purpose."^ Wherefore he spoke in such a way that 
each of us as we sat there fancied someone had gone to 
Rufus and told him of our faults ; so effective was his 
gras}) of what men actually do, so vividly did he set 
before each man's eyes his particular weaknesses. 

Men, the lecture-room of the philosopher is a 
liospital ; ^ you ought not to walk out of it in 
pleasure, but in pain. For you are not well when 
you come ; one man has a dislocated shoulder, 
another an abscess, another a fistula, another a head- 
ache. And then am I to sit down and recite to you 
dainty little notions and clever little mottoes, so that 
you will go out with words of praise on your lips, one 
man carrying away his shoulder just as it was when 
he came in, another his head in the same state, 
another his fistula, another his abscess ? And so it's 
fur this, is it, that young men are to travel from 
home, and leave their parents, their friends, their 
relatives, and their bit of ])roperty, merely to cry 
"Bravo!" as you recite your clever little mottoes? 
Was this what Socrates used to do, or Zeno, or 
Cleanthes ? 

story is true (which I very much doubt), the inscription 
surely belongs to the decadence, for such was clearly not the 
conception of science which prevailed in the great days of 



33 Tl ovv ; ouK eariv 6 TrpoTpeTrriKo^; x^^paKTtjp ; 
— TiV j(ip ov Xeyei ; oo^ 6^ €\€jktikg^, co? 6 
SiSacTKaXiKO'^. Tt? ovv TrcoTrore riraprop elirev 

34 fxera rovrwv rov einheiKTiKov ; tw ^(^p iariv 6 
irpoTpeTTTLKo^ ; hvvaaOai koX kvl koI ttoWoU 
Bel^at Tr)V f^axv^ eV y kuXlovtul' koI on fiaWov 
nravTCdv (ppovrL^ovaLV i) mv OeXovaip. OeXovai 
fxkv <yap to, rrpo'i evSaL/bLovlav (fyepoura, aWa^oO 

35 8' avra ^rjTovai. rovro 'iva yevi]Tai, Sec Te6?]vai 
')(iXLa ^ddpa Koi irapaKX-ijOtjuai toi)? ukovgo- 
/JL€V0V<; Kal ae iv KOfx^^rw aroXiw i) rpi^covapicp 
ava^dvra iirl ttovX^lvov Staypd(f)eLi', ttw? 'A;^t\- 
Xev^i drredavev ; iravaaaOe, T0v<i Oeov^ v/jllv, 
KuXd oi'upara koX Trpdy/xara KaraLG')(yvovTe's, 

36 oaov 6<^' 6avTol<;. ovBev irpoTpeirTLKcorepov y 
orav 6 Xeyodv efMcfyalvr) to?? ciKovovaiv ore XP^^(^^ 

37 avTcov e^eu. i) elire p.oi, rt? clkovwv dvayiyvuiG- 
KOVTO<^ aov rj SiaXeyo/Jievov ire pi avrov yywviaaev 
rj €7r€aTpd(j)T] el'^ avrov y e^eXOonv elirev on 
*' KaX(o<; pov i'/yfraro 6 cf)LX6ao(f)0^' ov/cen Sel 

38 ravra uoielv " ; ou^^t 5', av Xiav evSoKififj'^, Xeyei 
7rp6<i nva " Kop,ylra)<; e(f)paaev rd rrepl rov Hep^tjv^^' 
dXXo<; " OV' dXXd ryv eirl llvXai<; /jLd)(^^r)v'' ; 
rovro eanv uKpoaais cfaXoaocfiov ; 

^ 6 cuklod by a modern hand in S. 

^ That is, as a style appropriate to philosophers, for the 
epideictic, or style of displa}^ was a well-recognized branch 
of oratory in general — and not entirely unknown, perhaps, 
among certain popular preachers even to-da3\ 

2 As God needs the universe in which to exercise and dis- 
play His power, so the tea(;lier needs pupils, tlie speaker an 
autlience. There is a mutual need, therefore, each of the 


BOOK HI. Axiii. 33-38 

Well ! liut isn't there sueli a thin<T as the rif^ht 
style for exhortation? — Why yes^ who denies that? 
Just as there is the style for refutation, and the style 
for instruetion. Who, then, has ever mentioned a 
fourth style alon<ij with these, the style of display?^ 
Why, what is the style for exhortation ? The ability 
to show to the individual, as well as to the crowd, the 
warring inconsistency in which they are floundering 
about, and how they are paying attention to any- 
thing rather than what they truly want. For they 
want the things that conduce to happiness, but they 
are looking for them in the wrong place. To 
achieve that must a thousand benches be j)laced, and 
the prospective audience be invited, and you put on 
a fancy cloak, or dainty mantle, and mount the 
speaker's stand, and paint a word-picture of — how 
Achilles died? By the gods, I beseech you, have 
done Avith discrediting, as far as it is in your power to 
discredit, words and actions that are noble I There is 
nothing more effective in the style for exhortation 
than when the s])eaker makes clear to his audience 
that he has need of them.^ Or tell me, who that 
ever heard you reading a lecture or conducting a 
discourse felt greatly disturbed about himself, or 
came to a realization of the state he was in, or on 
going out said,'* The philosopher brought it home to 
me in fine style ; I must not act like this any longer " ? 
But doesn't he say to a companion, if you make an 
unusually fine impression, "That was beautiful 
diction in the passage about Xerxes"; and doesn't 
the other answer, " No, I preferred the one about 
the battle of I'hermopylae " ? ^ Is this what listen- 
ing to a philosopher amounts to? 

' A t}pical rhetorum campus, as Cicero calls it (Dc Officiif^, 
1, 61). 


kB'. Tlepl Tov fjLi) Belv 7rpoa7rda)(^€ii> tol<!; ovk icf)' 


1 To aWov irapa (j)vaiv aol KaKov firj ytveaOo)' 
ov yap avvTaireivovadaL 7re(t>VKa<; ovSe avva- 

2 TV')(^elv, aWa avvevTvy^elv. av Be rt? ajvy^f), 
/jL€/jlvi](To, otl Trap'' avrov cirvx^l' 6 yap ^eo? 
7rdvTa<; dvdpco7rov<; errl ro evBaLfiovelv, eirl to 

3 evaraOelv eiroiiiaev. 7rpo<; rovro dcj^opfid^; eB(OK€v, 
ra fiev tBia Sou? eKaaTW, ra B* dWorpta' rd iiev 
KwXvra KoX d<^aipeTd koI dvayKaard ovtc iBia, 
rd B' dKodXvra lBiw Trjv B' ovalav rod dyaOov 
Kol TOV KaKOV, coairep yv d^LOv tov KrjBofievov 
rj/jLMV Kol TraTpiKO)'^ TTpolaTdfxevov, iv toI<^ lSiot<;, 

4 " aXX' d7roK6Xd>pr]Ka tov Belvo'i Koi oBwaTat.'' 
Bid Tt ydp Ta dWoTpia 'iBia i)yi](TaTO ; Bid tI, 
6t€ ae fiXeiTwv e^aipeVy ovk iireXoyi^eTO otl 
6v7]T0<; el, d7roBr]fiy-iTLKO<^ el ; TOLyapovv rtWi 

5 BiKa<; tt}? avTOv /bicopla'^. av 3' dvrl tlvo'^ ; eVl 
TL K\dei<; ^ aeavTov ; i) ovBe av TavTa ifieXeTTjaa^;, 
dX)C &)? rd yvvaia ra ovBevo<^ d^ia irdaiv ol<; 
€')(aipe'^ &)? del avvea6fxevo<; avvfj<;, tol<^ t6ttol<;, 
Tot<i dvOpcoTroi^;, rat? BiaTpi/3al<; ; Kal vvv KXauov 
€KdOiaa<;, otl /jltj tov<; avTov<^ /SXeVet? Kal ev toI<^ 

G avToh TOTTOf? BiaTpifieif;. tovtov ydp d^io<; el, 

^ 8alinasius, aftcji" Schegk : K\ai(T S. 

^ That is, is produced by himself, or is his own fault ; and 
really affects no one but himself. 




That we ought not to yearn for the thmgs which are not 
under our control 

I.ET not that Avhich in the case of another is 
contrary to nature become an evil for you ; for you 
are born not to be humiliated along with others, nor 
to share in tlieir misfortunes, but to share in their 
good fortune. If, however, someone is unfortunate, 
remember that his misfortune concerns himself.^ For 
(}od made all mankind to be happy, to be serene. 
To this end He gave them resources, giving each man 
some tilings for his own, and others not for his own. 
The things that are subject to hindrance, deprivation, 
and compulsion are not a man's own, but those 
which cannot be hindered are his own. The true 
nature of the good and tlie evil, as was fitting for 
Him who watches over and protects us like a father. 
He gave to man to be among his own possessions. 
" But I have parted from So-and-so, and he is stricken 
with grief" Yes, but why did he regard what was 
not his own as his own ? Why, when he was glad 
to see you, did he not reflect that you are mortal, 
and likely to go on a journey ? And therefore he is 
paying the penalty for his own folly. But why are 
you bewailing yourself, and to what end? Or did 
you also neglect to study this matter, but, like 
worthless women, did you enjoy everything in which 
you took delight as though you were to enjoy it for 
ever, your surroundings, human beings, your ways of 
life ? And now you sit and wail because you no longer 
lay eyes upon the same persons, and do not sj)end 
your life in the same places. Yes, for that's what you 



Xva Kai rcoi> Kopa-ccov koI Kopaa^'MV a6\iooT€po<^ 
17?, ol? €^6(TTLv I'Trraadai, onov deXouaiv, Kai 
fxeTOLKohojielv ra? veoaaLo.^ fcal ra TreXdyrj Sia- 
irepai' fir] arevovcTLv fii^he iroOovai tcl Trpayra. — 

7 Nat* aXV VTTO rod ciXoya eivat irday^ei avTa. — 
'{-{filv ovv \6yo(; enl dTvxiq. Kai KaKo^ai/jLovia 
heBoraL viro tmv Oeo)v, 'iv dOXioi, 7i'a iTev6ovvTe<s 

8 SiareXcofiev ; r) 7rdvT€<; earwaav dOdvaTot koI 
fjLrjSel*; d7roSi]/x€lTco,^ dWd fievwfiev 00? ra ^vrd 
Trpoaeppi^cofxei'or dv he Ti? d7roh7jfn]ar} tw.v 
ovvi]6(jov, KaOi']fi€VOL KKaiwfiev Kai irdXiv, dv 
eXOr], opyco/jteda Kai Kporcofxev fo? rd iraihia ; 

9 OvK diToya\aKTi(Jopiev i]Si] ttoO' eavrov<^ Kai 
/jLejUivrjaopeOa 6)V rjKOvaa/jLev irapd tmv (f)L\o- 

10 aocpcov ; el ye fii] cb? eTraoiBcov avrwv r^Kovojxev, 
OTi 6 Koap.O'^ ovTo^ fxia TroXf? earl Kai ?; ovaia, e^ 
*]<; SeBr]/j,iovpyi]rai, fiia Kai dvdyK-rj irepiohov riva 
elvai Kai 7rapa')(^d)p7]criv dxXcov dWoL<; Kai rd fxev 
SiaXveadai, rd 5' eTriyLveaOat, rd fiev fxeveiv ev 

11 Tw avTw, rd Be KivelaOai. irdvTa Be cplXcop 
fxeard, irpwra pev Oeon', elra Kai dvO pdnTTwv 
(f)vcr€t Trpo? dXXi']Xou<i wKeicopevwv Kai Bel rov<; 
fiev Trapelvat dXX^Xoc<;, tov<; S' dir aXXdrreaOai, 
TOi? pev duvovcn ')(^aipovTa<;, tol<; S' dTraXXajTO- 

12 p.evoL<i prj dx^op^evou^;. 6 B' dfOpcoiroq 7rpo<; tw 
(f)V(TeL /jLeyaX6(f)pwv elvai Kai irdvrwv tmv dirpoai- 
percov KaTa(f)poi'7]Tif<:o<^ en KuKelvo ea)(i]Ke ro p^rj 
ippi^ciycrOai py]B€ TrpocrTrecpvKevat, rj} yfj, dXXd 

^ The clause, /xtjS' •^/uels irov airodr^uw/jifv, whicli follows 
here in S, is deleted by Oldfather as a doublet of the pre- 
ceding three words. It arose probably as a superfluous 
attempt either to gloss or to emend. 


BOOK III. wiv. 6-12 

deserve, to be more wretched than crows and ravens, 
whicli can fly away wherever tliey please, and change 
their nests, and cross the seas, without groaning or 
longing for their first home. — Yes, but they feel that 
way because they are irrational creatures. — Has, 
then, reason been given us by the gods for misfortune 
and misery, so that we may spend our lives in 
wretchedness and mourning? Or shall all men be 
immortal, and no one leave home, but shall we stay 
rooted in the ground like the plants? And if any 
one of our acquaintances leaves home, shall we sit 
down and wail, and then again, if he comes back, 
dance and clap our hands as the children do ? 

Shall we not wean ourselves at last, and call to 
mind what we have heard from the philosophers.'^ — 
if, indeed, we did not listen to them as to enchanters 
— when they said that this universe is but a single 
state, and the substance out of which it has been 
fashioned is single, and it needs must be that there 
is a certain periodic change and a giving place of one 
thing to another, and that some things must be 
dissolved and others come into being, some things to 
remain in the same place and others to be moved. 
Further, that all things are full of friends, first gods, 
and then also men, who by nature have been made 
of one household with one another ; and that some 
men must remain with each other, while others 
must depart, and that though we must rejoice in 
those who dwell with us, yet we must not grieve at 
those who depart. And man, in addition to being 
by nature high-minded and capable of despising all 
the things that are outside the sphere of his moral 
purpose, possesses also this further quality, that, 
namely, of not being rooted nor growing in the 




aWor^ in aWov<; teaOaL tottov^ ttotc fiev 
y^peioiv nvoiv eTreiyovacov, Trore Be Kai avT?^<; tP}<; 
^fc'a? ev€Ka. 

13 Kai- To5 ^OSu(7(T€i TO (TV/il^aV TOLOVTOV TL 7]V' 

TToWcov 3' avOpoDiTwv 'Ihev clarea Kal voov eyvw 
Kal €TL nrpoaOev rS> 'WpaKXel irepLeXOelv ttjv 

0LK0V/jL€V1]V 6\7]V 

du0 pCOTTCOV V^pLV TS Kai evvofJLLyp €(pop(ouTa, 

Kal Ti-jv fi€v eK^dWovTa Kal KaOaipovra, rr]i> S' 

14 dvreLcrdyovTa. Kairot, Tr6aov<; oi6L (f)L\ov^ ^(^X^^ 
iv Sj]i3aL^, TToaovf; 6p'A6/jvai<;, TToaov'; Serrepiep- 
')(^6iJievo<^ €KTJ]aaTO, o? <ye Kal iydfiei, oirov 
Kaipo^ icpdvri avrw, Kal eiraLhoiTOielTO Kal roix; 
7raiSa<; aTreXenrev ^ ov ajevcov ovSe iroOodv ovS* co? 

15 6p<^avov^ d(^Lei<; ; rj^eu ydp^ ore ovSei<; iariv 

dv9 pwTTO^ 6p(pav6<;y dXXd TrdvTwv del Kal Si.rjpe- 

16 /cw? TTarijp eariv 6 KrjSo/ievo'^. ov yap /xe^/ot 
\6yov TjKTjKoei, on TraTijp icniv 6 Zeu? roiv 
dvOpciiircov, o? ye Kal aurov irarepa wero avrov 
Kal eKdXei Kal irpo^ eKelvov d(f)opa)V eTrparrev a 
eirpaTrev. roiydproL iravraxpy i^rjv avrw Sidyew 

17 evSai/jLovco^;. ovSeTTore 8' earlv olov t eh to 
avTo eXOelv evSaifioi'iav Kal iroOov tmv ov irapov- 
T(i)v. TO yap evBaifiovouv d7re\eiv Sel rrdvTa a 

^ Koraes : aii^KnTev S. 

^ Homer, Odyssey, I. 3. 

2 Homer, Odyssey, XVII. 487 (slightly modified). 

^ This is about the most drastic bit of idealisation of the 
Heracles myths which the Stoics, for whom Heracles was a 
kind of Arthurian knight, ever achieved. The comic poets 



earth, but of moving now to one place and now to 
another, at one time under the pressure of certain 
needs, and at another merely for the sake of the 

Now it was something of this sort whicli fell to the 
lot of Odysseus : 

Many the men whose towns he beheld, and he 
learned of their temper.^ 

And even before his time it was the fortune of 
Heracles to traverse the entire inhabited world, 

Seeing the wanton behaviour of men and the 

casting forth the one and clearing the world of it, 
and introducing the other in its place. Yet how 
many friends do you suppose he had in Thebes, in 
Argos, in Athens, and how many new friends he 
made on his rounds, seeing that he was even in the 
habit of marrying when he saw fit, and begetting 
children, and deserting his children, without either 
groaning or yearning for them, or as though leaving 
them to be orphans ? ^ It was because he knew that no 
human being is an orphan, but all men have ever and 
constantly the Father, who cares for them. Why, to 
him it was no mere story which he had heard, that 
Zeus is father of men, for he always thought of Him 
as his own father, and called Him so, and in all that 
he did he looked to Him. Wherefore he had the 
power to live happily in every place. But it is 
impossible that happiness, and yearning for what is 
not i)resent, should ever be united. For happiness 

naturally presented this aspect of his career in a somewhat 
different light. 



OeXeL, ire-n\i]p(OfxiVM rivl eoiKei'ar ov 8t-v|ro? Bel 

18 irpoaelvai avTu>y ov Xifiov. — 'AXV o^ ^Ohvcyaev^; 
eTrerrovOei, irpo^ ti-jv 'yvvalKa Kal eKkaiev iirl 
Trerpa? Kade^o/xevo^. — Eu 8' 'O/jiyjpM iravra 
irpoaex^ei^ koI TOi<i /j,vOoi<; avrov ; i) el ral<i d\y- 
Oelai^ eKXaev^ ri ciXXo rj 6Bvarv)(€L ; rt? he 

19 KaX6<; re Kal ayado^ hvarv)(el ; ru> ovri, fcaKCO<; 
SiOLKelrai ra oXa, el /jlj] eTrifieXelraL 6 Zeu? tcov 
eavTOv ttoXltcou, iV coaiu ofioioc avrro, evSai/j.oi'e<s. 
aXXa ravra ov Oe/jLira ouS' ocrta €i'dv/jii]dfjvai,, 

20 dXX' 6 'OSvaa6v<;, el fxev eKXaev Kal coBvpeTO, ovk 
Tfv dya06<;. ri^ yap dyaOo^ iarcv 6 ovk €l8co<;, 
09 iarip ; rt? 8' olSev ravra emX€Xrjcrfjievo<^, 
on (j)6aprd ra yevofjieva Kal avOpwirov dvdpcoTrfp 

21 ovvelvai ov hvvarov del; ri ovv ; rcov jxi-j Bvpa- 
rcop eipleadai dpSpa7ToSMB6<;, i)Xidiov, ^evov Oeo- 
fia')(ovvro^, co? [luvov olov re, roL<i Boy/iaai rot? 

22 'AXX' 7} fiyjrrjp fjLOV arevei fir] opcoad fie. — Aia 
ri yap ovk epbaOev rovrov^ rov^i X6yov<i ; Kal ov 
rovro (prj/ii, on ovk eTrLfieXt^reov rod /it) ol/jLco^eiv 
avrt]v, dXX^ ore ov Sel OeXeiv ra dXXorpia i^ 

23 diravro^;. Xvittj S' r; dXXov dXXorpiov icrnv, rj 8' 
i/jLT) ijiov. eyu> ovv ro /xev e/xov rrravaco e^ cirrav- 
T09, eir €/jLoI ydp eanv ro 8' dXXorpiov ireipdao- 
jjiaL Kara Bvva/xiv, e^ dfravro'^ 5' ov Treipdao- 

24 /iiaL. el Be pn], Oeo/iaxw^> dvndtjao) tt/oo? rop 

^ 6 added by Schenkl : dAA' dSuaa-eus S. 

1 Homer, Odyssey, V. 82. 

BOOK III. xviv. 17-24 

must already possess everythin_<>: tliat it wants ; it must 
resemble a replete person : he cannot feel thirst or 
hunger. — Still, Odysseus felt a longing for his wife, 
and sat u|:>on a rock and wept.^ — And do you take 
Homer and his tales as authority for everything? If 
Odysseus really wept, what else could he have been but 
miserable ? But what good and excellent man is 
miserable ? In all truth the universe is badly managed, 
if Zeus does not take care of His own citizens, 
that they be like Him, that is, happy. Nay, it is 
unlawful and unholy to think of such an alternative, 
but if Odysseus wept and wailed, he was not a good 
man. VV'hy, what man could be good who does not 
know who he is ? And who knows that, if he has 
forgotten that the things which come into being are 
corruptible, and that it is impossible for one human 
being always to live with another.'' What then? 
To reach out for the impossible is slavish and 
foolish ; it is acting like a stranger in the universe, 
one who is fighting against God with the only 
weapons at his command, his own judgements. 

But my mother mourns because she does not see 
me. — Yes, but why did she not learn the meaning of 
these words of the philosophers ? And I am not 
saying that you ought to take no pains to keep 
her from lamenting, but only that a person ought 
not to want at all costs what is not his own. Now 
another's grief is no concern of mine, but my 
own grief is. Therefore, I will put an end at 
all costs to what is my own concern, for it is 
under my control : and that which is another's 
concern I will endeavour to check to the best of my 
ability, but my effort to do so will not be made 
at all costs. Otherwise I shall be fighting against 



Ala, avT lB I ar a ^0 /.La L avTw Trpo? ra 6\a, Kal 
rairix^Lpa t?}? 6eoixa')(ia^ ravrri^ Kal a'n'€LOeia<^ 
ov 7raiSe<; TralScov eKTiaovcrtv, aX\ avro^ iyco 
fied' fjfiepai', vvkto^ Slo, tmv evvirviwv eKirrjBoyVy 
Tapaaa6/i6VO<;, 7rpo<; irdaav aira'yyekiav rpe/xcov, 
ef eiricrToXcbv dWorpicov rjprrj/jLei'Tjv e^c^v tyjv 

25 ifiavTou airdOeiav.^ diro 'Fa)/jLi]<; rt? i]K€i. " /jlo- 
vov pLYj ri KaKov-^ tl he KaKov eKel aot crv/ji/3y]vaL 
hvvarai, ottov fxij el; diro Tr]<; 'EWaSo?. *' fxovov 
firj TL KaKov^^ ovT(D<; (TOL Tra? totto? Svparai 

26 hvarvx^ci'^ elvat amo?. ov^ Ifcavov €Kel ere drv- 
^6tz^, OTTOV avTO'^ el, dWa Kal irepav 6a\daari<; 
Kal Sid ypajub/jbdrcov ; outo)? da^aXoi'^ croc ra 

27 Trpdy/jbara exei ; — "Yi ovv, dv diroOavwatv ol eKel 
(piXot ; — Tt yap dv dWo i) ol OvtjtoI direOavov ; 
i) TTw? dfia fiev yrjpdaai Oe\€i<;, dfia he firjSevof; 

28 TMV crrepyofievcov firj IBelv Odvarov ; ovk olaO , 
OTL ev rw fiaKpu) ')(^p6vw iroWd Kal TroiKiXa diro- 
/Salveiv di'dyKTj, rod fiev irvperov yeveaOai Kpelr- 

29 Tova, Tov Be Xyary/v, rod Be rvpavvov ; tolovto 
yap TO TTepiexov, toiovtov ol avv6vTe<i, '>\rv^rj Kal 
KavfxaTa Kal Tpo(f)al davfifieTpot Kal oBoiiroplai 
Kal 7r\ov<; Kal dpefiot Kal irepLCTTdaeL'^ TroiKiXar 
TOV fjLev d7T(t)\ecrav, tov B"" e^coptaav, tov B et? 
TTpea/Selav, dWov B' et? aTpaTeiav eve/3a\ov. 

30 KuOrjcro tolvvv Trpo? irdvTa TavTa i7rT0J]/jL€V0<;, 
irevOcov, aTVXoiv, Bva-Tux^^y ^'f dWov ypTt]/x€vo<s 

^ Schweighauser : einreideiav S. 

* The phrase in quotation marks is a verbal reminiscence 
of Homer, Iliad, XX. 308. 


BOOK III. xxix. 24-30 

God, 1 shall be setting myself in opposition to 
Zeus, I shall be arraying myself against Him in 
regard to His administration of the universe. And 
the wages of this fighting against God and this 
disobedience will not be paid by '^children's 
children," ^ but by me myself in my own person, by 
day and by night, as I start up out of dreams and am 
disturbed, trembling at every message, with my own 
peace of mind depending upon letters not my own. 
Someone has arrived from Rome. " If only there 
is no bad news ! " But how can anything bad for 
7/ou happen in a place, if you are not there ? Some- 
one arrives from Greece. '' If only there is no bad 
news ! " In this w-ay for you every place can cause 
misfortune. Isn't it enough for you to be miserable 
where you are ? Must you needs be miserable 
even beyond the seas, and by letter ? Is this the 
fashion in which all that concerns you is secure ? 
— Yes, but what if my friends over there die ? — Why, 
what else than that mortal men died ? Or how can 
you wish to reach old age yourself, and at the same 
time not behold the death of any that you love ? 
Do you not know that in the long course of time 
many different things must needs happen ; fever 
must overcome one man, a brigand another, a 
tyrant a third ? Because such is the character of the 
air about us, such that of our associates ; cold and 
heat and unsuitable food, and journeys by land and 
by sea, and winds and all manner of perils ; this 
man they destroy, that man they drive into exile, 
another they send on an embassy, and yet another 
on a campaign. Sit down, therefore, and get all 
wrought up at each one of these events, mourning, 
unfortunate, miserable, depend on something other 



Koi TovTov ovx 6v6<;, ov Svetv, dWa fivpUov iirl 

31 Tavra ij/cove^; irapa Tol<i (pt\oa6(f)OL<;, ravr 
e fJbdvO ave<; ; ovk olgO\ oti, arpareia to ')(^pr)iid 
iariv ; rbv /xev Sel (jyvXdrTeLV, rov he KaraaKO- 
Tn'jcrovra e^ievai, rov Se koi iroXefxrjcrovTa' ov)(^ 
olov r elvai irdvra^; eV to) avrS ouS' afjueivov. 

32 (jv 5' a^et? eKTeKelv rd Trpoardyfiara rov (Trpary- 
yov 67/taXet9, orav ri aot Trpoarax^fj Tpa')(vrepov, 
Koi ov TTapaKo\ov6el<;, olov diro^alveL'^, oaov €7tI 
aoL, TO arpdrev/jua, on dv ere Traj^re? /jbi/n/jacovraL, 
ov rdcppov aKdyei tl<;, ov )(^dpaKa irept/SaXet, ovk 
dypviTin]aeL, ov KivSvvevaeL, dWd d^PV^'^^'^ 

33 ho^eL crrpareveaOac. rrdXiv ei> irXoiw vavTrj<^ dv 
7r\e7]<;y fiiav 'X^dipav Kdieye koi tuvtijv irpoaXi- 
Trdpec dv 8' eVl rov larov dva^rjvai Bep^ /jltj OeXe, 
dv et? rr]v nrpwpav SiaSpa/xetv, firj OeXe. koX ti? 
dve^erai aov Kv/3€pv)]T7]<i ; ov-^l S' co? (TKevo'^ 
d')^pr)aTOV eK^aXel, ovhev dXXo rj ifiTroSiov koI 

34 KUKOV Trapdhety/jLa rrov dXXcov vavroiv ; oi/rct)? he 
Kol evOdhe' arpareia rL<; eariv 6 ^lo<; e/cdarov 
Kal avrri fxaKpa Kal ttolklXtj. rrjpetv ae Sec rb 
rod arpandirov Kal rov arparrjyov 7rpo<; vevjia ^ 

35 irpdaaeiv eKaara' el olov re, /jLavrevofievov " d 
OeXet. ovSe yap 6/jL0L0<; eKelvo<i 6 arparjjyb^ Kal 
ovro<^ ovre Kara rrjv La')(yv ovre Kara rrjv rov 

36 I'-jOov; virepoxi^v. rera^at iv iroXet yyefiovi^ Kal 
OVK iv raneivfj rivl X^P^> ^^'^ eirereio^ dXX' 

^ Schweighauser : arpaTiwTOv irpScri'fvjxa, koI rod arparijye'i 
* Reiske :'Tev6,ufyos S. 


BOOK III. XXIV. 30-36 

than yourself, and that not one thinpf or two, but 
tens upon tens of thousands of things ! 

Js that what you used to hear wlien you sat at the 
feet of the })hilosopliers ? Is that what you learned ? 
Do you not know that the business of life is a 
campaign ? One man must mount guard, another go 
out on reconnaissance, and another out to fight. It is 
not possible for all to stay in the same place, nor is it 
better so. But you neglect to perform the duties 
assigned you by your commanding ofKcer, and com- 
plain when some rather hard order is given you, and 
fail to understand to what a state you are bringing 
the army, as far as in you lies ; because, if they 
all imitate you, no one will dig a trench, no one 
construct a palisade, or watch through the night, or 
risk his life in fighting, but they will seem useless 
soldiers. Again, if you take ship as a sailor, take 
up one place and stick to that I and if you have to 
climb the mast, be unwilling ; if you have to run to 
the bow, be unwilling ! And what ship's captain 
will put up with you ? Won't he throw you over- 
board like a piece of junk, nothing but a nuisance, 
and a bad example to the other sailors ? So also in 
this world ; each man's life is a kind of campaign, 
and a long and complicated one at that. You have 
to maintain the character of a soldier, and do each 
separate act at the bidding of the General, if possible 
divining what He wishes. For there is no com- 
parison between this General and an ordinary one, 
either in His power, or in the pre-eminence of His 
character. You have been given a post in an 
imperial city, and not in some mean place ; not for a 

^ C. Schenkl : Tjyefiovia S. 



et? ^ del ^ov\€VT7]<;. ovk olad\ on tov tolovtov 
oXlya /xev Set oIkovo/jl€lv, to, iroWa 5' aTroSjjfielv 
apxovra rj dpxofi€VOv t) virrjpeTOVvrd tlvl dp^fj rj 
arparevofjievov rj Si/cd^opra ; elrd /jlol 6e\€t<; &)? 
(f)VTOV irpocniprrjaOat toI^ avTOL<; totto^? Kal 

37 iTpoaeppL^wadaL ; — 'HSv yap eariv. — Tt? ov 
(f)>]at.v; dWa koX fco/xo? t)Zv^ icrri fcal yvvrj Kokrj 
j]Su eariv. ri dWoXeyovatv ol T€Xo<i jroiovfievoL 
Ti}i> i)hovi]v ; 

38 Ovk alaOavj], tlvcov di^OpcoTTcov (pcovrjv dcj^rfKa^; ; 
on ^FjTTiKOvpeicov /cal KLvaihwv ; elra rd eKeivwv 
epya irpdaawv Kal rd Soyfiara e%a)^' rov<; \6yov<i 
i)ljuv \eyei<i tou? 7ii]Vwvo<; Kal XwKpdTou^ ; ovk 

39 diroppi^ei^ co? fiaKpoTdico rdWorpia, oT? Koafifj 
pLrj^ev (TOL 7rpoa7]Kovaiv ; rj rt aWo OeXovaiv 
€K€LVOL Tj KadevSciv diTapa7rohiaT(o<; Kal dvavay- 
KaaTco^; Kal dvaaTuvre^ e'^' rjav^ia^; ^acr/z?;- 
craaOaL Kal to TTpocrwrrov diroirXvvaif elra 
ypdyjrai Kal dvayvoyvai a OeKovcnv, elra cfiXva- 
prjaai ri ttot eTraLvov/xevot viro rcov c^iXwv, 6 n 
dv Xeycoaiv, elra et? TrepLirarov 'irpoe\66vTe<; Kal 
oXiya irepLTTaTrjaavTe^ XovcraaOaiy elra (f)ayeLV, 
elra KOipniOrjvaL, olav Stj kolttjv KaOevheiv rov^ 
TOLovTOV<^ eLKO'; — TL dv Tt? XeyoL ; e^eanv yap 

40 'Aye, <^epe pLOt Kal av rrjv aavrov BiaTpL/3i]V, 
fjv iroOel^, t,rfXwTd Tr]<i dXrjOeia^i Kal '^coKpdrov^ 
Kal Atoyei^ou?. rl OeXeis iv 'AOy]uai,^ iroLelv ; 

^ fh added by Capps : x^Pf aAAaei S. Tlie senators at 
Athens, for example, served only one year. 


BOOK III. XXIV. 36--40 

short time either^ but you are a senator for life. Do 
you not know that a man in such a post has to give 
only a httle attention to the affairs of his own 
household^ but for most of the time lias to be away, 
in command, or under command, or serving some 
official, or in the field, or on the judge's bench ? And 
then you want to be attached to the same s})ot and 
rooted in it like a plant ? — Yes, it is pleasant. — -Why 
deny it? But soup is pleasant too, and a pretty 
woman is a pleasant thing. What else do those say 
who make pleasure their end? 

Do you not realize the kind of men they are 
whose language you have just uttered ? That they 
are Epicureans and blackguards ? And yet, while 
doing their deeds and holding their opinions, you 
recite to us the words of Zeno and Socrates ? W^ill 
you not cast away from you, as far as you can fling 
them, these alien trappings with which you adorn 
yourself, although they do not at all become you ? 
Or what else do these fellows want but to sleep 
without hindrance or compulsion, and after they 
have arisen, to yawn at their ease^ and w^ash their 
faces ; then to write and read what they please, 
then to babble something or other, to the applause 
of their friends, no matter what they say ; then to go 
out for a stroll, and after a short walk to take a bath ; 
then to eat, then to seek their rest, and sleep in such 
a bed as you might expect such persons to enjoy — 
why should I say the word ? For you can infer what 
it is like. 

Come now, do you also tell me your style of life, 
the one on which you have set your heart, you eager 
follower of the truth, and of Socrates, and of Diogenes ! 
What do 2/o« want to do in Athens? Just what 1 



41 ravra avrd ; /jlij n erepa ; tl ovv ^TfoiKov aavrov 
elvai X6y€L<; ; elra ol fxev tt)<; ' l^ m fxaiwv 'no\ireia<; 
KaraylrevSofievoL fcoXd^ovrat 7riKpo}<i, to 1)9 8' 
ovTco<; /jL€yd\ov koI ae/xvou Karay^revhofJievov^ 
TTpdyfiaro^i koX 6i>6/iaT0<; dOfoov<; dTraWdrrecrOaL 

42 8el ; 1) Tovro ye ov hwarov, aX\' 6 vofio's Oelo'^ 
Koi la')(ypo<; koI dvairohpacTTO'; ovr6<i iariv 6 ra^; 
fxeyiara^; €i(T7rpaaa6pei'o<; KoXdaei^ irapa tmv to, 

43 /jueytara d/jLapravovTcov ; tl yap Xeyei ; " 6 
7rpocr7roiov/ji€PO<; ra /jLrjSev tt/oo? avrov earo) 
d\a^(t)v, ecTTd) Kcvoho^o'^' drreiOMV rfj Oeia 
Sioifcyjaet earco raTreivo^, ecnw hov\o<^, XvireiaOw, 
(j)Oov€iT(i), iXeeLTco, to K€(pdXaioi> TvdvTcov, SuaTv- 
')(^eLTco, OpojpetTO).'^ 

41 Ti ovv ; deXei^; fxe tov helva Bepairevetv ; 
iirl 6vpa<i ^ avTov nopeveaOai ; — Et tovto aipel 
X0709, virep T//9 7raTpiSo<;, v-nep to)V avyyevoiv, 
virep dvOpdiiTWV, Sia tl /jltj direXOrj'; ; dXX^ iirl 
pep Ta9 TOV crKVT6(i)<; ovk alay^vvrj 7Top€v6p6i'0<s, 
OTav Bey vTToSypdTUiV, ovS' eVl Ta9 tov KijirovpoVy 
oTav dihpaKwv, eVl 8e Ta<i tcop TrXovaicov, OTav 

45 TLVo<; 6p,0L0v Ber] ; — Nar top aKVTea yap ov 
Oavpd^Q). — My]B€ TOP irXovaiov. — OvBe top 
Krjirovpop Ko\aKev(j(o. — M?;8€ top irXovaiop. 

46 nai9 ovp Tvyw ov Beopai; — 'Eyo) Be aoi Xeyco 
OTi " &)9 reuf o/xez'09 drrepxov " ; ov-)(l Be povop, 

47 ipa 7rpd^7)<; to aavTW rrpeirop ; — Ti ovp gtl 
TTopevopai ; — "\p' d-neX6r}<^, Ipa diroBeBwKco'^ rj<; 

1 Wolf : Qvpais S. 

1 Because it was a disturbing passion which interfered 
with serenity. 


BOOK JII. xxiv. 41-47 

liave described? Notliiii^ at all dili'ercnt ? Why, 
then, do you call yourself a Stoic? Well, but those 
who falsely claim Roman citi/enship are severely 
punished, and ought those who falsely claim so 
great and so dignified a calling and title to get off 
scot-free ? Or is that impossible ? whereas the 
divine and mighty and inescapable law is the law 
which exacts the greatest penalties from those who 
are guilty of the greatest offences. Now what are 
its terms ? " Let him who makes pretence to tilings 
which in no wise concern him be a braggart, let him 
be a vainglorious man ; let him who disobeys the 
divine governance be abject, be a slave, sufier grief, 
envy, pity,^ — in a word, be miserable, and lament," 

Well, what then ? Do you want me to pay court 
to So-and-so ? go to his front-door ? ^ — If reason so 
decides, for the sake of your country, your kinsmen, 
mankind in general, why not go? Why, you are 
not ashamed to go to the door of the cobbler when 
you need shoes, nor to that of the market-gardener 
when you need lettuce ; and are you ashamed to go 
to the door of the rich when you want something that 
rich men have r — Very true, for as to the cobbler, I do 
not have to admire him. — Don't admire the rich man, 
either, — And I shall not have to flatter the market- 
gardener. — Don't flatter the rich man either. — How, 
then, shall I get what I need? — Am I telling you, "Go 
like a man who is certain to get what he wants," and 
not simply, " Go in order to do what becomes you " ? 
— Why, then, do I goat all ? — So as to have gone, so 
as to have performed the function of the citizen that 

2 The transition is most abrupt, but obviously the inter- 
locutor has been expected by his friends to pay court to 
some rich and influential man. 



Tfl. Tov ttoXltov epyay ra dSeXcpov, ra <^'l\ov. 
4S Kal XoiiTov /.le/xvrjao, on 7rp6<; aKvrea dcpl^ai, 
irpof; Xaxcii'07T(t)\7]v, ovBevb^ fieyaXov rj aefjivov 
e^ovra Trjv e^ovaiav, kclv avrb ttoXXov irwXfj. 
(JL>^ €7rl TUf; OihpaKa^ ^ drrep')(r)' o^oXov yap eiaiv, 

49 TaXdvTov S' ovk elaiv. ol/to)? KavravOa. rov 
eirl 6i)pa<^ eXOelv ci^tov to irpdyfia' earco, d(pL^o- 
pat-. TOV hLaXe-)(6r]vaL ovtco<;' eaTco, hiaXeyOr}- 
cropaL. dXXd Kal ttjp X^^P^ ^^^ KaTacf^iXijaac 
Kal OcoTrevaac 8l* eTralvov. airaye, TaXdvTOV 
iaTLV ov XvaiTeXet pLoc ovBe Trj iroXei ovhe Tol<i 
(f)LXoL(; diroXeaai Kal iroXiTt^v dyaOov Kal (plXov. 

50 \\.XXd S6^€L<; pL7] iTpOTeOvpLYjaOaL pLi] dvuaa^. 
irdXiv iireXdOov, tlvo<^ eveKa eXrjXv6a<i ; ovk 
ola6\ oTi dvi]p KaXo'^ Kal dya6o<; oiihev Troiel 
TOV So^ai eveKa, dXXd tov TrejrpdxOai KoXoi^ ; — 

61 Tt ovv 6(f)eXo<; avTW tov irpd^ai KaXa)<; ; — Tt B' 
6(f)eXo<; T(p ypd(povTL to Alcopo^; ovop^a, co? XPV 
ypd(f)€ip ; avTo to ypd-yjraL. — "ETraOXov ovv ovhev ; 
— %v he f/;T6i9 e'TTaOXov dvhpl dyaOcp pLel^ov tov 

62 ra KaXd Kal BtKaia irpdTTeLv ; iv ^OXvpiria 8' 
ovhel'i dXXo ovhev, dXX! dpKelv aoi Bokcl to 
€aT€(f)avcoaOaL 'OXvpuTria. ovtco'^ aoL piKpov 
Kal ov8epo<; d^tov elvat (^aiveTai to elvat KaXov 
Kal dyadov Kal evBalpLOPa ; Trpo<; TavTa vtto 

53 Oewv et? ti}V itoXlv TavTTjv ela)]ypevo'=i Kal y'jBr} 
TO)v dvBpo<i epycov ^ oc^eiXcDV dirTeadai tctOu^; 

^ Schenkl : OplSaKai S. 

2 Wolf, after Schegk : aySpoepyuv S. 

^ i.e. tlie world. 


BOOK III. XXIV. 47-53 

you are, of a brotlier. of a friend. And furthermore, 
remember that you have come to see a cobbler, a 
vegetable-dealer, a man who has authority over 
nothing great or important, even if he sell it for a 
high price. You are going, as it were, for heads of 
lettuce ; they are worth an obol, not a talent. 
So it is in our life also. The matter in hand 
is worth going to a person's door about ; very 
well, I will go. It is also worth an interview ; very 
well, I will interview him about it. Yes, but 1 will 
have to kiss his hand also, and flatter him with 
words of praise. Go to ! that is paying a talent for 
a head of lettuce ! It is not profitable to me, nor to 
the State, nor to my friends, to ruin by so acting a 
good citizen and friend. 

Yes, but if you fail, people will think that you 
didn't try hard. Have you gone and forgotten 
again why you went? Don't you know that a 
good and excellent man does nothing for the sake of 
appearances, but only for the sake of having acted 
right ? — What good does he get, then, from acting 
right? — And what good does the person get for 
writing the name " Dio " as it ought to be written ? 
The mere fact of writing it that way. — Is there, 
then, no further reward r — And are you looking for 
some further reward in the case of a good man, a 
reward which is greater than the doing of what is fine 
and right ? At Olympia nobody wants anything 
else, but you feel content with having received an 
Olympic crown. Does it seem to you so small and 
worthless a thing to be good, and excellent, and 
happy ? Therefore, when you have been introduced 
into this city-state ^ by the gods, and find it now 
your duty to lay hand to the work of a man, do you 



e7ri7ToOe'i<; ^ Ka\ fxd[i^i]v Kal fcd/xTTrec ae /cat cltto- 
difkvvei KXaiovTa '^vvaia /ncopd ; ovtw^ ovhe-nore 
7rav(T€i iraihiov mv vrjinov ; ovk olaO\ otc 6 rd 
jraihiov ttolwv oaay irpea^vrepo^ roaovra) yeXoio- 
r€po(; ; 

54 'Ej/ 'AO)]vaL^ 5' ovheva kdipa^ et? oIkov avrov 
(j)OLr(t>v ; — '^Ov i^ovXofirjv. — Kal evddhe rovrov 
6e\e opdv koX ov /SovXei oyjrei' pLovov pbr] Tair6LV(i)<;, 
p.T] p,€T 6p€^6co<; t) e/c/cXtVeo)? kuI ecrraL ra aa 

55 /taXw?. Tovro 8' ovk iv tco iXOelv iarlv ovS' 
ev rep eirl Ovpat'^ arrfvai, dXX^ evhov ev tol^ 

56 BoypLacTLV. orap rd €/cto(; kol dirpoaipeTa rjri- 
paKO)<; 27? Kal pbrjBev avrcov aov rjyi] pbiuo^; , piova 
3' €Kelva ad, to Kplvau A^aXw?, to vTroXa/Selv, to 
6ppLy]aaL, to 6pe')(0r}vaL, to cKKXlvai, ttov €tl 
KoXaK€La<; TOTTO^, TTOV ra7r€Lvo(f)poavv7]^ ,' ri en 

57 TToOeU rrjv r)av)(^iav ryjv eKel, ri tou? avpj]6eL<i 
TOTTOv; ; eKSe^at ^pay^v kol tovtov<; irdXtv efet? 
avv/jdei^;. elra dv ovto)<; dy6vv(Z<^ ^XV^' '^<^^i-v 
Kal TOVToyv aTraWaTTo/xe/'O? KXale Kal cneve. 

68 llw? ovv yevwpai ^LX6aTOp<yo<i ; — 'H? yevvalo^, 
&)? euTL'^/;9* ovBeiTOTe yap alpel^ o Xoyo<; Ta- 
Treivov elvaL ovhe KaraKXaaOai ovK i^ dXXov 
KpepLaaOai ovSe pLefJLy\raaOai irore deov rj dvOpco- 

59 TTOV. ovTCii^ p,0L yivov (^iXoaropyo^ 6i<i Taura 
T)]p7'j(T(t)V' el he Sid Trjv (piXoaTopyLav TavT7]v, 
ijVTLvd ^ TTore Kal /caXet? (piXoaropyLav, BovXo<; 

^ Salniasi us suggests (Ti TToflerj. * Upton: ipfi S. 

^ L/plon's " codex " : Taura- ttjv tivo. S. 


BOOK III. XXIV. 53-59 

yearn for nurses and the breast, and does tlie weep- 
in<jf of poor silly women move you and make you 
effeminate ? And so will you never g;et over being 
an infant? Don't you know that, when a person 
acts like a child, the older he is the more ridiculous 
he is ? 

In Athens did you see nobody when you went to 
his house ? — Yes, the man I wanted to see. — Here also 
make up your mind to see this man, and you will 
see the man you want ; only do not go humbly, not 
with desire or aversion, and all will be well with 
you. But this result is not to be found by mere 
going, nor by standing at gates, but in one's 
judgements within. When you have contemned 
things external and outside the province of your 
moral purpose, and have come to regard none of 
them as your own, but only the being right in 
judgement, in thinking, in choosing, in desiring, 
in avoiding, — where is there any longer room for 
flattery, where for an abject spirit } VV^hy any 
longer yearn for the quiet you enjoyed there, or 
your familiar haunts ? Wait a little while and you 
will find the places here familiar in their turn. And 
then, if you are so ignoble in spirit, weep and wail 
again when you leave these too ! 

How, then, shall I become affectionate ? — As a 
man of noble spirit, as one who is fortunate ; for 
it is against all reason to be abject, or broken in 
spirit, or to depend on something other than your- 
self, or even to blame either God or man. I would 
have you become affectionate in such a way as to 
maintain at the same time all these rules ; if, how- 
ever, by virtue of this natural affection, whatever it 
is you call by that name, you are going to be a 



fj-eWei's elvai KaX a6\io<^, ov XuaiTeXet (f)L\6- 

60 (TTopyov elvaL. koX tl KwXvei (piXelp Tcva o)? 
dinjTov, o)? aiToBij/jLtjTCKOP ; 7) ^G)Kpdri]'i ovk 
i(f)LX€L Tou? iralha'^ T01/9 eavrov ; dXV co? iXev- 
Oepo<;, ft)? fxefjuvrifjiivo^i, otl rrpojrov hel 0€ot<; elvau 

61 (^iXov. hiCL TOVTO ovBev Trape^rj twv TrpeTruvTcov 
di'Spl dyaOcp ovr^ d7roXoyovfjL6vo<; ovO' vttotl- 
fiu)fievo<i OUT €TL TTpoaOev /SovXevcjv j) arparevo- 

62 jjLevo'^. I'lfJiel^ he 7rday]<^ 7rpo(f)daea)(; 7rpo<s to 
dyevpeL<; elvai eviropovfiev, ol fiev hid iralha, 

63 ol he Bid fjLrjrepa, dXXot he hi dheX^ov<^. hi 
ovheva he irpoay^Kei hvarv)(^elv, dXXd eijrvj(elv 
hid 7rdvTa<;, fidXiara he hid rov deov rov eVl 

64 TOVTO 7)/id^ KaTaaKevdaavTa. dye, Aioyep)]<i h' 
OVK ecfiiXei ovheva, 09 ovtco<; y/xepo'^ r)v kol 
(^iXdvOpcdTTO^y wcrre virep tov kolvov tcov dvOpoo- 
iTwv ToaovTOV^ TTovov^ Kol TaXai7ru)pLa<; tov 
ad)/jiaTO<; ao■/xe^'09 dvahe')(^e(j6ai ; dXX^ ecplXei 

65 TTOJ? ; CO? TOV Aio? htd/covov ehei, dfj,a fiev Krjho- 
fjLepo<;, d/ia h' co? to) Oeo) VTTOTeTayp.evo<i. hid 

66 TOVTO Trdaa yrj TraTpU yv eKeivw fiovo), efatpero? 
h' ovhe/jiia' koX dXov<^ ovk eiroOei ra? 'A^z/ra? 
ovhe TOL'? eKel avpi}Oei<; kol <f)LXov<;, dXX avTOL<; 
Tol<i 7reipaTaL<; avv7]6t](; eyiveTO Kai eiravopOovv 
eireipaTO. Kal irpaOeh vdTepov ev KopLpOw 
hiijyep oi/Tft)? ft)? irpoaOev ev ^A6i'jpai<^ kol et? 
Tleppai/3ov<; S' dp direXOcop dxravTro'^ el^^p. 


BOOK III. XXIV. 59-66 

slave and miserable, it does not profit you to be 
affectionate. And what keeps you from loving a 
person as one subject to death, as one who may leave 
you? Did not Socrates love his own children? But 
in a free spirit, as one who remembers that it was his 
first duty to be a friend to the gods. That is why 
he succeeded in everything that becomes a good 
man, both in making his defence, and in assessing 
his own penalty, and before that time in his services 
as senator or soldier. But we abound in all manner 
of excuses for being ignoble ; with some it is a 
child, with others a mother, and then again it is 
brothers. But it is not becoming for us to be un- 
happy on any person's account, but to be happy 
because of all, and above all others because of God, 
who has made us for this end. Come, was there 
anybody that Diogenes did not love, a man who was 
so gentle and kind-hearted that he gladly took upon 
himself all those troubles and })hysical hardships for 
the sake of the common weal ? But what was the 
manner of his loving? As became a servant of Zeus, 
caring for men indeed, but at the same time subject 
unto God. That is why for him alone the whole 
world, and no special place, was his fatherland ; 
and when he had been taken prisoner he did not 
hanker for Athens nor his acquaintances and friends 
there, but he got on good terms with the pirates 
and tried ^ to reform them. And later, when he was 
sold into slavery at Corinth he kept on living there 
just as he had formerly lived at Athens; yes, and 
if he had gone off" to the Perrhaebians he would 
have acted in quite the same way. That is how 

^ The humorous touch here in the word-jingle ireiparals 
and 67r€ipaTo is worthy of note, but hard to reproduce. For 
the incident in question see IV. 1, 115 f. 



67 OVTCO'; eKevOepia yiverai. Sia rovro tiXeyev on 
" i^ ov /a' ^ XvTiadevii's yXevOepcoaev, ovKen iBov- 

68 Xeuaa.^^ 7rco<; r/XevOepcoaeu ; uKove, rlXeyei- " iBi- 
ha^ev fie ra e/xa kuI to, ovk i/jid. Krrjai<^ ovk i/jLyy 
avyy6i'€L<i, oIk6loi, (plXoi, (f}7]p.r), avvijOcL^; tottol, 

69 Siarpi,^}], rravra ravra otl dWorpia. ' aov ovv 
rl ; y^prjai^ ^avraaLcov.^ Tavrijv ehet^ev fiot on 
dKOiXvTov e%(w, civavdyKaaTOV ovSeU i/nrooLcrai 
Bvvarai, ovSel'i ^idaaaOai dXX(i)(; ')(^p7]aaa0ai rj w? 

70 OeXo). ri<i ovv en 'e)(^ei /lov e^ovaiav ; OtX-tTTTTo? 
/; WXe^ai>Spo<i t) HepSiKKWi i) 6 pLeya<; /3acrt\ei^? ; 
irodev avTOL^ ; top yap iiir dvOpcoirou /jieXXovra 
rjTTciadai ttoXv irporepov viro tojv Trpaypdrcov 

71 Sel rjTrdcrdai,.'' ovtivo<; ovv ov^ rjBovr) KpeLrrcov 
eaTLV, ov TToyo?, ov Bo^a, ov ttX-oOto?, Svvarai 8\ 
orav avTM ho^ij, to aco/idTcov oXov irpoaTTTvaa^ 
Tivl uTTeXOeiv, TiVo? eTi ovTO<i SovX6<; eaTiv, tlvl 

72 vTTOTeTaKTai ; el S' rjBico^; iv 'AO)]vaL<; Sirjyev kuI 
TjTTtjTO TavTT]<; tT;? BiaTpL^i]^, eirl iravTl av rjv 
TCI ifccLvov TTpdy/jLUTa, 6 lcr')(yp6T€po<^ KvpLO<i dv 

73 r/v XvTTTjaaL avTov. ttw? dv Bo/cel^; tov<; Tretpara? 
eKoXdKevev, 'iv avTov \\.9rivaL(i)v tlvX TrcoXyacoaLv, 
'iv lSt] TTore tov Yletpciid tov kuXov koX tcl paKpd 

74 Teixrj koI ttju dKpoiroXiv ; rt? a)V iSrji;, dvhpd- 

75 TToSov ; SovXo^; Kal Taireivo^' real tl aoi 6<peXo<^ ; 
— Ov' dXX' eXevdepo^. — Aetfor, ttw? eXevOepo^. 

1 His teacher, the famous philosopher. 

2 (Jf Persia. 

3 Perhaps a reference to the story tliat Anaxarchus, when 
Nicucreon ordered that his tongue be cut out, bit it off and 
spat it in the other's face. Diogenes Laertius, 9, 59. 


BOOK in. xxrv. 66-75 

freedom is achieved. That is why he used to say, 
"From the time that Antisthenes^ set me free, I 
have ceased to be a shive." How did Antisthencs 
set him free? Listen to what Diogenes says. " He 
taught me what was mine, and what was not mine. 
Property is not mine ; kinsmen, members of my 
household, friends, reputation, famihar places, 
converse with men — all these are not my own. 
' What, then, is yours ? Power to deal with external 
impressions.' He showed me that I possess this 
beyond all hindrance and constraint; no one can 
hamper me ; no one can force me to deal with them 
otherwise than as I will. Who, then, has authority 
over me ? Philip, or Alexander, or Perdiccas, or 
the Great King?^ Where can they get it? For 
the man who is destined to be overjwwered by a 
man must long before that have been overpowered by 
things." Therefore, the man over whom pleasure 
has no power, nor evil, nor fame, nor wealth, and 
who, whenever it seems good to him, can spit his 
whole paltry body into some oppressor's face ^ and 
depart from this life — whose slave can he any longer 
be, whose subject? But if he had gone on living 
pleasantly in Athens, and had been enamoured of his 
life there, his fortune would have been in every man's 
control, and the man who was stronger than he 
would have had power to cause him grief. How 
do you imagine he would have wheedled the pirates 
to sell him to some Athenian, so that he might some 
time see the beautiful Piraeus, and the Long Walls 
and the Acropolis I Who are you that you should 
see them, slave? A thrall and a person of abject 
spirit ; and what good are they to you ? — No, not a 
slave, but a free man. — Show me how you are free. 



IBou €7reLX7)7Trai aov rt? Trore ovro^, 6 i^dycov ae 
ciTTO Tr}<; crvin']Oov<; aoi Starpz/S?}? fcal Xeyei 
" Sov\o<; i/jLO<; el' eV i/iol yap ian KcoXvaal ae 
Sidyeiv oj? ^e'Xet?, tV e/iol to dvelvai ae, to 
Taveivovv' orav OeXw, itoXlv €v<^paivr} kol 

76 fieT€(opo<; TTopevT] et? 'A^7/j'a?." rt Xeyeif; Trpo? 
TOVTOV Tov BovXaycoyovvrd ae ; irolov avrw 
Kapiriari^v SlSq)<; ; i) ouS' oX&)9 dvTLpXeireL^, aXX' 

77 ac^et? roi;? ttoXXou? Xoyou? iKerevei'^, <W d(f)eOfj^ ; 
dvOpwire, eh cf)v\aK7]v ae Set ')(^aipovra dTTievai, 
airevSovra, c^Odvovra tou? aTrdyovra^;. elrd fioi 
av fiev ev ^Fco/nrj Sidyecv OKvel^, rrjv 'EXXaSa 
TTO^et? ; orav 8' diroOvrjaKeiv her), koX Tore yiteX- 
X6«9 ^/Awi' KaraKXaletv, oti Ta<; 'Kdr)va<i ov 
/xeXXet? /SXeireLv koX ev Av/ceiO) ov irepiirarrjaeLf; ; 

78 ' Etti tovto direSrjfjbrjaa^ ; tovtov eveKa e^ijrrj- 
ad^ TLVi avfJij^aXelv, Xv o)(f)eXj]Of]<; vir avTov ; 
TTOiav axpiXeiav ; avXXoyia fjiOv<; Xv dvaXvar]^ 
eKTiK(OTepop Tj €(f)oBevar)<; viroOeTifcov'; ; koI Bia 
Tavrrjv Trjv alriav dBeX<pov aTreXfTre?, TrarpiBa, 
^tXof?, oiKeiov^, Xva Tavra jjiaOcov eiTaveX6r]<i ; 

79 waT ov\ virep evaTaOeia^; direhrjfjbei^, ov')(^ virep 
drapa^ia^i, ovy^ iV d^Xa^r\^ yevopievo^ fjLrjKeTi 
fxt^Beva fie/xcf)r], firjBevl eyKaXfj<;, /jLr)BeL<; ae dBi/cij 
Kal ouT&)9 ra? a^eaei<i diroaa)t,ri^ d-TTapaTroBia- 

80 Tco? ; KaXrjv eareiXa) Tavrrjv ttjv epiropiav, 
avXXoyia/jLOv<; kol p.eTaTri'TTTOvTa^ fcal virode- 

BOOK III. XXIV. 75-80 

See, some person or other has laid hands on you — 
the man who takes you away from your accustomed 
way of Hfe, and says, *^ You are my slave; for it is 
in my power to prevent you from living as you will, 
it is in my power to lighten your servitude, or to 
humble you ; whenever I wish, you can be happy 
again, and go off to Athens in high spirits." What 
do you say to this man who makes you his 
slave ? Whom have you to offer him as your 
emancipator ? Or do you not even look him in the 
face at all, but cutting all argument short do you 
implore him to set you free ? Man, you ought to 
go gladly to prison, in haste, outstripping those 
who lead you away. And then, I do beseech vou, 
are you loath to live in Rome, and do you yearn 
for Greece ? And when you have to die, then also, 
1 suppose, will you weep all over us, because you are 
never going to see Athens again or stroll in the 
Lyceum } 

Was that what you went abroad for ? Was it for this 
that you sought to meet someone — that he might do 
you good ? Good indeed ! That you might analyse 
syllogisms more readily, or run down hypothetical 
arguments ? It was for this reason, was it, you left 
brother, country, friends, and those of your own 
household — so as to return with thiskind of learning ? 
And so you did not go abroad to acquire constancy 
of character, or peace of mind; not to become secure 
yourself and thenceforward blame and find fault 
with no man ; not to make it impossible for another 
to do you wrong, and so maintain without hindrance 
your relations in society ? A fine exchange of goods 
this which you have achieved, syllogisms, and argu- 
ments with equivocal and hypothetical premisses ! 



riKov'^' K(iv am (pavfj, iv rfj ayopj, fcaOiaa^; 

81 TTpoypayjrov o)? ol (f^apfiaKOTrcoXai. ovk apvi](jrj 
Kal oaa e[jia9e<; eiSerai, iva /jltj Bia/3(iXr]<; ra 
OecDp/jjuara w? dxp^]o-Ta ; tl (Jol KaKov iiroirjaei' 
(f>L\o(70(j)La ; TL ae i)hiKi]ae \pvaLiTTro<;, 'Iv avrov 
Tou? 7r6vov<i €py(p at to? a~x^pi](TTOV^ ^^^^HxV^ » 
OVK ypKei (JOi ra CKel kuku, ocra elx^? ai'ria rov 
XvirelaOaL Kal irevOelv, el koX firj aTreh/j/jirjaa'^, 

82 dXXa TrXeiO) 7Tpoa€Xa/3e<; ; kciv aXXovi ttolXlv 
^XV^ o-fz^jj^et? Kal (j)lXov<;, efet? irXelova rov 
oifioj^eiv atria, kclv •npo'^ aXXi]v ^wpai^ irpoa- 
7raOfj<;. tl ovv t,f]<; ; 'iva Xuira^; aXXa<; eiT aXXaL<; 

83 irepi^dXr}, St* a? aTi;%et9 ; elrd fxoi KaXeL<i rovro 
(fyiXocTTopjiav ; iroiav, drOpayire, (fiiXocrropyiap ; 
el dyaOov eanv, ovBevo<; kcxkov atriov ylverar el 
KaKov icTTiv, ovSev /jloi Kal avrrj. iyco tt/^o? rd 
dyadd rd efiavTov TrectiVKa, 7rpo<; KaKd ov ire- 

84 Tt? ovv 7] 7r/309 rovTO daKi]ai,<; ; nrpMrov fxev i) 
dvoyrdrco Kal KvptcoTUTr) Kal ev6v<; oiairep ev 
TTvXaK;, orav tlvI irpoa7rdcT')(^T]<;, co? ■'■ ovSevl tmv 
dvacf^aipercov, dXXd Tivi roiovTrp ykvei, oiov iari 
')(yTpa, olov vdXLVov Tror-qpiov, 'iv orav Karayfj, 

85 /iep'Vr}/jLevo<; fir) rapayOfj'^. ovrw^ Kal evddh\ edv 
TraiSiOV aavrov Kara(f)iXr]<;, edv dBeXcfyov, edv 
(plXov, /i7]Se7rore eV/^w? r7]v cpavraalav et? dvav 
;^?/Se rrjv hidy^ycnv id(jr]<; rrpoeXOelv 60 oaov avrrj 
OeXei, dXX^ avrlaTraaov, KcoXvaov, olov ol T0i9 

^ w$ added by Sh. 


BOOK III. wiv. 80-85 

Yes, and if you see fit, seat yourself in the market- 
place, and hang out a sign, as the drug-peddlers do. 
Ought you not rather to deny that you know even all 
you have learned, so as not to bring your philosophical 
precepts into ill re{)ute as being useless? What harm 
has philosophy done you ? How has Chrysippus 
wronged you that you should prove by your own 
conduct his labours to be useless? Were not the 
ills at home enough for you, all that you had to 
cause you grief and sorrow, even if you had not 
gone abroad, but did you add yet others in addition 
to them? And if you get other intimates and 
friends again, you will have more reasons for lamen- 
tation, yes, and if you get attached to another land. 
Why, then, live ? Is it to involve yourself in one 
grief after another that makes you miserable? 
And then, I ask you, do you call this natural 
affection ? Natural affection forsooth, man ! If it 
is good, it is the source of no evil ; if it is evil, I 
have nothing to do with it. I am born for the 
things tliat are good and belong to me, not for 
things evil. 

What, then, is the proper disci})line for this ? In the 
first place, the highest and principal discipline, and one 
that stands at the very gates of the subject, is this : 
Whenever you grow attached to something, do not act 
as though it were one of those things that cannot be 
taken away, but as though it were something like a 
jar or a crystal goblet, so that when it breaks you 
will remember what it was like, and not be troubled. 
So too in life ; if you kiss your child, your brother, 
your friend, never allow your fcincy free rein, nor 
your exuberant spirits to go as far as they like, but 
hold them back, stop them, just like those who 



Opiafi^euovaLv ec^eaTwre^ oiTLadev fcal vtto/jli/jlv^- 

86 aKOvre<;, on avOpwiroi elaiv. TOiovrov tl kul 
(TV v7rofiLfn>7](TK€ aeavrov, otl dvrjrov (^tXet?, 
ovhev TMV creavTov (^iXet?* iirl rod irapovTO'^ aoi 
BeBoraLy ov/c avaf^aiperov ovK eh dirav, a\X w? 
avKOV, fo? crTa(j)uX7}, rr} T€Tay/i€vr) wpa rov erov^;' 

87 av Se ;^e^/^co^'o? €7n7roOf)<;, /jLwpo<; el. ovtco^; kclv 
rov vlov T] Tov (piXov rore tto^^?, ore ov SeSorau 
aot, taOi, on '^ei/jLcovo<; avKov eimrodel';. olov 
'yap can ')(^eL/xa)V vrpo? avKov, roLovrov icrn iraaa 
7; diTO rwv oXwv irepiaraaL^ Trpo? ra Kar avryv 

88 Kal Xoiirov ev aurol<; ol? ^atpet? nvl, ra^ 
evavria^ (^aina<Jia<; aavrfo irpo^aXe?- n Ka- 
Kov ean /juera^v KarajiLXovvra ro iraiBiov 
eTTLyfreXXi^oura XeyeLV " avpLOv ciTToOainj," rfo 
(piXo) 6iaavrw<; " avpiov d7roh)i/x/]a€L<; rj av rj 

89 eyco kol ov/cen oyjro/xeOa dXX/jXov'; " ; — AXXa 
Sva(j)i]/jLd icrn ravra. — Kal yap rwv iiraoiBcov 
eviaL, ciXX^ on cocfyeXova-iv, ovk €7riarpe(f)0/iiai, 
/jLovov M(f)eXeLrco. av Be Bva(f)r)fia KaXeL<; dXXa rj 
ra KaKOV ni'0<; aTj/iapn/cd ; Bva^i-jfiov ean BetXla, 

90 Bua(f)r]/jLOv dyevveia, irevOo'^, Xvir^], dvaLa-)(yvria' 
ravra rd ovofxara Bva(f)r]fid eanv. Kairoi ye 
ovBe ravra OKvelv Bel (pOeyyeadat, iirrep <pvXaKrj<; 

1 Sehenkl: TTfi/jj^aXe S. 

1 Among the means of warding off" the evil eye from the 
triumphator was this, tliat a slave rode behind him in his 
triumphal car, and in the midst of the acclamations of the 


BOOK III. XXIV. 85-90 

stand behind generals when they ride in triumph, 
and keep reminding them that tliey are mortal. ^ In 
such fashion do you too remind yourself that the 
object of your love is mortal ; it is not one of your 
own possessions ; it has been given you for the 
present, not inseparably nor for ever, but like a fig, 
or a cluster of grapes, at a fixed season of the year, 
and that if you hanker for it in the winter, you are 
a fool. If in this way you long for your son, or your 
friend, at a time when he is not given to you, rest 
assured that you are hankering for a fig in winter- 
time. For as winter-time is to a fig, so is every state 
of affairs, which arises out of the universe, in rela- 
tion to the things which are destroyed in accordance 
with that same state of affairs. 

Furthermore, at the very moment when you are 
taking delight in something, call to mind the 
opposite impressions. What harm is there if you 
whisper to yourself, at the very moment you are 
kissing your child, and say, '' To-morrow you 
will die " } So likewise to your friend, '' To-morrow 
you will go abroad, or I shall, and we shall never see 
each other again " ? — Xay, but these are words of 
bad omen. — Yes, and so are certain incantations, 
but because they do good, I do not care about that, 
only let the incantation do us good. But do you 
call any things ill-omened except those which 
signify some evil for us } Cowardice is ill-omened, 
a mean spirit, grief, sorrow, shamelessness ; these 
are words of ill-omen. And yet we ought not to 
hesitate to utter even these words, in order to guard 

people kept saying : " Look behind you, and remember that 
you are a mortal." For the evidence and literature, see 
J. Marquardt : Eamische Staatsverwaltung, II. 568-9. 



91 TO)P 7rpayf.LaT(ov. Svacpij/iov Se /xol Xeyea ovofia 
(fivcriKov Tivo<; irpdyfiaro'^ cryj/jbavriKov ; Xiye 
hvac^ilfiov elvai koX to OepicrOrfvai tov<; arci-^^^va^' 
iiiroiXeLav yap ay^fxaivei tmv GTayyiov afOC 
ovyi Tov Koa/jLov. Xeye hva^rjfjLov kcli to <^v\- 
Xoppoelv KaX to la)(^dSa yiveaOai clvtI gvkov koa 

92 dcrTa(f)LSa<; ifc aTa(f)v\i]<;. ttclvtci yap Tavra tmv 
irpoTeprov elcrlv eh eTepa fieTa^oXar ovk uttco- 
Xeia, dWa TeTayiievif rt? OiKovo/jila Koi SioLKrjtTi-';. 

93 TOUT eCTTLV ClTroBiJfJiLa^ pSTa^oXr}^ pUKp/v TOVTO 

6di>aT0<;, fieTa(3oXri /jLei^wv e/c tov vvv 6vto<; o 


94 669 TO fXT] 6v, dXX' et? to vvv fir] 6v. — OvKeTi ovv 
€cro/jiai ; — Ovk eaer dXX' dXXo tl ov vvv o 
Koapo'^ y^peiav e')(ei. koI yap av eyevov ov\ 6t€ 
(TV 7)6eXri(Ta<iy dXX! oVe 6 Kocrp^o^ ')(^peiav ea-yev. 

95 Aia TOVTO 6 KaXo^ KaX dyaOo<; p,€p^vrjp,evo^, Tt? 
t' eo-Tt Kal TToOev eXi]Xvdev koX vtto tlvo<; yeyovev, 
7Tpo<^ p,6v(p TOVTcp iaTLV, TTW? T^jv avTOv -y^oopav 
EKirXripcDar] evTUKTW^ Kal 6ViTeiBo)<; tw Oefo. 

96 " €TL p,e p^elvai ^ 6eX€L<; ; &)? iXevOepo^, co^ 
yevvalo'i, ft)9 crv i^OeXtjaa'^' av yap p.6 aKO)- 

97 XvTOv €7roL7j(Ta<; iv Tot? ip,0L<;. a\V ovkstl p.ov 
■)(p€Lav €')(^€C<^ ; Ka\M<i aoi yevoiTO' KaX p^e^pt- ^^v 
Sia ere epevov, hi dXXov ovSeva, KaX vvv cjol irei- 

1 Kai before this word was deleted by Upton. 
' OVK added by Sb, a correction supported by the para- 
phrase of this passage in Marcus Aurelius, 11, 35. 
3 Reiske : fi (luai S. 

^ This seems to me to be the most probable meaning of a 
vexed passage. If any change is needed, which I doubt 
(for HWos with the simple genitive is abundantly attested, 
at least in other authors), I should prefer to read &\\o n ^ 


BOOK III. xxiv. 90-97 

against tlie things themselves. Do you tell nie 
that any word is ill-omened which signifies some 
process of nature.'' Say that also the harvesting of 
ears of grain is ill-omened, for it signifies the 
destruction of the ears ; but not of the universe. 
Say that also for leaves to fall is ill-omened, and 
for the fresh fi^ to turn into a dried fiij, and a 
cluster of grapes to turn into raisins. For all these 
things are changes of a preliminary state into 
something else ; it is not a case of destruction, but 
a certain ordered dispensation and management. 
This is what going abroad means, a slight change; 
this is the meaning of death, a greater change of that 
which now is, not into what is not, but into what is 
not 710W. — Shall I, then, be no more .'* — No, you 
will not be, but something else will be, something 
different from that of which the universe now has 
need.^ And this is but reasonable, for you came 
into being, not when i/ou wanted, but when the 
universe had need of you. 

For this reason the good and excellent man, 
bearing in mind who he is, and whence he has 
come, and by whom he was created, centres his 
attention on this and this only, how he may fill his 
place in an orderly fashion, and with due obedience 
to God. " Is it Thy will that I should still remain .'' 
I will remain as a free man, as a noble man, as Thou 
didst wish it ; for Thou hast made me free from 
liindrance in what was mine own. And now hast 
Thou no further need of me ? Be it well with Thee. 
1 have been waiting here until now because of Thee 
and of none other, and now I obey Thee and depart." 

ou. rather than to change ovk into ov, delete or transpose it, 
or take yvv in, the sense of to'tc. 



98 Oofievo^; cnrepxofidi" ** ttco? direpxy ; " " irdXiv 
ft)? av i)6e\i](Ta^y ft)9 eXevdepo^, ft)? vTrrjpirrjfi ao^, 
ft)? i](Td)]/uLepo<; aov rcov TrpoaTay/xdrayv koi drra'yo- 

90 pev/jLUTcoi'. p-exp^ ^' dv ov Biarpi/Sco ev toI^ aol<^, riva 
fie 6e\ei<i elvai ; dp^ovra i) IStcoTt]!', ^ovXevry-jv t) 
S7]/jl6tj]v, arparicoTrji' r) arparii'yov, TraihevTrjv i) 
OLKoheaiTOTTjv ; rjv av x^P^^ '^^^^ rd^iv iyx^^' 
piar]<^y &)? Xeyec 6 ^wKpdTri<^, /jLvpidKi<; diro- 
OavovpLai irporepov rj ravrijv iyKaTokei^^o). 

100 TTOv Be /x elvai 6eXei,<; ; iv 'Pcuyu.?? r) iv ' A6i'ivai<; 
rj iv B7;/3ai9 rj ev Ffapot? ; /jlovov e/cel /xov 

101 fjL6fivy]ao. dv p! eKel irepuirrj'^, oirov Kara (pvaiv 
hLe^aycoyrj ovk eariv dvOpdiircov, ov crdi aTreiOwv 
e^eifxi, dW' &)<? aov fjLoi a7jp,aivovro<; to dvaKXrjri,- 
Kov OVK aTroXeiTTco ae' fjurj yevoiro' aXX.* ala- 

102 Odvofiai, OTL fxov xp^^ct^ ovk ex^d. dv Be BiScoTaL 
Kara (^vaiv Ste^aycoyy], ov ^r^ryjaw dXXov tottov^ 
?7 ev ft) eifjLL ij aXXov<; avupcoirov^ tj fieU cov 

103 Tavra vvkt6<;, ravra rj/xepa^ irpox^ipa ecnay 
ravra ypd(peiv, ravra dvayi,yvu)(TK€tv' Trepl 
rovrcdv rov<; Xoyov^i TroielaOai, avrov tt^o? avrov, 
Trpo? erepov "yu,?; rt e%€i? p,OL irpo<^ rovro /3oi]0fj- 
(Tau ; " Ka\ irdXiv dXXw irpoaeXOelv ^ kol dXXa>. 

104 elra dv re yev)]rai, rcov Xeyofievoyv djSovXi'jToiv, 
evdv<i eKetvo Trpcjrov e7TtKov(f)Laei, ae, on ovk 

106 aTTpoaSoKrjrov. p.eya yap iirl rrdvrojv ro ** rjSeiv 

^ tSttov added by Schweighiiuser, after Schegk. 
2 Wolf, after Schegk : iKdcTp S. 

^ A very free paraphrase of Plato, Apology, 28 D-29 A. 

BOOK III. xxiv. 97-105 

"How do you depart?" " Ai;aiii, as Thou didst 
wish it, as a free man, as Thy servant, as one who 
has perceived Thy commands and Thy prohibitions. 
But so long as 1 continue to live in Thy service, 
what manner of man wouldst Thou have me be ? 
An official or a private citizen, a senator or one of 
the common people, a soldier or a general, a teacher 
or the head of a household ? Whatsoever station 
and post Thou assign me, I will die ten thousand 
times, as Socrates says, or ever I abandon it.^ And 
where wouldst Thou have me be ? In Rome, or in 
Athens, or in Thebes, or in Gyara ? ^ Only remember 
me there. If Thou sendest me to a place where men 
have no means of living in accordance with nature, 
1 shall depart this life, not in disobedience to Thee, 
but as though Thou wert sounding for me the recall. 
I do not abandon Thee — far be that from me ! but 
I perceive that Thou hast no need of me. Yet if 
there be vouchsafed a means of living in accordance 
with nature, I will seek no other place than that in 
which I :uYi, or other men than those who are now 
my associates." 

Have thoughts like these ready at hand by night 
and by day ; write them, read them, make your 
conversation about them, communing with yourself, 
or saying to another, "Can you give me some helj) 
in this matter?" And again, go now to one man 
and now to another. Then, if some one of those 
things happens which are called undesirable, im- 
mediate! v the thought that it was not unexpected 
will be the first thing to lighten the burden. For 
in every case it is a great help to be able to say, 
" I knew that the son whom I had begotten was 

8 See on 1. 24. 19. 



Ovj]TOV yey€vin]Kco(;." ourax; yap epet? Kal on 
*' fjSeiv 6vi)ro<i a)V," " rjSeLV (i7roSt]/jL7]TiKO<; cov," 
*' ijSeiv eV^\?;ro9 oiz^," " jjSeiv et? (f)v\aK7}i> utto- 
lOG TaKTo<; wi^." elr av eV.crTpec/)/;? Kara aavrov 
Kal ^)]T)jar]<i rrjv ^aypap, i^ 779 iarl to av/i^e^r)- 
k6<^, evOu<; dva/jiV7)a0tjcrr], on " ifc tt}? T&>^' 
(iTTpoaLpeTcov, TOiv ovK i/jLMV TL ovv TTyoo? e/xe ; " 

107 elra to fcvptcoTaTOV " rt? 5' avTo Kal eVtTre- 
iTojuicfyev ; " o r/ye/icov rj 6 aTpaTt]y6<;, rj 

TToXt?, TTJ? TToXeCD? v6/J,0<;. " So? OL'l' auTO* 

3et 7a/) yu-e ael tw iw/nw ireiOeaQai iv TravTi." 

108 eZ^' oral' ae rj (jiavTaaia haKvr) {tovto yap 
OVK eirl aoi), avajjidy^ov tw \6ycp, KaTaycovl^ov 
avTTjv, fir) idarjfi evLa\y€Lv /juySe Trpodyeiv iirl to. 
ef/)? avairXdcrcjovaav oaa OeXei Kal o)? OeXet. 

109 av iv Tvdp0L<; ^?, /jlj} avdrrXaaae ttjv iv 'Pco/iy 
hiaTpi^rjv Kal oaac hiay^yaei'^ rjaav €K6l SidyovTc, 
oaai ykvoivT av iiraveXdovTi' aXX^ eKel reracro, 
OTTO)? hel Tov iv Vvdpoi<^ SidyovTa, iv VvdpoL<i 
ippM/jLevco<; hidyeiv. kolv iv 'Pcop^rj y<;, firj avd- 
TrXaaae ttjv iv ^Adi]vaL<; SiaTpifiyjv, aXXd irepl 
fiovrj^i rr}? eVfi [leXeTa. 

110 EIt' uvtI tcov dXXcov diraaoiv Sta)(ua€cov iK€ivt]v 
avTclaaye, tijv drro tov TrapaKoXovdttv, otl TreiOrj 
TO) 6eu), OTL ov Xuyw, dXV epyu) to, tov KaXov Kal 

111 dyaOov e/cTe\et9. olov ydp iaTiv avTOv avTW 

^ Variously attributed to Solon (Diogenes Laertius, 2, 13), 
Anaxagoras (Cicero, T%isc. 3, 30; Diogenes Laertius, 2, 13', 
or Xenophon (Diogenes Laertius, 2. 13 and 55). Compare 
also Seneca, De ('onsol. ad Polyb. 11, 2, and Hierocles on the 
Golden Verses 0/ Pythagoras^ chap. 11 (p. 439 a, Mullach). 



mortal." ^ For tl)at is wliat you will say, and again, 
" I knew that I was mortal/' " I knew that I was 
likely to leave home," "I knew that I was liable to 
banishment," ''\ knew that I might be sent off" to 
prison." And in the next place, if you reflect with 
yourself and look for the quarter from which the 
happening comes, immediately you will be reminded 
of the principle : ^' It comes from the quarter of the 
things that are outside the sphere of the moral 
purpose, that are not mine own ; what, then, is it 
to me?" Then comes the most decisive considera- 
tion : '^ Who was it that has sent the order? " Our 
Prince, or our General, the State, or the law of the 
State ? " Give it to me, then, for I must always 
obey the law in every particular." Later on, when 
your imagination bites you (for this is something 
you cannot control), fight against it with your reason, 
beat it down, do not allow it to grow strong, or to 
take the next step and draw all the pictures it 
wants, in the way it wants to do. If you are at Gyara, 
don't picture the style of life at Rome, and all the 
relaxations a man had who w;is living there, as well 
as all that he might have upon his return ; but since 
you have been stationed there, you ought to strive to 
live manfully at Gyara, as beseems the man whose life 
is spent in Gyara. And again, if you are in Rome, 
don't picture the style of life at Athens, but make 
your life in Rome the one object of your study and 

Then, in the place of all the other relaxations, 
introduce that which comes from the consciousness 
that you are obedient to God, and that you are 
playing the part of the good and excellent man, not 
ostensibly but in reality. For what a fine thing it 



BvvaaOat elireZv ** vvv a ol aXXoL ev ral^i a^oXal^ 
ae/jLVoXoyovaiv kol irapaSo^oXoyeLv hoKovcn,TavTa 
ijo) iTTireXco' KciKelvoi KaOn'jiievoL Ta<; 6/i.a? apera^ 
i^ijyovi'Tai Kal irepl ifjiov ^i)T0vcnp Kal i/ie 

112 vfjLvovaLV Kal toutov fie 6 Zeu? avrov irap 
ifiavTOV Xa/Selv aTToBet^iv i^Oekriaev /cal avro^; Be 
yvojvat, el 6%et arparicoTijv olov Bet, TroXirrjv olov 
Bel, Kal roU aWot^ avOpoi-noL^ irpodyeiv /le 
fidprvpa Twv dTrpoaipercov. ' tBere, ore elKfj 
<f)o0eLcrde, /idTJ]v eirLOvpLelre a)i> eTnOvfielre. ra 
dyaOa e^co fjurj ^rjTeiTe, ev eavroh ^r/reire' el Be 

113 /ii7J, ov')(^ evprjaere.' eVt rovTOL<; fie vvv jiev 
evravOa dyet, vvv B' eKel Tre/xirei, irevrjra BeiKvvai 
T0t9 dv6pco7roL<;, Bi')(^a dp^T]<;, voaovvra- etv Fvapa 
diroareWeL, el<; Becr/jLcorijpiov elcrdyei.. ov fjnaoiv 
fir] yevoLTO' rt? Be fjuiael rov dptarov tcov virrjpe- 
TMV Twv eavrov ; ovB^ dfieXajv, 09 ye ovBe twv 
/xiKpoTarcov tivo<; d/xeXel, dWd yvjjLvd^wv Kal 

114 fidprvpt irpo^ tou? dXXov^; ^pcofxevo^. eh roiav- 
Ti-jv viDipecriav KaTareTay/jLevo<; en (ppovrl^Q), 
TTOV el/Jil 7) fierd tlvcov i) ri irepl efiov Xeyovatv ; 
ovy^i 8' 6Xo<; 7rpo<; rov Oeov reTafiai Kal rd^; 
eKet'vov €VToXd<; Kal rd Trpoardy/jbara ; 

115 Tavra e^coi^ del ev %e/9o-l Kal rpi^cov avro^ 
irapd aavrw Kal irpox^eipa ttolmv ovBeirore Beyjajj 

116 rov 7rapafivOov/jL€vov, rov €7ripp(ovvvvro^. Kal 
yap alaxpov ov to (payelv /jlt] e^€iv, dXXd ro 

BOOK 111. xxiv. III-H6 

is to be able to say to oneself, " Now I am actually 
performing what the rest talk solemnly about in 
their lectures, and are thought to be uttering para- 
doxes. Yes, they sit and expound my virtues, and 
study about me, and sing my praise. And of this 
Zeus wished me to get a demonstration in my own 
person, while at the same time He wished to know 
whether He has the right kind of soldier, the right 
kind of citizen, and to present me before all other 
men as a witness about the things which lie outside 
the sphere of the moral purpose. * Behold,' says 
He, ' your fears are at haphazard, it is in vain that 
you desire wliat you desire. Do not look for your 
blessings outside, but look for them within your- 
selves; otherwise you will not find them.' These 
are the terms upon which now He. brings me here, 
and again He sends me there ; to mankind exhibits 
me in poverty, without office, in sickness ; sends me 
away to Gyara, brings me into prison. Not because 
He hates me — perish the thought ! And who hates 
the best of his servants ? Nor because He neglects 
me, for He does not neglect any of even the least 
of His creatures ; but because He is training me, 
and making use of me as a witness to the rest of 
men. When I have been appointed to such a 
service, am 1 any longer to take thought as to where 
i am, or witii whom, or what men say about me ? 
Am I not wholly intent upon God, and His 
commands and ordinances ? " 

If you have these thoughts always at hand and 
go over them again and again in your own mind, 
and keep them in readiness, you will never need a 
person to console you, or strengthen you. For dis- 
grace does not consist in not having anything to 


\6yov /uLtj 6\6LV dpKovvra iTpo<^ a(f)o/3iav, Trpo? 

117 aXvrriav. av 5' arra^ TrepiTTOiyjar] to aXvTTOV Koi 
a(^oj3ov, ere aot Tvpavvo<; earai rf? 7; Sopv(f)6po<; rj 

Kaiaapiavol rj opSivarlcov hr^^erai are rj 01 ein- 
Ovuvre^ iv rco KaTrircoXiro iirl roU 67rTiKLOL<; top 
TJ]\(KavTy]v apxh^ rrapa rod Afo? etA,^(/)OTa ; 

118 fiovov fXY) TTo/iTreve avrijv /x/;5' dXa^ovevov iir 
avrf], aXV 6py(p heiKwe' Kciv /jLijBe'i's alaOdi'rjTaL, 
dpKov avTo<; vyiaivwi' /cat euSai/xovcciv. 

Are', ri/oo? Tov<; dTTOTriTTTOVTa^ wv irpoeOevro. 

1 ^Ke^-^at, o)v ■ TvpoeOov dpyop.evo'^, rlvayv puev 
€KpdTt]aa<^, rivwv S' ov, kol ttw? eci)' ol<; fiev 
€v(f)paiVTj dvaiii/jLVT}K6fi€vo<i, e^' oh S' d)(Orj, Kai el 

2 hvvarov, dvdXa^e KciKelva a)v dirooXLaOe^i. ov 
yap diTOKViiTeov rov dywva top pkyiaTov dycovL^o- 

3 pevoi<^, dWd zeal 7TX^]yd(; XyjirTeov ov yap virep 
7rdXi]<; KOL rrayKpajiov 6 dycov irpoKeirai,, ov koX 
tv)(6ptc kol fjurj tv)(^6vtl e^eaiLV /xep irXeicrTov 
d^LO), e^earL he oXiyov elvai kol vrj Aia e^eariv 
/.lep evrvx^o-rdra), e^ean Be KaKoSai/iopeaTdrfp 
elvai, aXX' vTrep avrf]^ evrv)(ici^ f^cu ev6ai.piopia<;, 

4 ri ovp ; ovB' dp dnavS/jaco/jiep epravOa, KcoXvei 

^ In this passage the words Cacsariani and ordinatio have 
been taken over direct from the Latin. In otttikiois, a word 
which seems to occur nowhere else in Greek or in Latin, it 
may be that the Latin mtspicia (sacrifices at the inauguration 
of some otiicial enterprise) are meant, as Wolf suggested, 
and so the passage is translated ; but the word is very un- 


BOOK in. .wiv. ii6 x\v. 4 

eat, but in not liaviii<r reason sutticient to secure you 
against fear and against grief. But if once you win 
for yourself security against grief and fear, will 
there any longer exist for you a tyrant, or a guards- 
man, or members of Caesar's household ; or will some 
appointment to oHice sting you with envy, or those 
who perform sacrifices on the Capitol in taking the 
auspices,^ you who have received so important an office 
from Zeus ? Only make no display of your office, 
and do not boast about it ; but })rove it by your 
conduct ; and if no one perceives that you have it, 
be content to live in health and happiness yourself 


To those who fail to achieve their purposes 

Consider which of the things that you purposed 
at the start you have achieved, and which you have 
not ; likewise, how it gives you pleasure to recall 
some of them, and pain to recall others, and, if 
possible, recover also those things which have slip})ed 
out of your grasp. For men who are engaged in the 
greatest of contests ought not to ffinch, but to take 
also the blows ; for the contest before us is not in 
wrestling or the pancratium, in which, whether a 
man succeeds or f^iils, he may be worth a great deal, 
or only a little, — yes, by Zeus, he may even be 
extremely happy or extremely miserable, — but it is 
a contest for good fortune and haj)piness itself. 
What follows? Why here, even if we give in for 

certain (Chinnock, Class. Rev. 3 (1889), 70, thinks it stands 
for ofUcia), and several emendations have been proposed, of 
which oTTipiKlois [officia, Koraes) is perhaps the most plausible. 



Tf? -ndXiv uyoyvl^earOai ovBe Sec Trepi fielvai rerpae- 
riav dWrjv, 'iv eXOij dXXa ^OXvfJLiria, aW' ev6v<; 
dva\a/36vTi koX dvaKT^]aa/jL6vrp eaurov koX ti-jV 
avTi-jV el(j(^epov7L rrpoOvfiLav e^eariv dycovi^eadaL' 
Kav -ndXiv dire'iTTr]^, irdXiv e^earip, kclv dira^ 
iUK7]ar}<^, o/JLOLO<; el T(p /jL7]Se7roT6 direLirovTi,. 
6 /jlouov firj VTTO e6ov<; rod avrov i)hew^ avro dp^rj 
TToieLV Kol XoLirov o)? Kafc6<; d6Xi]Trj<; Trepiep-^^r) 
viKayfievo^; rrjv irepiohov o/xoio^ tol<; dirot^vyovaiv 

6 oprv^LV. ** rjTTa fie ^avraaia TraihiaKapiov 
KaXov. TV 7«p ; iTp(or]v ovx yrry'jOtjv ;'' " irpo- 
Ovfjiia fioL ylverai yjre^aL rivd. irprpiiv yap ovk 

7 eyjre^a ; '^ oi/ro)? r^filv XaXel^ co? d^/j/jbco^ i^eXr]- 
XvO(i)<;, olovei rt? tco larprZ kwXvovtl XovaaaOai 
Xeyoi '* 7rpwy]v yap ovk eXovad/nriv ; ^^ dv ovv 6 
larpo^ aura) e^?; Xeyeiv " dye, Xovadfievo^; ovv rl 
eVa^e? ; ovk eVu/^efa? ; ovk eKecpaXaXyrjaa^ ; " 

8 KoX (XV ■x/refa? 7rpa)r]v nvd ov kukoj^Oov^; epyov 
€'7Tpa^a<; ; ov (pXvdpov ; ovk eOpeyjrd^i aov Tifv 
e^Lv TavT-qv Tiapa^dXXcop avrfj rd OLKela epya ; 
rfTTTjdel^ Be rov iratSicTKapLOV dTrrfxOe^ d^7]/jLio<; ; 

9 TL ovv rd TTpcprjv XeyeL<; ; ehet 5' olfxai fxe fivrj jxev ov , 
<jt)9 ol hovXoL rCiv TrXijycDV, direx^cr^^i^ 'tmv avTcov 

10 d/xapTy/jbdrcov. dXX^ ov^ o/jLOLov evTavda ptev 

^ The comparison is brief, but I presume that a fighting 
quail, on once having submitted to defeat, bf-came very 
ready to do so again, as is the case among ordinary chickens. 
One shouted into his ear in order to make him forget, as they 
said, the voice of the victor, and to restore his courage. 
Polhxx, 9, 109. 


the time being, no one prevents us from stru^glintj 
again, and we do not liave to wait another four-year 
period for another Olympic festival to come around, 
but the moment a man has picked himself up, and 
recovered himself, and exhibits the same eagerness, 
he is allowed to contest; and if you give in again, 
you can enter again ; and if once you win a victory, 
you are as though you had never given in at all. 
Only don't begin cheerfully to do the same thing 
over again out of sheer habit, and end up as a bad 
athlete, going the whole circuit of the games, and 
getting beaten all the time, like quails that have 
once run away.^ "I am overcome by the impression 
of a pretty maid. Well, what of it .^ Wasn't 1 
overcome just the other day ? " ^' I feel strongly 
inclined to censure somebody, for didn't 1 censure 
somebody just the other day ? " You talk thus to 
us as though you had come off scot-free ; just as if 
a man should say to his physician who was for- 
bidding him to bathe, ^' Why, but didn't I bathe 
just the other day?" If, then, the physician is 
able to say to him, " Very well, after you had 
bathed, then, how did you feel ? Didn't you have 
a fever ? Didn't your head ache ? " So, too, when 
you censured somebody the other day, didn't you 
act like an ugly-spirited man, like a silly babbler ? 
Didn't you feed this habit by citing the example of 
your own previous acts ? And when you were over- 
come by the maid, did you escaj)e scot-free ? Why, 
then, do you talk about what you were doing just 
the other day ? In my opinion, you ought to have 
remembered, as slaves remember their blows, and 
to have ke})t away from the same mistakes. Hut 
one case is not like the other; for with slaves it is 



7^/; o Tr6vo<i Ti-jv fxin']fMt]V Troiei, eV< Se tmv dfiapj})- 
fiuTwv TTOLOf; TTOP'o?, TTOia ^tjfila ; TTore 'yap 
eW'La6r)<^ (pevyeiv to kukm^; ivepyPjaai ; 

KS'' . 11/30? Tov^ T7]i> cnropiav SeBoiKOTW^. 

1 OvK alaynuinj heiXoTepo'^ cov Ka\ ay evvearepo^; TOiv 
SpaTreTMV ; 7ra)<; efceh'oi (^evyovre'^ uiroXeiirovcjL 
Tou? SccTTToTa?, TTOLOL^ ay pol<i TreTTOiOore';, ttolol^; 
0L/ceTaL<; ; ov)(l 8' oXiyov oaov 7rpo<^ Ta<; 7rpcora<; 
'))fiepa<; vcpeXofievot eW varepov Bia 'y/')? rj fcal 
OaXdrrrj^; (fyepovrai, aX\')]v i^ aXX?;? a(^opp,riv 7rp6<; 

2 TO hiaTpec^eaOai (f)i\oT€)(vovPT€<; ; Kal TL<i TrcoTrore 
hpaireTi]^ Xi/jlu) aireOavev ; av he Tpe/ieL<i, firj aot 
Xeiirt] Ta avayKala, kol Ta<; vv/CTa<i ay pvirvel'^. 

3 TaXaiircope, ovToxi tu(^Xo? el /cat ti]V ohov ovx 
6pa<i, oiroL (pepeL rj t(ov avayKaiwv evleia ; ttov 
yap (pepei ; oirov Kal 6 TTf/oero?, ottov Kal 
\l6o<i eTTinecrcov, el<; OdvaTov. tovto^ ovv ov 
7roXXdKL<i (TV avTo<^ ^ elnef; 7rpo<; tov<^ €TaLpov<;, 
TToXXd 6' dveyvw<; ToiavTa, iroXXa 8' eypacpe^i ; 
TroatiKL^ 8' yXa^ovevaco, otl irp6<; ye to aTro- 

4 Oavelv /AfcTptct)? ^X^^^ ' — ^^^' dXXd Kal ol ifiol 
'iTeLvi']<Tov(Tiv. — Tt ovv ; fiy tl Kal 6 eKeivcov 
Xljjlo^ dXXaxov ttov (f)€peL ; ovx) fcal i) ain/} ttov 

5 K(WoBo^ ; TCI KciTco Ta avTci ; ov OeXei<; ovv €K€l 
(•^Keireiv Oappoiv 7r/5o? -rrdaav diropi'au Kal evSciav, 
OTTOv Kal Tuv<i 7TXovaia)TdTOv<^ Kal ra? dpxd'i xa? 

^ Meibom, after Wolf : tovtov S. 
^ lleiske : Samos S. 


BOOK III. XXV. To-xxvi. 5 

the sufferiiii^ wliicli produces tlie niemoiy, but in the 
case of your mistakes, what sulFerinfT is there, what 
penalty do you feel? Why, when did you ever 
acquire the habit of avoiding evil activities? 


To those who fear ivant 

Aiikn't you ashamed to be more cowardly and 
ignoble than a runaway slave ? How do they, when 
they run off, leave their masters ? in what estates or 
slaves do they put their confidence ? Don't they 
steal just a little bit to last them for the first few 
days, and then afterwards drift along over land or 
sea, contriving one scheme after another to keep 
themselves fed ? And what runaway slave ever died 
of hunger? But you tremble, and lie awake at 
night, for fear the necessities of life will fail you. 
Wretch, are you so blind, and do you so fail to see 
the road to which lack of the necessities of life leads ? 
Where, indeed, does it lead ? W' here also fever, or 
a stone that drops on your head, lead, — to death. 
Have you not, then, often said this same thing your- 
self to your companions, read much of the same sort, 
and written much ? How many times have you 
boasted that, as far as death at least was concerned, 
you are in a fairly good state ? — Yes, but my 
family too will starve. — What then ? Their starva- 
tion does not lead to some other end than yours, 
does it ? Have they not also much the same descent 
thereto, and the same world below ? Are you not 
willing, then, to look with courage sufficient to face 
every necessity and want, at that ))lace to which the 



fjLeyiaTa<^ ap^avTa<; Kal ainov-i tol'9 /i^acr^Xet? kol 
Tvpavvov<; Set KarekOelv, Kal ^ ae 7reiva)i>ra, av 
ovT(o<; Tv-^T), eK€ivov<; Se hiappayevra^ vrro aire- 
G xfruov Kal pLeO'i]'; ; rtra irtoiror eiraiTiiv padL(o<; 
eZSe? /ii7] yepopra ; rlva S' ovfc ia-^^aroyTjpcDV ; 
aWa pLywvTe<^ ra<; vuKTa<; Kal ra<; i)p,€pa(; Kal 
)(^a/ ippi/2/.ievoL Kal oaov avrb to avayKalov 
aiTOVjievoL 6771)9 jJKOvatv tw firjB^ airoOavelv 

7 hvvaaOai, av^ 5' 6X6K\^]po<; avOpcoiro^; ')(^eipa<; 
e'xwv i^ciL 7T6Sa<; irepl Xc/iov BeSoiKa<i ovt(o<; ; ovk 
avrXelv Suraaai, ov ypdcf^eip, ov iraiSaycoyeiv, ov 
Ovpav dWorpiav cpuXdrreiv ; — 'AA.X' ala^pbv et? 
TavT7]v iXOelv rrjv dvdyKr)v. — Ma^e ovv irpojTOV, 
TLva rd ala)(pd ianp, Kal ovr(o<i i)iJ,lv Xeye 
aavrov (jaXoaocj^ov. to vvv he fxi^h^ av dXXo<^ rt? 
eLTTrj ere, dve')(^i>v. 

8 Alaxpbv iaTL aoLTO /jLT) aov epyov, ov av aWio^ 
OVK el, b dXXct)^ dinji^Tijo-ev aoi, &)? K€(f)aXaXyLa, 
ft)? TTvpeTO^ ; et aov ol yovel'i 7revy]T€<i yaav, rj 
irXovaioi fxev yaav ^ dXXov<; Be KXr]poi'bfiov<i 
uTTeXiTTOv, Kal ^covTe'i ovk eirapKOvaiv ovBev, aol 

9 TavTa ala')^pd eaTiv ; TavTa efidv6ave<; irapd rot? 
(j)iXocT6cpoL<i ; ovheiroTe ■t]Kovaa<;, otl to ala'^pbv 
-yjreKTOv ecTTiv, to Be yjreKTOP d^iov iaTi tov 
yjreyeaOai ; Tiva S' ^ errl tS fiy avTOV epyw, b 

10 ai'TO? ovk erroirjaev ; av ovv eTroirjaa^; tovto, tov 

^ Meibom, after Wolf: ei S. 

* P>om here through hvvaaai the passage is written in the 
margin by the first hand of S. 

* ^ -Khovffioi fiey supplied by Schweighauser, ^<rav by C. 

* 5' added by Schweighauser. 


BOOK III. x.vvF. 5-IO 

\ve;)ltliiest needs must fco, and those who have lield 
tlie hii;liest offices, and very kinf^s and tyrants? 
Only y<JLi will descend hungry, if it so happen, and 
they burstino; with indigestion and drunkenness. Did 
you ever easily find a beggar who was not an old man ? 
Wasn't he extremely old ? But though they are cold 
night and day, and lie forlorn on the ground, and have 
to eat only wliat is absolutely necessary, they approach 
a state where it is almost impossible for them to 
die ; ^ yet you who are physically perfect, and have 
hands and feet, are you so alarmed about starving } 
Can't you draw water, or write, or escort boys to and 
from school, or be another's doorkeeper? — But it is 
disgraceful to come to such a necessity. — Learn, 
therefore, first of all, what the disgraceful things are, 
and after you have done that, come into our 
presence and call yourself a philosopher. But as 
the case stands now, do not even allow anyone else 
to call you one ! 

Is anything disgraceful to you which is not your 
own doing, for which you are not responsible, which 
has befallen you accidentally, as a headache or a 
fever? If your parents were poor, or if they were 
rich but left others as their heirs, and if they give 
you no help though they are living, is all this dis- 
graceful to you ? Is that what you learned at the 
feet of the philosophers ? Have you never heard 
that the disgraceful thing is censurable, and the 
censurable is that which deserves censure ? And 
whom do you censure for what is not his own doing, 
which he didn't produce himself? Well, did you 
j)roduce this situation ? did you make your father 

^ The argument is, one need hardly remark, quite 
unsound, for the death-rate among the poor is unquestion- 
ably much higher than among the wealthy. 



TTcirepa tqlovtov ; y i^eariv ooi eiravopOcdaai 
avTov ; BiSoTai col tovto ; ri ovv ; Bel ae OeXeiv 
ra /jL7] hihoiieva rj /x?) Tvyx^'ivovra avrcjv al(j-)(yve- 

11 aOai ; oi/ro)? Se Koi eWi^ov (fyiXoaocpcov dcpopav 
669 aXXou? /cal /bLy]S6v avTo<i eXiri^eiv €k aeavTOv ; 

12 Totyapouv ot'/xw^e Kal areve Kai eaOte oeBoLKOt)<;, /jli] 
ov crxj}<i Tpocf)a<; avpiov irepl tmv BovXapiwv 
rpe/J.6, /IT] KXiyjrrj rt, /i>; (bvyr), firj diroOavr). 

13 ouTO)? av trjOi koX /jlt) iravar] /j,y]Se7roT6, 6crTi<; 
ovofxarL jiovov 7rpo<; (fnXoaofplav'; Kalra 
deo)p7]fiaTa avri)<^ oaov eirl aol Karrjaynjva'; 
ci^^pijara iTTLBei^a<; /cal dvoycpeXt} tol<; dpaXa/j,/3d- 
vovaiv ovBewore S' evcTTaOeLa^; wpe;^^?;?, drapa- 
^la^, diraOeia^' ovSeva tovtov eveica eOepdirevaa^;, 
auXXoyLcr/jLcbv 8' eveKa ttoXXov^' ovBeirore tovtcop 
riva Toyv (^avraaioiv Bie^aadviaa<; avro'^ inl 

14 aeavTOv " Bvva/maL ^epeiv i) ov Bvva/nac ; ri /ulol to 
XoiTTov icTTLv ; ", aXX' co? irdvTwv ^^(^ovtcov gol 
/caX(o<; Kol d(j(^aX(o<^ irepl rov TeXevralov Kare- 
yivov TOTTOV, Tov Tr}<i d/jLeTa7rTCi)aLa<i, Xv dfie- 
rdirrdiTa o'XV'i TLva ; ttjv heiXiav, ri-jv dyevveiav, 
TOV Oav/xaa/jLOV Tci)v TrXovaiwv, ttjv dreXr) ope^w, 
TTJV dTrorevKTLKTjv^ eKKXiaw irepl t?}? tovtwv 
d(X(f)aXeLa<i ecfypovri^e'^. 

15 OvK eSei irpo(T/cTi]aaadaL irpcorov etc tov Xuyov, 

^ See explanatory note. 

1 So the text as it stands in (9, but the singular mixture of 
technical terms in anoTfuKriKv (kkKktis is incrediljle. Else- 
where, and quite properly, it is desire that fails to get what 
it wills {aTroT€viiTiK-f)), and aversion that falls into what it 
would avoid (see III. 6, 6 and especially IV. 10, 4). Hence 
there is great plausibility in Schenkl's suggestion (partly 


BOOK HI. .vxvi. 10-15 

wliat he is ? Or is it in your power to reform him ? 
Is that vouchsafed you? What follows? Ou<,dit 
you to wish for what is not given you, or to be 
ashamed when you fail to e^et it ? And did you 
real!}', while studying philosophy, acquire tlie 
habit of looking to other persons, and of hoping 
for nothing yourself from yourself? Very well tlien, 
lament and groan, and eat in fear of not having food 
to-morrow; tremble about your paltry slaves, for fear 
they will steal something, or run away, or die ! Live 
in this spirit and never cease to live so, you who in 
name only have approached philosophy, and, as far 
as in you lay, have discredited its principles by 
showing them to be useless and good for nothing to 
those who receive them ! But you never desired 
stability, serenity, peace of mind ; you never culti- 
vated anybody's acquaintance for that purpose, but 
many persons' acquaintance for the sake of svllo- 
gisms ; you never thoroughly tested for yourself any 
one of these external impressions, asking the ques- 
tions : '- Am I able to bear it, or am I not ? What 
may I expect next? " but just as though everything 
about you were in an excellent and safe condition, 
you have been devotingyour attention to the last of all 
topics, that which deals with immutability, in order 
that you may have immutable — what r your cowardice, 
your ignoble character, your admiration of the rich, 
your ineffectual desire, your aversion that fails of its 
mark ! ^ These are the things about whose security 
you have been anxious ! 

Ought you not, first, to have acquired something 

after Reiske), upe^iy, rrjy airoTevKTiK-f}u, <T7V irepiTTTcoTiKTii'^ 
eKK\i(Tiu: "desire, that fails to get what it wills, and 
aversion that falls into what it would avoid." 



elra tovtm ireptTTOielv r-i-jv aa(^d\eiav ; kuI Tiva 
1TC07T0T 6t8e? rpLyxov TTepioiKoBofjLOvvra firjhevl 
TeLxUp 7r€pi^aX6/j.€POV avrov ; ^ 7roLo<; ^e 6vpcopo<; 

16 KaOiaraTai iirl ovSe/jLia Ovpa ; aWa cru fie- 
Xera? aTroSeifcvveiv hvvaadar riva ; /AeXera? firj 
ciTTocraXevecrdai Sta ao(f)ta-/jL(iTa)V' ciTrb rivcov ; 

17 Sel^ov fioL TrpMTOv, ri ri-jpel'^, n p,€Tpel<^ rj ri 
icrrdveL^' eW ovtw^ liriheiicvve top ^vyov r) rov 

IS peSifivov. 7] p^expi' TtVo? /x6Tp7]aeL<; ri-jv airohov ; 
ov ravrd ae diroSeifcvveLV Bel, a iroLel tov<; 
dvOpcoTTOv; 6vhaluova<;, a iroiel 7rpo)(0}pelv avTol<; 
rd irpdyp^ara co? OeXovaLV, Sl* d ov Sel fie/xcfieaOai 
ovhevi, iyKaXelv ovSevl, ireiOeaOai rfj hLOLKrjcrei 

19 t6)v o\wv ; Tavrd /jlol Belfcvve. " IBov SeiKvvoyJ' 
(j)r](TLV, '' dvaXvao) aoL avXXoyiap,ov<;.^' rovro 

TO fjL€TpOUV iaTLV, UvSpdlToBoV' TO fl€TpOV/jLeVOl' 

20 3' ovK ecTTiv. Bi,d ravra vvv rtVet? SiKa<i o)v 
i^/jLeX7]aa<;' ^ rpeftet?, dypvirveh, fierd Trdprcov 
/SovXevrj' K.dv fir] irdaiv dpecrKetv fxeXXr} rd 
^ovXev/jLara, KaKOi^ otet, ^e^ovXevaOai. 

21 Etra 4)o/3fj Xi/jLov, o)? So/cet?. av S* ov Xt/xov 
(po^fj, dXXd SeSoLKa<; /Jirj ov crxy's fidyeipov, /J,r} 
ov o'XV^ dX\ov d^lro)vy]Ti]v, dXXov rov virohi]- 
aovTa, dXXov top ipSvaopra, dXXov^ tov<; 

22 TpiyjroPTa<;, dX\,ov<i tou? dKoXov6/](Topra<;, Xv ip 

1 Sb {irepipakS/xevov Schenkl) : fjLTjSevl reix'^ov '7r(pi0a\\6- 
fifvov avrh avrov S. The correct form of the text is higlily 
uncertain, and the version in Sb is acceptable only as meeting 
in a general way the requirement of the context. 

* <piKoGo<pias after Tj/MeK-naas deleted by Schenkl. 


BOOK III. XXVI. 15-22 

from reason, and then to have made that something 
secure? Why, did you ever see anyone building a 
cornice all around witliout first having a wall about 
which to build it?^ And what kind of doorkeeper 
is placed on guard where there isn't any door ? 
But you practise to get the power to demonstrate ; 
demonstrate what? You j^ractise to avoid being 
shaken by sophisms ; sliakcn from what ? Show me 
first what you are maintaining, what you are measur- 
ing, or what you are weigliing : and after that, and 
under those conditions, show me your scales or your 
bushel-measure. Or how long will you keep measur- 
ing ashes? Are not these what you ought to be 
demonstrating, the things, namely, that make men 
ha})py, that make their affairs prosper for them as 
they desire, that make it unnecessary for them to 
blame anybody, and to find fault with anybody, but 
to acquiesce in the government of the universe? 
Show me these. " See, I do show you,'' a man says ; 
•^1 will analyse syllogisms for you." Slave, this is a 
mere measuring instrument, it is not the thing 
measured. That is why you are now being punished 
for what you neglected ; you tremble, lie awake, take 
counsel with everyone, and, if your plans are not 
likely to win the approval of all men, you think that 
vour deliberations have been faulty. 

And then you fear hunger, as you fancy. Yet it 
is not hunger that you fear, but you are afraid that 
you will not have a professional cook, you will not 
have another servant to buy the delicacies, another 
to put on your shoes for you, another to dress you, 
others to give you your massage, others to follow at 
your heels, in order that when you have undressed 

* The figure is reminiscent of Plato, Rep. VII, 534 E 



TO) (SaXaveio) eKhvadfievo<; Kai eKTeiva^ aeavrov 
a)<? ol icrravpcofiei'oc rpi^r) evdev kol evOev, eW^ 
6 aXetTTTr;? eTriara^ ^^yt) " /jLerd/STjOi, 80? 
irXevpoVy K€(f)a\i]i^ avrov \dj3e, irapdOe's tov 
cofioi'T ^'t' ekOiov Ik. rod ^oKaveiov el<i oIkov 
Kpavydai]<; ''ouSet? (f)€pei (fyayelv ; *' elr "apov 

23 Td<^ Tpa7T€^a<i' cnroyyiaov.^^ rovro (^oj3f], fxi] 
ov Svvr] ^i]u dppd}(TTOu ^iov, irrel roi rov rcov 
vyiaivoPTcov fidOe, ttw? ol BovXol ^coaLV, ttco? ol 
epydrai, ttco? ol yvrjaiw^ (j)L\.oao(^ovvre^, it6)<; 
'S.coKpdrrj'; e^rjaev, iK6lvo<; puev kol fxeja yvvaiKo<s 
Kal TTalSctyj', ttco? ALoy€uy]<;, ttw? KXeai^^;;? d/jia 

24 a^oXd^cov Kal dvrXayp. ravra av 6e\r)<=; e)(6LVy 
€^€t<; iravTa^ov Kal ^7]a6i<; Oappcov, rivi ; w 
p.6v(p Oappelv evhe)(eTaL, rCo TriaTW, -rfo aKwXvTM, 
rw dv(i<^aipeT(Oy tout ecrri rjj irpoaipeaei, rj] 

25 aeavTOv. Bia ri S' ovt(o<; cixpricnov Kal dva)(f)€\f} 
aavTov irapecJKevaKa^, Xva yu,7/Set? ae €19 oUlap 
OeKrj he^aadai, fjLrjhei^ eiTL}xe\i)6?}vaL ; dWd 
<TKevo<^ fiev oXoKXijpov Kal ^p7;crtyu,oi' e^co ippi/i/ie- 
vov Tra? Ti? evpodv dvaLpi'jcreraL Kal KepSo^ 
7)y rjaerai, ere S' ouB€l<;, dXXd 7ra? ^y/ilav. 

2G ovT(o<^ ovBe kvvo<^ hvvaaai y^pelav irapaa')(^elv 

OuS' dX€KTpv6l'0<;. TL OVL> €T L ^PjV ^€/\6f9 TOLOVTO<; 

27 ^o^elrai ri<^ dv7]p dya66<^, /x)] Xel-rrwaiv avrw 
Tpo(pal ; Tot? TV(pXoL<; ov XeiirovaL, roh ;!^a)\ot9 
ov XeLTTOvar Xeiylrovcnv dvhpl dyaOCo ; Kal 
arparLcoTrj fief dyaOo) ov XetTrei 6 fiiadoBoTcov 

* Diogenes Lc\erliiis, 7, IGS. 

BOOK III. XXVI. 22-27 

in a bath, and stretclied yourself out like men who 
have been crucified, you may be massa<^ed on this side 
and on that ; and tiiat then the masseur may stand 
over you and say, " Move over, give me his side, you 
take his head, hand me his shoulder " ; and then, when 
you have left the bath and <rone home, that you mav 
shout out, " Is no one bringing me something to 
eat?" and after that, "Clear away the tables; wipe 
them off" with a sponge." What you are afraid of is 
this — that you may not be able to live the life of an 
invalid, since, I tell you, you have only to learn the 
life of healthy men — howthe slaves live, the workmen, 
the genuine philosophers, how Socrates lived — he too 
with a wife and children — how Diogenes lived, how 
Cleanthes, who combined going to school and pump- 
ing water. ^ If this is what you want, you will have 
it everywhere, and will live with full confidence. 
Confidence in what.'' In the only thing in which 
one can have confidence — in what is faithful, free 
from hindrance, cannot be taken away, that is, in your 
own moral purpose. And why have you made your- 
self so useless and unprofitable, that no one is willing 
to take you into his house, no one willing to 
take care of you ? But when a whole and useful 
implement has been thrown out, anyone who finds 
it will pick it up and count it gain ; yet not when he 
picks up 7/0?/, but everyone will count you a loss. 
You are so unable to serve the purpose of even a 
dog or a cock. Why, then, do you care to keep on 
living, if that is the sort of person you are ? 

Does a good man fear that food will fail him ? It 
does not fail the blind, it does not fail the lame ; 
will it fail a good man ? A good soldier does not 
lack someone to give him pay, or a workman, or a 



ovS^ ipydrrj ovBe (Tkvtel' rrp S^ ay aOro Xeiyjrei ; 

28 ouTCt)? 6 ^eo? dfJLeXel t(oi> avrov iiriTevyfidrcoi', 
Tcov hiaKovwv, rcov /jLapTupcov, oh fu,6voL<; XPV'^^'' 
irapaheiyixacTLv irpb^ roix; cnraiSevTov^;, on Kal 
ecTTL Kal Ka\co<; BioiKel rd 6\a Kal ovk d/j,€\€L 
Tcop uvOpcoTTLvcov iTpaypuToov Kal on dvSpl dya- 
0(0 ovhev ean kukov ovts ^(ovtl out diroOavovn ; 

29 — Tt ovv, orav pur] irape^^r] Tpo(fid^ ; — Ti yap 
dWo 1] ft)? dyaOo<; aTparrjyo's to dvaKXrjTLKov 
pLOL aeaijpayKep ; Treidopat, dKoXouOo), eirev^i]- 
po)v TOP rjyepiova, I'pLVOiv avrov rd epya. Kal 

30 yap ifkOov, or eKeiv(p eSo^ev, Kal direipiL irdXiv 
€KeLvcp SoKovp Kat ^a)vr6<; pLov rovro ro epyov 
7JP, vpLvelv rov 6eov Kal avrov eV ipLavrov Kal 

31 7r/309 'eva Kal 7rpo<; itoWoik;. ov 7rape)(^€L pLOi 
TToXXd, ovk d(f)Oova, rpv(j)dv pie cv OiXet' ovhe 
yap rep 'HpaKXel iTap6l')(eVy rfo viel T(p eavrov, 
dXX dXXo^ i/SaauXevev "Apyov<i Kal MvKrjpoyv, 

32 6 S' irrcrdaaero Kal iiroveL koI iyvpLvd^ero. Kal 
TjP YjvpvaOev'^ puep, o? yr, ovre "Apyov<; ovre 
MvK7]pa)P ^acriXev^i, o? 7' ovB' avro<; eavrov, 6 
8' 'HpaKXi]<i d7rda7]<; 77}? Kal OaXdrrr]<; dp)(^(i)v 
Kal rjyepbCDV r)p, KaOaprr]<; dBiKia<; Kal dpopbia^;, 
elaay(Dyev<i he hiKaLoavpri^i Kal oaioryjro^' Kal 

33 ravra eTvoiei Kal yvpupo'^ Kal p6po<^. 3' 
'OBvaaev<^ ore pavayo<; e^epplipi], pirj n era- 
ireivcoaep avrop rj diropia, putj n iireKXaaep ; 
dXXd TTfti? diryei irpo^i rd<i irapOepovi alrijacop 

BOOK III. XXVI. 27-33 

cobbler; and shall a good man .-^ ^ Does God so 
neglect His own creatures, His servants, His wit- 
nesses, whom alone He uses as examples to the 
uninstructed, to prove that He both is, and governs 
the universe well, and does not neglect the affairs of 
men, and that no evil befalls a good man either in 
life or in death ? ^ — Yes, but what if He does not 
provide food ? — Why, what else but that as a good 
general He has sounded the recall ? I obey, I follow, 
lauding my commander, and singing hymns of jjraise 
about His deeds. For I came into the world when 
it so pleased Him, and I leave it again at His 
pleasure, and while I live this was my function — to 
sing hymns of praise unto God, to myself and to 
others, be it to one or to many. God does not give 
me much, no abundance. He does not want me to 
live luxuriously ; He did not give much to Heracles, 
either, though he was His own son, but someone 
else was king over Argos and Mycenae, while he was 
subject, and suffered labours and discipline. And 
Eurystheus, such as he was, was not king over either 
Argos or Mycenae, for he was not king even over 
himself; but Heracles was ruler and leader of all the 
land and sea, purging them of injustice and lawless- 
ness, and introducing justice and righteousness; and 
all this he did naked and by himself And wlien 
Odysseus was shipwrecked and cast ashore, di.l his 
necessity make abject his spirit, or break it.^ ^ay, 
but how did he advance upon the maidens to ask for 

^ The scholiast appropriately compares Matt. vi. 31 
and 33: "Take no thought," and "Seek ye first the king- 
dom of God, and all ihese things shall be added unto you." 

* This last clause is slightly modified from Plato, Apol. 
41 D. 



TCL avayKaia, mv ai(jyj.aTOV eivai BoKel helaOau 
Trap" ciWov ; 

W9 T€ Xeoov opeairpo^fio^. 

3i rivi ireTTOLOay^; ; ov So^rj ovSe ^(p/j/Jiacrii^ ouS' 
ap^at?, aW oKfcfj ttj eavrov, tovt earc Soy/nacrt 

35 Trepl^ tcjp €(p' r)/xu> Kal ovk €(f)' ijfilv. ravra 
yap eari fiova ra tov<; eXevdepov^ iroLOVvra, ra 
Tou? aK03\vT0v<;, ra tov Tpd)(i}\ov eTTaipovja 
rwv T€Ta7reivofi€V(j}i>, ra avri^XeTreiv iroLovvra 
6p6oL<; TO?? 6(f)0a\pot<; Trpo? rous^ 7r\ovcrLov<;, 

36 7r/30? T0U9 Tvpdi'Vov<^. Kal to tov (^uXoaoc^ov 
Bchpov Tovro rjv, av 3' ovk i^eXevcrrj OappMV, 
dWd TrepLTpefiwv to?? l/xarLSiOK; Kal tol^; apyv- 
pcD/jiaTLOi<; ; hvarrrjie, ouro)? aTrayXeaa^ tov p-^x^pt 
vvv ')(p6vov ; 

37 Tt ovv, dv voai)(j(jo ; — Nocr7;cre<? /raXw?. — T/? 
fie depairevaei ; — 'O ^ea'?, ol (j)lXoL. — ^KXripco<; 
KaTaK€LaofjLai. — 'AA-A-' &)? dinjp. — Ol'KJ]fia ivLTy]- 
heiov ou^ e^o). — ^]^v dvemTr]hei(p ovv ^ vocr)'ja€i<=i. — 
Tt? fiot TTOiyaei rd rpoi^eia ; — O/ Kal rol'^ dXXoi<; 
TTOiOvvTe^' CO? Mai^r;? voayja-ea. — Tt he Kal to 

38 Trepan; tt}? v6(ror. — "AXXo tl tj Odvaro^ ; dp' ovv 
evOvfifi, OTi Ke(f)dXaiov rovro Trdi'TMU to)v KaKMV 
Tc3 dv6pcoTT(p Kal (iyevveLa<; Kal BeLXia<i ov 

1 iTfpi supplied by Scheiikl. 

2 avtTTizrjSiicji the Cambridge ed., after Wolf ; oiy supplied 
by Oldfather : eVerriTTjSfrf vua-i\cns S. 

^ Homer, Odyssey, VI. 130. 

^ The text is ver^' uncertain. Schenkl reads 'Ej' iitiTi)h(i(f 
ov voai\(Tiis ; which would appear to mean something like: 


noOK III. XXVI. 33-38 

food, which is regarded as being the most disgraceful 
thing for one person to ask of another ? 

As a lion reared in the mountains.^ 

In what did he trust ? Not in reputation, or money, or 
office, but in his own miglit, that means, his judge- 
ments about the things which are under our con- 
trol, and those which are not under our control. 
For these are the only tilings that make men free, 
that make men unhampered, that lift up the neck of 
those who have become abject, that make them look 
with level eyes into the faces of the rich, and the 
faces of tyrants. And all this was what the philo- 
sopher had to give, yet will you not come forth bold, 
instead of trembling for your paltry clothes and silver 
plate.' Miserable man, have you so wasted your 
time down to the present? 

Yes, but what if I fall ill ? — You will bear illness 
well. — Who will nurse me ? — God and your friends. 
— I shall have a hard bed to lie on. — Hut like a man. 
— I shall not have a suitable house. — -Then you will 
fall ill in an unsuitable house.- — Who will prepare my 
food for me ? — Those who prepare it for others also. 
You will be ill like Manes. ^ — And what is also the 
end of the illness? — Anything but death? Will 
you, then, realize that this epitome of all the ills 
that befall man, of his ignoble spirit, and his 

" Will you not choose a suitable house in which to fall ill?" 
But that sort of reply seems scarcely to fit the context. 

^ That is, like a slave, for this was a typical slave name, 
like " Sambo " among American negroes. In particular the 
reference seems to be to Zeno, who, when his physicians 
ordered him to eat young pigeons, insisted, "Cure me as 
you do Manes." Musonius, frag. 18 A (p. 98, 4 ff., Hense). 



OdvaTo's eariv, /.laWov h" o tov Oavarov <j)6^o<^ ; 
31) eVt TovTOv ovv jJiOi yu/jLpd^ov, evravOa veve- 
Tcoaav OL XoyoL Traj/re?, rd uaKyj/xara, rd 
dvayvcoa fiara, koI elarj, on ovt(o<; ix6vu><; iXevOe- 
povvrai dvOpfOTTOL. 


BOOK HI. XXVI. 38-39 

cowardice, is not death, but it is ratlur tlic fear 
of death ? Against this fear, then, I would have 
you discipline yourself, toward this let all your 
reasoning tend, your exercises, your reading ; and 
then you will know that this is the only way in 
which men achieve freedom. 




a . Yl(p\ ikevOfpias. 
fi'. Hfpl (ru/xirepicpopus. 
y . Tiwa rivjiv a.vTiKaTa\\a'<rinv ; 

5'. Uphs Tohs irepl rii iu ricrux'-J- Sidyeiu Ifrrrot/Sovc^Tas. 
e'. nphs Tovs fxaxi-ixous Koi 6Tiptu>5eis. 
-'. Tlphs TOVS eVi Tcf iXe^ladai ohuvu^jx^vovs. 
^'. Hep] a(po$ias. 

7j'. Uphs Toiis Tax^oos ewl rh trx'l/U-a twv (t>LXoa6'p(i}v eiTnn)ZwvTas. 
6'. Uphs rhv us avaicrxvi'Tiai' /afTafiXriQevra. 
I. Tivwv Se? KaTa<ppovelv koX irpjs rlva Siap^p^adai ; 
la. Tlepl Ka9apt6TT]TOS. 
()3'. riepl irpoaoxv^- 
ly'. Tlphs TOVS (vk6\ws eiccpepuvras tu uvtu.<v. 

a . Tiepl e\evOepLa<;. 

1 'KXevOepo^ eanv 6 ^wv w? /3ov\eraL, ov ovr 
dvay/cdaat earcv ovre KwXvaai ovre ^idaaaOai,, 
ov at opfial dve/jLTToSLaToi, at 6p6^ei<; 67tlt€vkti- 
KUi, at iKK\i(Tei<^ diTepinTT(OTOL. ri<; ovv OeXei 

2 ^^]V dfiapTavcou ; — OuS6l<;. — Tt? OeXei ^rjv i^ana- 
Tcofievo^, irpoiriTTTcov, dSifco<; wv, dfCoXaaro<;, 

3 /ji6/j,ylrifjLoipo<;, raireivo'^ ; — OvBeU. — Oi'^et? dpa 
Tcop (f)auXo)p ^fj o)? ^ovXeTai' ov tolvvv oi/S' 


Cliapters of the Fourth BioJc 

I. Of freedom. 
II. Of social intercourse. 

111. What things should be exclianged for what things ? 
IV'. To those who have set their heart.s upon living in 

V. Against the contentious and brutal. 
VI. To those who are vexed at being pitied. 
VII. Of freedom from fear. 
VIII. To those who hastily assume tlie guise of the 
IX. To the man who had become shameless. 
X. What ought we to despise and on what place a high 

value ? 
XI. Of cleanliness. 
XII. Of attention. 
XIII. To those who liglitly talk about their own affairs. 


Of freedom 

He is free who lives as he wills, who is subject 
neither to compulsion, nor hindrance, nor force, 
whose choices are unhampered, whose desires attain 
tlieir end, whose aversions do not fall into what 
they would avoid. Who, tlien, wishes to live in 
error } — No one. — Wlio wislies to live deceived, im- 
petuous, unjust, unrestrained, peevish, abject.'' — No 
one. — Therefore, there is no bad man who lives as 



4 eXevOepo^; eajiv. rt? he OeXf.i Xvirovixevo^ 
t^)v, (^ofSovfiei'O';, (pOoj'wv, eXewv, 6pe'y6fJi€vo<; fcal 
a7roTvyy^dvG)V, eKKXivcdv Kal irepiTTLTrrayv ; — Ou^e 

5 el?. — "\L-)(^o^ev ovv tlvcl tojv (pavXcov oXvttov, 
a(po^ov, airepiiTTCdTOv, avairoTevKTOv ; — Ovheva. 
— OvK apa ovhe eXevOepov. 

6 TaOra av n^ ciKovcrr} Sicnj7raT0<;, av fiev 
7rpoaOf]<; on " aXXa av ye aocpb^ el, ovSev tt/jo? 
ere ravraT crvyyva>a€Tai aoi. av S' avrfo Ta? 

7 dXi]OeLa<; ecTrrj^ on " tmv rpU Treirpa/ievcop 
ovOev 8ta(f)epec<; irpo^ to /jli] /cat ai/'ro? SovXo<; 
elvai,^^ ri dXXo r) TrXrjydf; ere Set irpocrSoKdv ; 

8 " TTco? 7«|0," (^rjaiv, " e^co SoijXo^ elfit ; o Trarrjp 
iXeudepo<i, rj fiyT7]p iXevOepa, ov covtju ovSeh 
e%6i' dXXd Kal avyKXrjTLKO^ el/iL Kal Kaiaapo^; 
(J)lXo^ Kal VTrdrevKa Kal BovXov; 7roXXov<; e;^&>." 

9 irpoiTOV fjiev, w /SeXnare avyKXr)nKe, rd^a aov 
Kal o 7raTT]p ryv avrrjv BovXelav BovXo<; yv Kal 
7) pyrrjp Kal 6 TraTTTTO? Kal i(f)€^P]^ 7rdpT€<; o'l 

JO irpoyovoL. el he hr) Kal rd ixdXiara yaav 
iXevOepoi, ri touto irpo^ ere ; tL ydp, el eKelvoi 
fxev yevvaloL r/aav, av h^ dyevv)]<; ; eKelvoi fjLev 
d(pofioi, av he heiXo^; ; eKelvoi /xev eyKpareU, av 
6' uKoXaaro'^ ; 

11 Kal tL, (f)i]aL, TovTo irpb*; ro SovXoi> elvai ; — 
OvBev aoL (^aiverai elvai to aKovrd n iroLelv, to 
dvayKa^ofievov, to arevovra 7r/509 to BovXov 

12 elvac ; — ToOto /lev earco, (ptjalv. dXXd t/? /xe 
hvvarai dvayKuaai, el /xt] 6 irdi'iijiv Kvpio^ 

BOOK IV. r. 3-12 

he wills, and accordingly no bad man is free. And 
who wishes to live in grief, fear, envy, pity, desiring 
things and failing to get them, avoiding things and 
falling into them ? — No one at all. — Do we find, 
then, any bad man free from grief or fear, not 
falling into what he would avoid, nor failing to 
achieve what he desires.^ — No one. — Then we find 
no bad man free, either. 

Now if some man who has been consul twice hear 
this, he will forgive you, if you add, " But you are a 
wise man; this does not apply to you." Yet if you 
tell him the truth, to wit : " In point of being 
a slave you are not a whit better than those who 
have been thrice sold," what else can you expect 
but a flogging ? '' Why, how am I a slave ? " says 
he. " My father was free, my mother free ; no one 
has a deed of sale for me. More than that, I am a 
member of the senate, and a friend of Caesar, and I 
have been consul, and I own many slaves." Now in 
the first place, most worthy senator, it is very likely 
that your father was the same kind of slave that you 
are, and your mother, and your grandfather, and all 
your ancestors from first to last. But even if they 
were free to the limit, what does that prove in your 
case ? Why, what does it prove if they were noble, 
and you are mean-spirited ? If they were brave, and 
vou a coward .^ If they were self-controlled, and you 
unrestrained ? 

And what, says someone, has this to do with being 
a slave .'' — Doesn't it strike you as " having to do 
with being a slave " for a man to do something 
against his will, under compulsion ? — Granted the 
point, he replies. But who can put me under 
compulsion, except Caesar, the lord of all? — There, 



13 Kalaop ; — Ovkovv eva fxev heaTrorrjv aavTOv kuI 
av avTO<i a)fio\6yr)aa<;. on he iravrcov, co<; 
\€y€t<;, K0Lv6<i eartv, fjui-jhev ae tovto irapafiv- 
OeiaOfo, dWa ylyvcoaKe, on eK fi6yd\i]<; OLKia^ 

14 SovXo'^ el. oi/Tft)9 Kol ^LKOTToXlrai, im^odv 
elcoOaaL " vrj ttjv KaLaapo<i Tv')(riv, iXeudepoi 

15 "0/zft)9 B\ edv (TOi SoKrj, TOP fi6v Kalcrapa 
7rpb<; TO irapov djiwfiev, ifcelvo Se /xol eliri' 
ovBeTTOT rjpda6r}<; nv6<; ; ov irai^LaKapiov, ov 

16 TTaihapiov, ov SovXov, ovk eXevOepou ; — Tt ovv 
rovro Trpo? to SovXov elvai rj eXevOepov ; — • 

17 OuSenoO' viTO tP]<; €pco/x€vr)<; eTreTdyr^^; ovhev Oiv 
OVK ')]deX€<; ; ovheirore aov to hovXdpiov i/co- 
XdK6vaa<; ; ovBeiroT avTOu rov<; iroBa^ KaT€- 
(f)LX')]aa<; ; KairoL tou K^aicrapo^ dp ae tl^ 
dvayKdarj, v^pLV avTo rjyfj Kal VTrep^oXrjv 

18 TvpavvLho<;. tL ovv dXXo eaTu hovXeia ; vvkto^ 
ovheiTOT dir^fXde^, oirov ovk ijOeXe^; ; dvdX(oaa<i, 
oaa OVK tJ^eXe? ; elird^ Tiva olfxco^wv Kal 
GTev(ov, rivkayov XoiSopovjuevo^, diroKXeioiievo^ ; 

19 dXX^ el av alax^^V '^^ aavTov ofioXoyeli', 
opa a Xeyei Kal iroLel 6 ^paacovihi-j's, o? 
TooavTa aTpar€vadfievo<;, oaa Td^cL ovSe av, 
TTpayTOV fiev i^eXyjXvOe vvkt6<;, OTe 6 VeTa^ ov 
ToX/jLci e^eXOelv, dXX' el TrpoarjvayKd^eTO vif 
avTOv, TToXX' dv l-wLKpavydaa'; Kal t)]v iTLKpdv 

20 hovXeiav d'KoXo^vpdiJievo'^ i^PjXOev. elTa, tL 
Xeyei ; 


BOOK IV. I. I2-20 

you have yourself admitted that you have one 
master. And let it not comfort you that he is, 
as you say, the common master of all men, but 
realize that you are a slave in a great house. So 
also the men of Nicopolis ^ are wont to shout : 
'' Yea, by the fortune of Caesar, we are free 
men ! " 

However, let us leave Caesar out of account, if 
you please, for the present, but answer me this : 
Were you never in love with anyone, a pretty girl, 
or pretty boy, a slave, a freedmm ? — What, then, has 
that to do with being either slave or free ? — Were 
you never commanded by your sweetheart to do 
something you didn't wish to do ? Did you never 
cozen your pet slave ? Did you never kiss his feet ? 
Yet if someone should compel you to kiss the feet 
of Caesar, you would regard that as insolence and 
most extravagant tyranny. What else, then, is 
slavery? Did you never go out at night where you 
didn't want to go ? Did you never spend more 
than you wanted to spend f Did you never utter 
words with groaning and lamentation, endure to be 
reviled, to have the door shut in your face f A\'ell, 
if you are ashamed to admit such things about 
yourself, observe what Thrasonides says and does, a 
man who had served on so many campaigns- — perhaps 
more even than you have. First, he went out at 
night when Geta hasn't the courage to go abroad, 
but, if the latter had been compelled by him to 
do so, he would have gone out crying aloud and 
bewailing his bitter slavery. And then what does 
Thrasonides say ? Says he, 

^ Where he was teaching. The very form of the oath 
contradicts the statement made. 



iraihiaKapiov /le, 


ov ovSe el^ ^ rcov TToXe/uLMv ovirwirore." 

21 T(i\a<=^, 0? ye Kal iraihiaKaplov Sov\o<i el Kal 
TTaiciaKapLov evreXov's. tl ovv en cravrov 
eXevOepov \eyeL<; ; tl he 7Tpo(p6pei<; aov ra? 

22 (jT/oareta? ; clra ^i<^o<^ alrel Kal rrpo's rov vtt^ 
evvoLa<s fill SiSopra ')(^akeiraiveL Kal Bcopa ttj 
fMiaovarj Tre/nTrei Kal Selrai Kal KXatet, ttoKlv 

23 he fjLLKpa evr]/uepj]<Ta<; eiraipeTar irXi-jv Kal rore 
TTW? P'V^^ eiT id V fielu r) ^oj^elaOai airojiaOcov 
ovTo<i eXevdepiav av elye ; ^ 

24 ^Ke-ylrat 8' eirl rcov ^a>rov, ttco? ■)(pa)ueOa ttj 

25 evvola t/}? e\ev6epia<^. \eovTa<; Tp6cf)ovaip ^)/^€- 
pov^ €yK\elaapTe<; Kal airl^ovai Kal KO/jLL^ovaiv 
evLoi pueO^ avTCJv. Kal rt? ipet rovrov rov 
XeovTa eXevOepov ; ov')(l 6' octm fiaXaKcorepoi^ 
Sie^dyei, Toaovra) SovXtKcorepov ; rt? 8' av Xecov 
ataOrjatv Kal Xoyiajxov Xa[3o)v /SovXoiro tov- 

26 T(i)v T«9 elvaL rcov XeovTcov ; aye, ra he irrrjva 
ravra orav Xri(f>0f) Kal eyKeKXet/xeva Tp€(f>7]Tai, 
ola TTciay^eL ^ijrovvra eKcpvyelv ; Kal evid ye 
avTMV Xl/jlw hia(f)OeLpeTai fiaXXov r} vTro/xevei rijv 

27 ToiavTrjv hie^aycoyijv, oaa 8' ovv hiaa-M^eraL^ 
p,6yi<; Kal y^aXe7rco<; Kal (pOlvovra, Kav 6X(t)^ 

^ Koraes : oiiBeis S. ' ^leineke : irw-KOTt S. 

' Carl Schenkl's rewriting, based in part upon some old 
corrections in S, which is clearly riglit in the general sense: 


BOOK IV. I. 20-27 

A clieap little wciuh has made ot nie a perfect 

Of me, though never a one among all my 

foemen might.^ 

Sad wretch, to be the slave of a wench, and a cheap 
one at that I VVhy, then, do you call yourself free 
any longer? And why do you talk of your cam- 
})aigns ? Then he calls for a sword, and gets angry 
at the man who refuses out of good-will to give it 
to him, and sends presents to the girl who hates 
him, and begs, and weeps, and again, when he 
has had a little success, he is elated. And yet even 
then, so long as he had not learned to give up 
passionate desire or fear, could this man have been 
in possession of freedom ? 

Consider now, in the case of the animals, how we 
employ the concept of freedom. Men shut up tame 
lions in a cage, and bring them up, and feed them, 
and some take them around with them. And yet 
who will call such a lion free ? Is it not true that 
the more softly the lion lives the more slavishly he 
lives ? And what lion, were he to get sense and 
reason, would care to be one of these lions ? Why, 
ves, and the birds yonder, when they are caught 
and brought up in cages, what do they suffer in 
their efforts to escape ? And some of them starve 
to death rather than endure such a life, while even 
such as live, barely do so, and suffer and pine away, 

^ From the Misoinnenos of MenanJer : Koch 3.'58 ; Kurte^, 
p. 129; Allinson, p. 412 (Loeb Classical Library). 

(t>odi'i(rdai oijr' ikevOepiav S apparently at first ; that is, 
anoi^adiliv and av elx^ are additions. 

VOL. 11. I 


evpyj Ti TrapeMj/Jiivov, e^€7r/jSt]aev. oi/rw? ope- 
yerat t)}? (f)vaLK7]<i iXevOepla^ Kal rod avTOvopua 

28 KoX ciKwXvTa elvai. fcal tl <tol KaKov eariv 
evravOa ; " ola \€yei<s ; ireTecrOai. TrecfiVfca ottov 
OeXco, viraiOpov Sidyeiv, aheiv orav OeXw av 
pe irdvTwv tovtcov ucpaipf] Kal Xiyei^i * tl croi 
KaKov iartv ; ' " 

29 Ata TOVTO eKelva pova epovpev eXevOepa, oaa 
TTjv aXwaiv ov (pepei, dXX'' dp,a re edXco Kal 

30 dirodavovra hie^vyev. outco? Kal ^Loyevrj^; ttou 
Xiyei piav elvai firj^avrjv Trpo? eXevOepiav to 
eu/coXft)? dTToOvrjcTKeLV, Kal tu> Yiepaoiv ^aaiXel 
ypd^eu otl " TrjV ^ XOrjvaiMv ttoXiv Arara- 
BovXcoaaadai ov hvvaaai' ov pLaXXovT <f)^]o-LV, 

31 " ?; Tou? l^Bva<^r " tto)? ; ov yap Xi'j^^opai 
avTOv<i ; " " CIV Xd^rj'^,^^ <pi]crLV, " €v6v<i diro- 
Xi7roz^T69 ere ol')(i)aovTaLy Kaddirep ol l')(6ve<^. 
Kal yap eKeivwv ov av Xd^7j<;, direOavev' Kal 
ovTOL X7](pO€VT€<; idv d7ro6vr]GK(i)criv, tl <jol iciTC 

32 T>}? 7rapacrK€vP](; 6(f)€Xo<; ;" ^ tovt gcttlv eXevOepov 
dvSpo<; (payvi] airovBrj eg7jTaK6T0<; to irpdypa Kal 
MaTrep €lko<; evpTjKOTO'^. dv 8' dXXay^ov ^'/t^? 
rj OTTOV ecTLV, TL Oavp^aaTov, el ovSeiroTe avTO 
evpL(TK€L^ ; 

33 'O 8ovXo<; €vOv<; evx^rat d(j)€dP]vat €XevO€po<;. 
Blcl TL ; BoK€LT6, OTL TOL<^ elfcoaTQiiai^; eiTLdvp.el 

^ There is some iincertainU^ about the extent of the 
quotation from Diogenes. Capps extends it as far as this 
point, while iSchenkl tliought it stopped with Ix^vis, three 
lines above. 

^ Here as in II. 3 and in § 156 of this same chapter 
Epictetus seems to have used a larger collection of letters 


BOOK IV. I. 27 


d if ever they find any opeiiin*^^ make their 
pe. Such is their desire for })hysical freedom, 
and a hfe of independence and freedom from re- 
straint. And what is wrong with you here in your 
cage ? " What a question ! My nature is to Hy 
where I please, to hve in the open air, to sing when 
I please. You rob me of all this, and then ask, 
' VVhat is wrong with you .^ ' " 

That is why we shall call free only those animals 
which do not submit to captivity, but escape by 
dying as soon as they are captured. So also Diogenes 
says somewhere : ^ " The one sure way to secure 
freedom is to die cheerfully " ; and to the Persian 2 
king he writes : " You cannot enslave the Athenian 
State any more than you can enslave the fish." 
" How so .'' Shall I not lay hold of them ? " " If you 
do," he replies, ^'^they will forthwith leave you and 
escape, like the fish. And that is true, for if you 
lay hold of one of them, it dies ; and if these 
Athenians die when you lay hold of them, what 
good will you get from your armament?" That is 
the word of a free man who has seriously examined 
the matter, and, as you might expect, had discovered 
truth about it. But if you look for it where it does 
not exist, why be surprised if you never find it ? 

It is the slave's prayer that he be set free 
immediately. Why ? Do you think it is because 
he is eager to pay his money to the men who collect 

ascribed to Diogenes than that whicl\ has survived to our 
time. See Scheiikl's note on § 156 below. 

■^ Schenkl deletes the word, and Orelli conjectures Mo/ce- 
h6v(j)v, making the reference to Philip or Alexander ; but 
about 355 Artaxerxes Ochus seems actually to have threatened 
war against Athens. iSee Judeich in the Ileal- Encyciopddie- , 
2, 1319, 25 fif. 



Bovvat dpyvpLOv ; ov' a\V ore (f)ai>Td^€TaL fJ^^X^'- 
vvv Slo, to fiy TeTf^'7;/<:fc'/'at tovtov ejjLirohil^eaOaL 

34 KoX hvapoelv. " av cKpeOco, <^i]aiv, " evOv^ irdaa 
evpoia, ovheuo^ e7n(TTp€(f)o/, irdatv co? \ao<^ kul 
ofxoio^i XaXoiy iropevofMaL ottov deXco, epxofiai 

35 oOeu 6e\o) /cal ottov ^e\rx>." elra cnry^XevOepa)- 
rat. Kal evOv^i pev ov^ ^X^^> '^^^ ^"7?7» ?^t^^ 
TiVa KoXaKEvar), irapa tli'L Senri^/jay]' elra i) 
epyd^erat to) aayparc Kal Tracr^^ei rd Seivorara 
KCLv crxV '^^^^ (pdTPt]V, epTreTTTcoKev et? hovXelav 

36 TToXv tt}? TTporepa^i ;)^aXe7rft)Te/3ai^ rj Kal ev- 
7rop7Jaa<; dv6p(t)iro<s dTreLpoKaXa iTe<^iXijKe irai- 
hiaKdpiov Kal Bvarvx^ov dpaKXaleraL Kal rijv 

37 SovXelau iroOel. " ri yap pot KaKov r)v ; dXXo<; 
p,' iveSvev, dXXo^i pu vireSeL, d\Xo<i erpecpeu, 
dXXo<i evoaoKopei, oXiya avrS) vTnjpeTOVv. vvv 
Be TaXa? ola irdax^ TrXeiocn hovXevoov dv9' 

38 ez^o? ; o/xw? S' edv haKTvXiov^,'' ^rjaiv, "Xd/Sco, 
Tore 7' evpovarara Bid^o) Kal evBaLpLOvearara. 
iTpoiTOu p,ev I'va Xd/3r), irdaxei' d)v iarlv d^iO<;' 

39 elra Xaficov rrdXtv ravrd. elrd (p)](Tiv " av puev 
arpaTevcrcopaL, d7rt]XXdy7]v irdvTwv rcov KaKwv. ' 
arpareveraL, irdax^^ oaa paaTLyla^ Kal ouSev 
rjTTOV hevrepav alrel arpareiav Kal TpiT7]v. 

^ See note on II. 1, 26. 

2 For the euphemistic phrase used in the Gieek see 
Demosthenes, 59, 20. 

3 The members of the Equestrian order at Rome had the 
right to wear a gold ring. 

HOOK IV. .. 33-39 

the five per cent, tax ? ^ No, it is because he fancies 
that up till now he is hampered and uncomfortable, 
because he has not obtained his freedom from 
slavery. '' If 1 am set free," he says, "immediately 
it is all happiness, I shall pay no attention to 
anybody, I talk to everybody as an equal and as 
one in the same station in life, I go where I please, 
I come whence I please, and where I please." 
Then he is emancipated, and forthwith, having no 
place to which to go and eat, he looks for someone 
to flatter, for someone at whose house to dine. 
Next he either earns a living by prostitution,^ and 
so endures the most dreadful things, and if he gets 
a manger at which to eat he has fallen into a slavery 
much more severe than the first ; or even if he 
grows rich, being a vulgarian he has fallen in love 
with a chit of a girl, and is miserable, and laments, 
and yearns for his slavery again. " Why, w^hat was 
wrong with me ? Someone else kept me in clothes, 
and shoes, and supplied me with food, and nursed 
me when I was sick ; I served him in only a few^ 
matters. But now, miserable man that I am, what 
suffering is mine, who am a slave to several instead 
of one ! However, if I get rings on my fingers," ^ 
he says, " then indeed I shall live most prosperously 
and hapj)ily." And so, first, in order to get them 
he submits to — what he deserves I Then when he 
has got them, you have the same thing over again. 
Next he says, " If I serve in a campaign, I am rid of 
all my troubles." He serves in a campaign, he 
submits to all that a jail-bird suffers, but none the 
less he demands a second campaign and a third.** 

* Required of those who held the higher oflfices. See note 
on II. 14, 17. 


40 eW^ orav avrbv top Ko\o<})(t)va eTrtOfj koI je- 
vrjTai avyKXrjTiKO'^, rore '^/LveraL Sov\o<; et? 
avWoyov ep)(6/jL€vo<;, rore ttjv KaWianju ^ koI 
XLTrapcoTcirrjv SovXelav BovXeve'.. 

41 '' [pa fjLT) /jL(opo<; fj, a<y\'^ Xva fidOr), a eXeyev 6 
S(OKpdTr]<;, ** Tfc earl tmv ovtwv SKaarov," kuI 
fjLTj elfcrj Tci^; tt poXt]'\^eL^ icpapfio^rj raU eVt 

42 pepov; ovaiai<;. tovto yap ian to acriov rol^ 
dvOpcoiTOi's TTcLVTOdv rwv KaKMv , TO Ta? TrpoXyyjrec^ 
ra? Koivd<; prj BiivaaOac e<^apii6^eiv tol<; ^ iirl 

43 puepov^. r}p,€i<i 3' dXXoL dXXo olopLeOa. 6 p.ev 
OTL voaet. OL'Sa/xw?, aX,V otl tcl^; 7rpoX7]\lr€i<; 

OVK €<papp.6^€L. 6 5' OTl TTTW^O? iuTLV, 8' 

OTL iraTepa -x^aXeirhv e%€* r) p,r)T€pa, tw S' otl 
6 Kalaap ovx tA-eoo? icTTiv. tovto S* iaTiv ev 
Koi piovov TO Td<; TrpoXyjyjrei^; icpappLO^ecv fir} 

44 elhevai. iirel tl9 ovk €)(6i, KaKov irpuXijyjnv, otl 
^XafSepov eaTiv, otl (J)€vkt6v iaTLv, otl irai'TL 
TpoTTO) drroLKOvopiriTov eaTiv; irpoX'qy^L'i TrpoXi'jy^reL 

45 ov pLd')(eTai, dXX^ OTav eXdrj eiri to ecpappo^eip. 


(pevKTOP ; Xeyec to K.aiaapo<; pyj elpaL (plXop' 
d7rf]X9ep, direireaep Tf]<; icpapp.oyrj'i, OXi^eTaL, 

^7]T€l TCL pLl]S6P 77/309 TO TTpOKeLpbePOP' OTL TV')(^d)V 

Tov (plXo^; elpaL Katcra/^o? ovSep tjttop tov 

46 ^ijTovpLepov ov TeTevx^P. tl ydp iaTLP, o ^rjTel 
7ra? dpdpco7ro<; ; €vaTa6r}aaL, evSaLpLOPrjaaL, TidvTa 

1 Schweighauser : k-oAAi (?) S. - Elter : aA\' S. 

^ Wolf : rais S. 

1 i.e. the finishing touch. See note on II. 14, 19. 

BOOK IV. I. 40-46 

After that, when he adds the very colophon,^ and 
becomes a senator, then he becomes a slave as 
he enters the senate, then he serves in the liand- 
somest and sleekest slavery. 

Come, let him not be a fool, let him learn, as 
Socrates used to say, " What each several thin^ 
means," -and not apply his preconceptions at random 
to the particular cases. For this is the cause to 
men of all their evils, namely, their inability to 
apply their general preconceptions to the particular 
instances. But some of us think one thing and 
some another. One man fancies he is ill. Not at 
all ; the fact is that he is not applying his pre- 
conceptions. Another fancies he is a beggar ; another 
that he has a hard-hearted father or mother ; still 
another that Caesar is not gracious to him. But 
this means one thing and one thing only — ignorance 
of how to apply their preconceptions. Why, who 
does not have a preconception of evil, that it is 
harmful, that it is to be avoided, that it is something 
to get rid of in every way ? One preconception 
does not conflict with another, but conflict arises 
when one proceeds to apply them. What, then, is 
this evil that is harmful and is to be avoided } One 
person says it is not to be Caesar's friend ; ^ he is 
off the course, he has missed the proper application, 
he is in a bad way, he is looking for what is not 
pertinent to the case in hand ; because, when he has 
succeeded in being Caesar's friend, he has none the 
less failed to get what he was seeking. For what 
is it that every man is seeking ? To live securely, 
to be happy, to do everything as he wishes to do. 

- Xenophon, Afejn. IV. 6, 1. 

' That is, persona grata at court. 



ft)? 6e\ei iTOielv, /jLij KcoXveaOai, fi7] avayKa^eaOai. 
orav ovv yevtjTat \\aiaapo'; (pL\o<;, ireiravTai 
Ka)Xv6fi€i>o<i, TreTTauraL dvayKa^6fM€vo(;, evaraOel, 
evpoel ; tlvo<: Trvdco/jbeda ; riva eyofiev d^io- 
Triarorepov r) avrov rovrov rov yeyovora <^i\ov ; 

47 iXOe ei<; to fxeaov kol elire y/xlv, rroTe cnapa^co- 
repov eKc'iOevhe^, vvv rj irplv yevecrdat (f)L\o<; rov 
Kalaapof; ; €v9v<^ a/coue/? on " iravaat,, rov^ 
Oeou<; aoL, i/jLTrai^cov /jlov rfj Tv-)(r]'^ ov/c olSa<;, 
oJa iT(ia')(o) TaXa<=;' ovS* vttvo^ iirepy^eTai fioi, 
aXV a\Xo9 e7r' ciWro ^ iXOcov Xeyei, on ?;S>; 
iypyjyopet, y]Byi irpoeiaiV elra rapaxat, elra 

48 0/?O7^Tt8e?." aye, iheiiTveL<; he irore evapearo- 
repov, vvv rj irporepov ; aKOvaov avrov kiu irepl 
TovTMv Tt Xeyer on, dv fiev fx-t] kXtjOtj,^ oSvvdrai, 
av he KXr}Ofj, 009 8ovXo<; irapa Kvpiw heiirvel 
jxera^v Trpoaexcov, [xi] n /icopov e'iirr) i) Tron'jcrr). /cat 
Tt SoKeL<: (f)o/3eLTai ; /ultj ixaanycoOfj co? SovXo<; ; 
TToOev avTw ovtw<; KaXoii<; ; aXV co? TrpeTrec 
T^jXiKOVTov dvSpa, K.aLaapo^; c^iXov, fiyj diro- 

49 Xear) tov rpdxv^ov- eXovov 8e ttot' drapa- 
')(^coTepov ; eyvfivd^ov Se ttotg (j')(oXaiTepov ; to 
avvoXov TTolov fiaXXov i'jOeXe^; /Slop I3louv, tov vvv 

50 7} TOV Tore ; ofioaai Svva/xai,, otl ovSel'^ outw? 
edTLV dvaiaOyfTo^ i) dvaXOij<;,^ /xt] dTrohvpaaOat 
Ta? avTOV crvfi(f)opd'^, ocro) dv f) c^iXrepo'^. 

^ Sehweighauser : i|/yx^' *5- 

2 fV a\\(f added by Reiske. ^ KArjf?;"/ repeated in S. 

* Oldfather : avaKT]ei\s S (and Scholiast).' 

^ Compare with this section the grave words of Francis 
Bacon : " Men in great place are thrice servants, servants to 
the sovereign or state, servants of fame, and servants of 


BOOK I\'. I. 46-50 

not to be liiiidercd, not to be subject to compulsion. 
Wlien, therefore, he becomes a friend of Caesar, 
has he been relieved of hindrance, reheved of com- 
pulsion, does he live securely, does he live serenely ? 
From whom shall we inquire ? What better witness 
have we than this very man who has become 
Caesar's friend ? Come into the midst and tell us. 
When did you sleep more peacefully, now or before 
you became Caesar's friend ? Immediately the 
answer comes: "Stop, I implore you by the gods, 
and do not jest at my lot ; you don't know what 1 
suffer, miserable man that 1 am ; no sleep visits me, 
but first one person comes in and then another and 
rej^orts that Caesar is already awake, and is already 
coming out; then troubles, then worries !" Come, 
when did you dine more pleasantly, now or formerly? 
Listen to him and to what he has to say on this topic. 
If he is not invited, he is hurt, and if he is invited, 
he dines like a slave at a master's table, all the time 
careful not to say or do something foolish. And what 
do you suppose he is afraid of? That he be scourged 
hke a slave ? How can he expect to get off as well 
as that? But as befits so great a man, a friend 
of Caesar, he is afraid he will lose his head. When 
did you take your bath in greater peace ? And 
when did you take your exercise at greater leisure } 
In a word, which life would you rather live, your 
present life or the old one ? I can take oath that 
no one is so insensate or so incurable as not to 
lament his misfortunes the more he is a friend of 

business, so as they have no freedom, neither in their persons, 
nor in their actions, nor in their times." Essays, " Of Great 



51 "Orai^ ovv fn^re ol jSaatAet? Xeyofievot (,(x>atv 
d)S deXoVdi fx-qd' ol (j)iXoL tcjv ^aatXeajv, rives 
€TL elalv eXevOepoi ; — Zijrei koX €vp7](7eis. €')(eL<; 
yap d(pop/xa<; irapa tP]<; cpvaecos Trpos evpeaiv tT;? 
aXrjOeias. el 8' avTOs ou^ ol6<; re el Kara ravjas 

62 yjrLXai; 7Topev6fi6vo<; evpelv to e^y<;, uKouaov irapa 
TMV e^TjrrjKOToov. Ti Xeyovaiv ; ayadov aoi 
SoKet rj iKevOepia ; — To fxeyiarov. — Aviarai ovv 
T/9 rov fxeyiarov ayadov Tvy^dvwv KUKoBai- 
ixovelv ?) KaKMS irpdaaeLv ; — Oi;. — '■ Oaovs ovv 
av Ihrjs KaKoSai/jLOVovvra^;, Svapoovvras, irev- 
OovvTa<;, diTocjiaivov Oappcov /jltj elvai eXev- 

53 depovs. — ^AirocpaLPOfiat. — Ovkovv avro fx€v covf]^ 
Koi TTpdaeo)'; Kal t?}? T0iavr7]<; ev KTijcreL Kara- 
Td^eco<; rjSr] aTTOKexcop^Kafiev. el yap 6p0MS 
oDfioXoyrjcras raura, dv re fxeyas ^aacXevs KaKo- 
haifiovf), ovfc dv eXevOepos, dv re fiLKp6<;, dv & 
vrrariKos, dv re hiaviraro^. — "Ecrrfo. 

54 "Ert ovv diroKpLval /jlol KaKelvo' SoKel aoL p,eya 
ri elvai Kal yevvalov r) eXevOepla Ka\ d^ioXoyov ; 
— Hw? yap ov ; — "l^arcv ovv rvy')(^dvovrd riva 
ovT(o<; fieydXov Kal d^toXoyov Kal yevvalov ra- 

65 rreivov elvai ; — Ovk eoriv. — "Orav ovv 'ISrjs rivd 
VTTOTTeTTrojKora erepco rj KoXaKevovra irapd ro 
(paLvo/ievov avrw, Xeye Kal rovrov dappcov /lij 
elvai eXevOepov Kal fjirj fjuovov, dv heirrvaplov 
eveKa avro ttolt}, dXXd xdv eTrap^^las eveKa Kav 
ifirareia^. dXX! eKelvovs fiev /jiLKpoSovXovs Xeye 
Tov<i fiiKpSiv rivMv eveKa ravra woiovvras, rov- 

^ The reference is to the ordinary method of acquiring 
slaves, since relatively few were ever bred. 


HOOK IV. I. 51-55 

When, therefore, neither those who are styled 
kings Hve as they will, nor the friends of these kings, 
what tree men are left ? — Seek and you will find. 
For nature has given you resources to find the truth. 
But if you are unable of yourself, by employing 
tiiese resources alone, to find the next stej), listen to 
those who have already made the search. What do 
they say ? Does freedom seem to you to be a good ? 
— Yes, the greatest. — Is it possible, then, for a man 
who has this greatest good to be unhappy, or to fare 
ill ? — No. — When, therefore, you see men unhappy, 
miserable, grieving, declare confidently that they 
are not free. — I do so declare. — Very well, then, we 
have now got away from buying and selling ^ and 
arrangements of that kind in the acquisition of 
property. For if you are right in agreeing to these 
propositions, whether it be the Great King- who 
is unhappy, or a little king, whether it be a man of 
consular rank, or one who has been a consul twice, 
he could not be free. — Granted. 

Answer me, then, this further question : Does 
freedom seem to you to be a great and noble thing, 
and precious ." — Of course. — Is it possible, then, for a 
man who achieves a thing so great and precious and 
noble, to be of abject spirit ? — It is not. — When, 
therefore, you see one man cringing before another, 
or flattering him contrary to his own opinion, say 
confidently of this man also that he is not free ; and 
tiiat not merely if he be doing so for the sake of a 
paltry meal, but even if it be for a governorship or a 
consulship. Call rather those who do these things 
for certain small ends slaves on a small scale, and 

2 That is, of Persia. 



56 T0U9 S\ CO? eialv a^toi, fjLeyaXoSovXou^;. — "Earo} 
Koi ravra. — Aok€l 8e croi i) e\ev6epia avre^ov- 
GLOV Ti elvai KoX avTovojjLnv ;— IIw? 'yap ov ; — 

'OvTiva ovv eV ciWrp KcoXvaai eari koI avay- 

57 fcdcrat, Oappoiv Xeye firj elvai eKevOepov. Kal 
pyj pboi TrdirTrov; avrov Kal irpoird'Trirov^ ^Xeire 
Kal ODvrjv ^7]T6L Kal irpaaiv, dXX' av cLKOvar,^ 
\eyovTO<; eawOev Kal €k iT(i0ov<^ " Kvpie^" kclv 
hooheKa pd/3SoL Trpodywaiv, Xiye SovXov Kav 
dfcovaj]'^ XeyovTO^ " TdXa<i eyco, ola 7racrY«," Xeye 
SovXov av d7rXa}<; diroKXaiopevov lStj's, pep^cpo- 
p,evov, hvapoovvra, Xeye SovXov 7repL7r6p(f)vpov 

58 e'X^ovra. av ovv pb'>]Sev rovrcov Troifj, pyjirro €i7Tr]<; 
eXevOepov, aXXd rd Soyp^ara avrov Kardpiade, 
pLi] ri dvayKaard, p,r) n KcoXvTiKd, pLi'j tl Svaporj- 
TiKd- Kav €vpTj<; toiovtov, Xeye SovXov dvo-^d^; 
eyovra ev %aTOvpvaXLOL^' Xeye, on 6 Kvpio<i 
avTOv diT oSrj pLel' eW r}^ei Kal yvcoar) ola Trda'^ei. 

69 — Tt9 ^^et ; — ITa? 09 av e^ovaiav €)(7j tmv vtt 
avrov Tiz'o? 6eXopL6vcov tt/oo? to rrepnTOirjaaL 
ravra rj dcfyeXeaOai. — Ovr(o<; ovv 7roXXov<; Kvpiov^ 
exopev ; — Ovrco^;. rd yap 7rpdyf.tara iTporepov<^ 
rovrcov KvpLov<; exop-ev eKelva Se iroXXd eariv. 
Sid ravra dvdyKrj Kal rov<; rovrcov nvo^ eXoi>ra<; 

60 e^ovalav KVpiov^ elvai- iirei rot ovSeU avrov rov 
Kalcrapa (po/Selrat, dXXd Odvarov, (pvyyjv, dcpal- 
peaiv rcbv ovrcor, cpvXaKijv, driplav. ovSe (ptXel 
ri<; rov Kalaapa, dv p,ij n y ttoXXov d^Lo<^, dXXd 

1 The number for a consul. 

2 The robe worn by high officials at Rome. Cf. I. 2, 18. 
' When slaves had special liberties, 


BOOK IV. I. 55-60 

the others, as they deserve, slaves on a grand scale 
— This also I grant. — And does freedom seem to you 
to be something independent and self-governing? — 
Of course. — When, therefore, it is in another's power 
to put hindrances in a man's way and subject him to 
compulsion^ say confidently that this man is not free. 
And j)lease don't look at his grandfathers and great- 
grandfathers, or look for a deed of sale or purchase, 
but if you hear him say " Master/' in the centre of his 
being and with deep emotion, call him a slave, even if 
twelve fasces ^ precede him ; and if you hear him say, 
" Alas ! What 1 must suffer ! " call him a slave ; and, in 
short, if you see him wailing, complaining, in misery, 
call him a slave in a toga praetexta.^ However, if he 
does none of these things, do not call him free yet, 
but find out what his judgements are, whether they 
are in any respect subject to compulsion, to hindrance, 
to unhappiness ; and if you find him to be that kind 
of a person, call him a slave on holiday at the 
Saturnalia ; ^ say that his master is out of town ; 
later on he will return, and then you will learn what 
the fellow suffers. — Who will return ? — Anyone 
who has control over the things which some man 
desires, to get these for him or to take them away. — 
Have we, then, so many masters } — Yes, so many. For 
even before these personal masters we have masters 
in the form of circumstances, and these are many. 
Hence, it needs must follow that those too who 
have authority over some one of these circumstances 
are our masters. Why, look you, no one is afraid of 
Caesar himself, but he is afraid of death, exile, loss of 
property, prison, disfranchisement. Nor does anyone 
love Caesar himself, unless in some way Caesar 
is a person of great merit; but we love wealth, a 



TrXouTOV (f)L\ov/n€v, 8t]/jLapyi'ai>, crrparrjyiai', vira- 
T6L(ii>. oTuv ravra (hiKoiiiev kqI fiLaco/xev kuI 
(f)o(3(oii€9a, avdyKT] rov^ i^oualav avroiv €)(ovTa<; 
Kvpiovs yjfjLoyi' elvat. Sea rouro kol co? deov'^ 
61 avTov<^ TrpoaKvvovfi€v' ivvooviiev 'yap, on to 
ff\ov i^ovaiav r/)? jieyiaT-i-j'^ o)(^e\€ia<; Oelov kariv. 
eW virordaao/iev kukm^; " ovro's 8' €^€i t/)? 
p.6yiaTi]<; ox^eXeta? ^ i^ovauav.^' dvuyfct] koX to 
yevofievov e^ aurcov eiTei>6')(^6t']vai KaKO}<;. 

02 Tt ovv earl to iroiovv ukcoXvtop tov dvO pfjoirov 
Koi avje^ovaiov ; ttXovto^ yap ov Trotel ovS" 

03 viraTela ovS' eTrap^la ovSe /SaatXeLa, dXXd Sel 
TL dXXo euj eOrjvai. tl ovv earl ro ev rw ypd(f)€tv 
d/cd)XvTOP TToiovv KOL aTTapaTToSiaTOP : — 'H iiri- 
ar/j/jLi] TOV ypd(^€iv. — Tt S' iv tw KiOapL^ecv ; — 

'II €lTLaT7]/X}] TOV KiOapi^eiV. — OvKOVP Kal €V TO) 

64 ^Lovv T) €7riaTr/jL7] TOV (3iovv. o)'^ jxev OVV aTrXw?, 
dKi^Koa^;' GKe-^ai S' avTO teal ix tmv iirl ^ 
IJLepov^. TOV e^iefjLevov tlvo<^ tcov in dXXoi<; 
ovTcov ivBe)(6Tai, aKcoXvTOv elvai ; — Oi;. — 'Ei'Se- 

65 %eTai dTraparroSiaTov ; — Oi;. — Ovkovv ovS^ iXev- 
Oepov, opa ovv iroTepov ovhev €)(^o/j,ev, o i(f)' 
7)/iLv /jl6vol<; eaTLv, rj irdvTa, i) to, fiev e^' tj/jLlv 

66 iaTLv, TO, S* eV dXXoL<; ; — FIco? X€y6i<i ; — To 
acj/xa OTav OeXrj^; 6x6/cXi]pov elvaL, iirl aoi iariv 

^ The last eleven words are here wrongly repeated in S, 
as Schenkl observed ; but he was mistaken in assuming that 
the repetition began immediately after ex^'j "wliereas it 
probably was due to the eye going back to the wrong 

2 eVj added by So. 

^ The major premiss is: "What has power to confer the 
greatest advantage is divine"; the minor premiss, as in the 

BOOK IV. I. 60-66 

tribuneship, a pr.ietorsliip, a consulship. When we 
love and hate and fear these things, it needs must 
be that those who control them are masters over us. 
That is why we even worship those persons as gods ; 
for we consider that what has power to confer the 
greatest advantage is divine. And then we lay down 
the wro'l'/j^ minor premiss : " This man has power to 
confer the greatest advantage." It needs must be 
that the conclusion from these premisses is wrong too. ^ 
What, then, is it which makes a man free from 
hindrance and his own master ? For wealth does not 
do it, nor a consulship, nor a province, nor a 
kingdom, but something else has to be found. 
What, therefore, is it which makes a man free 
from hindrance and restraint in writing ? — The 
knowledge of how to write. — And what in play- 
ing on the harp ? — The knowledge of how to 
play on the harp. — So also in living, it is the know- 
ledge of how to live. Now you have already 
heard this, as a general principle, but consider it also 
in its jiarticular applications. Is it possible for the 
man who is aiming at some one of these things 
which are under the control of others to be free 
from hindrance ? — No. — Is it possible for him to be 
free from restraint? — No. — Therefore, it is not 
possible for him to be free, either. Consider then : 
Have we nothing which is under our own exclusive 
control, or is everything in that state ; or are some 
things under our control and others under the 
control of others ? — How do you mean.^ — When you 
want your body to be whole, is the matter under 

text ; from which follows the conclusion : "Therefore, this 
man is divine," which is wrong because of the false minor 



y ov ; — Ot'/c eV ifjLOi. — -Orav 8' vyiaiveiv ; — 
Ovhe TOVTO. — ^'OTai^ Be fcdXbv eivai ; — Ovhe 
rovTO. — 'APju Be Kal cnroOavelv ; — Ouoe rovro. — 
OvKovv TO fiev (TMjjia aWorpLov, virevOvvov Tvav- 

07 T09 Tov la')(yporepov. — ' \\(Tr(i). — To/' aypov K eVt 
(joi eajLv t';^6/t', orav OeXy<i koI €</)' oao^' OeXec^ 
Kal olov 6e\€i,<; ; — Oi;. — Va he BovXapia / — Ou. — 
To. 8' i/jLUTia ; — Oi;. — To Be olkLBlov ; — Oi;. — 
Tov? 8' L7r7rov<; ; — Tourwz^ fiev ovBev. — ^Av Be ra 
re/cva aou t^rjv 6e\r}<; e^ liiravTO^ // rr/i; '^vvaiKa 
T} TOV ciBeXcpov 7] TOu<; ^iXoi/?, eirl aoi iariv ; — 
OvBe ravra. 

68 l[6Tepoi> ovv ovBev e')(ei<^ avre^ovaLor, o eirl 
fMovw i(J7\ aoi, rj 6)(ei'^ ri roLOvrov ; — Ovk olBa. 

09 — -'Opa ovv ovTco^i kol (TKey\raL avro. /Jtr] ri<i 
Bvi'araL ae Tronjaat (TvyfcaraOeaOaL T(p yjrevBeL ; 
— OuSet?. — OvKOvv ip fiev rco auyKaraOerLKM 
TOTTft) aK(t)\vT0<^ el Kal avefJuroBiaTO^;. — -"EcrTCt). — 

70 "Ay^, opfiijaac Be ae icf)' o firj OeXet-^ rt? Bvvarai 
diayKaaac ; — bvvarai. orav yap puoi Odvarov 
?) Beafia dTrecXfj, dvayKa^ei /x opfiriaaL. — ■"Az^ 
ovi> Kara(f)poi>ij<; rou (iTToOarelv Kal tov BeBeaOai, 

71 tTi avTOv eTTLaTpec^T] ; — Ov. — ^ov ovv eaTLv 
epyou TO KaTacppovetv OavuTov rj ov aov ; — 'E/xoi'. 
• — ^ov dpa iaTL Kal to opfirjaai ?) ov ; — -"EcrTft) 
e^jLov. — To 8' d(j)opfxP}aaL Ttvo<i ; aov Kal tovto. — 

72 Tt ovv, dv ifJLov opfjii'jaavTO^ irepLTraTijaai eKeiv6<i 
jxe KcoXvat} ; — II aov KcoXvaei ; /j-y tl ttjv 
avyKaTdOeaLv . — Ou' dXXd to acofiaTLOv. — Nat, 
6i)? XiOov. — "Eo TO)' dXX! ovKeTi iyco TrepnraTM. — 


BOOK IV. I. 66-72 

your control, or not ? — It is not. — And when you 
want it to be well t — Nor that, either. — And to live 
or to die .^ — Nor that, either. — Therefore, your body 
is not your own possession, it is subject to everyone 
who is stronger than you are. — Granted. — -And your 
farm, is it under your control to have it when you 
want, and as long as you want; and in tlie condition 
that you want ? — No. — And your i)altry slaves ? — No. 
— And your clothes? — No. — And your paltry house? 
— No. — And your horses ? — None of these things.— 
And if you wish by all means your children to live, 
or your wife, or your brother, or your friends, is the 
matter under your control ? — No, nor that, either. 

Have you, then, nothing subject to your authority, 
which is under your control and yours only, or do you 
have something of that sort ? — I do not know. — 
Look, then, at the matter this way, and consider it. 
No one can make you assent to what is false, can he ? 
— No one. — Well, then, in the region of assent you 
are free from hindrance and restraint. — Granted. — 
Come, can anyone force you to choose something 
that you do not want? — He can; for when he 
threatens me with death or bonds, he compels me 
to choose. — If, however, you despise death and bonds, 
do you pay any further heed to him r — No. — Is it, 
then, an act of your own to despise death, or is it 
not your own act ? — It is mine. — So it is your own 
act to choose, or is it not?— Granted that it is mine. 
— And to refuse something ? This also is yours. — 
Yes, but suppose I choose to go for a walk and the 
other person hinders me ? — What part of you will 
he hinder? Surely not your assent? — No; but my 
})()or body. — Yes, as he would a stone. — Granted 
that, but I do not proceed to take my walk. — But 



73 Tt9 8e croi elirev " to 7r€pi7raT))aaL crov epyov 
earlv ciKOikvrov^^ ; iyco yap e/ceivo eXeyov ukcoXv- 
rov fiovov TO opfirjaar ottov Se ao)fJLaTO<i %pem 
KOL T?}? €K. Tourou (jvvepyeia<^, irdXai dK)JKoa<i, 

74 OTL ovhev eaTL gov. — "Ecrrro Ka\ TavTa. — ^Ope- 
yeadai he ere ov fir] OeXei^ ti<; dvayKciaai, hvva- 
Tat, ; — 01)^6^. — TlpoOeaOai 5' 7) enL^aXeaOat t^? 
r/ ttTrXco? ')(p?]a6aL rat? 7rpoa7ri7rTOvaaL<; (pav- 

75 Ta(jiaL<^ ; — Ovhe tovto' dXXd opeyopevov pie 
KcoXuaei TV^eiV ov opeyopiai. — '■ Av TOiv acov TLp6<i 
opeyr) koI tmv dK(oXvTwv, iroj^; ere KcoXvaei ; — 
OvhapLO)^. — Tt9 ovv (TOL Xeyet, oti 6 tcov dXXo- 
Tpiwv opeyopievo^ dKcoXvTO^ iaTLV ; 

76 "Tyeia<; ovv pLt) opeywpLai ; — M^/Sa/zw?, piT]K 
11 aXXov dXXoTpLOV pLijhevo^. o yap ovk e<JTiv eiri 

aol TTapaaKevdaat 1) rriprjaai 6t€ 6€X€i<;, tovto 
dXXoTpiov eaTiv. pLafcpdv dir avTov ov pLovov 
ra? ')(elpa<^, dXXd ttoXv irpoTepov Tr]v ope^iv el 
Be pui], 7rapeBcoKa<i aavTOv BovXov, v7r€dr]Ka<; tov 
Tpd-xrjXov, Ti ^ dv OavpLaarj^; tmv pur] acov, w tlvl 

78 dv TCdv virevOvvoiv Kal OvyjToyv iTpoaTra6f)<s. — 'H 
X^'-P OVK eaTLV €pL7] ; — Meyoo? eVrl aov, (pvaec Be 
infXo^y KcoXvTov, dvayxaaTov, BovXov vrai^TO? tov 

79 laxypoTepov. Kal t'l ctol Xeyw %ei/)a ; oXov to 
aOipia OL/Tco? e)(eLV ae Bel 009 ovdpiov eiriaeaay- 
pievov, €</)' oaov dv olov re 77, e(p^ ocrov dv BiBcoTac 
dv B^ dyyapela 7} Kal <JTpaTL(j)T7]<^ enriXd^rjTai, 
a^e?, p,7] dvTLTeive pi,7]B6 yoyyv^e. el Be pa'}, 
irXviyd^ Xa^MV ovcev yjttov uTToXelf; Kal to ovd- 

^ 8 T« added by Elter : rpaxriKov, h.v Oav/j.d(X7]s rwv r'i (later 
erased) jxii S. 


BOOK IV. I. 73-79 

who told you, "It is your own act to take a walk 
uiiiiindcred " ? As for me, I told y<Ju that the only 
unhindered thinir was the desire ; but wliere there is 
a use of the body and its co-operation, you have heard 
long ago that nothing is your own. — Granted that 
also. — Can anyone force you to desire what you do 
not want.^ — No one.— Or to purpose or plan, or, in a 
word, to deal with the impressions that come to 
you ? — No, nor that, either ; but he will hinder me, 
when I set my desire upon something, from achieving 
what I desire. — If you desire something which is your 
own and not subject to hindrance, how will he hinder 
you .'' — Not at all. — Who, then, tells you that the 
man who sets his desire upon what is not his own is 
free from hindrance ? 

Shall I not, then, set my desire on health ? — No, 
not at all, nor on anything else which is not your 
own. For that which is not in your power to 
acquire or to keep is none of yours. Keep far away 
from it not merely your hands, but above all your 
desire ; otherwise, you have delivered yourself into 
slavery, you have bowed your neck to the burden, if 
you admire anything that is not your own, if you 
conceive a violent passion for anything that is in 
subjection to another and mortal. — Is not my hand 
my own ? — It is a part of you, but by nature it is 
clay, subject to hindrance and compulsion, a slave to 
everything that is stronger than you are. And why 
do I name you the hand .- You ought to treat your 
whole body like a })oor loaded-down donkey, as long 
as it is possible, as long as it is allowed ; and if it be 
commandeered and a soldier lay hold of it, let it go, 
do not resist nor grumble. If you do, you will get 
a beating and lose your little donkey just the same. 



80 piov. orav he tt/jo? to acofia ovrax; ex^^^ ere herj, 
Spa, TL aTToXeLTreraL irepl ra aWa, oaa tov 
a(OfjLaT0<; eveKa irapaaKevd^erai. orav eKelvo 
ovcipLOV fi, raWa yLverat ')(a\ivdpLa tov ovapiov, 
aay/iuTta, v7ToS)]/jLdTLa, KpiOal, ;}^o/)to9. a^e<? 
KUKelva, uTToXve Oclttov koX evKoXcoTcpov i) to 

81 Kat TavTifv Tr)V TrapaaKevijv 7rapaaK€vaau/jL€P0<i 
KOi TrjV daKYjaLV daKi]aa<=; ra dWoTpia arro tcov 
IBlcov SiafcpLveiv, to, fccoXvTa diro t(dv u/ccoXvtcov, 
TavTa Trpo<; cravTov rjyeLaOai, eKelva fir) 7Tp6<i 
aavToVy evTavOa €7naTp6(f)Q)<; e')(eiv ttjv ope^iv, 
evTavOa ttjv €K/c\iaiv, fir] tl €TL (^o^fi tlvu ; — 

82 OvBii'a. — Uepl rtVo? yap (f)o/3>j(T7} ; irepl tmi' 
aeavTuv, oirov aov rj ovaia tov dyaOov Kal tov 
fcaKov ; Kal tl<; tovtcov e^ovaiav 6%et ; rt? dc^e- 
XeaOai avTa hvvaTai, rt? efjurohiaai ; ov /xaXkov 

83 rj TOP Oeov. aXX' vTrep tov acouaTO^ Kal r/}? 
KT7]creco^ ; virep tcov dWoTpiwv ; virep tmv ovhev 
7^/)o^ ae ; Kal tl dWo i^ dp')(^P]<; eyLteXera? ?) Sia- 
Kpiveiv Ta ad Kal ov ad, Ta ivrl aol Kal ovk eVt 
aoL, Ta KcoXvTa Kal uKcoXvTa ; tivo^ he eveKa 
7TpoarjX6e<; roi? (f)iXoau(f)Oi<; ; 'iva /jbrjheu ^ttov 

84 aTi';^^^ Kal hvaTVxf)<i ; ovk ovv ^ d(})0^o<; /jl6i> ol/tw? 
east Kal dTdpaxo<;. Xi/Tr?} he tl irpu^ ai ; 6)v 

^ Elter : oviiovv S. 

BOOK IV. I. 79 84 

But wlien this is tiie way in which you sliould act as 
regards the body, consider what is left for you to do 
about all the other things that are provided for the 
sake of the body. Since the body is a little donkey, 
the other things become little bridles for a little 
donkey, little pack-saddles, little shoes, and barley, 
and fodder. Let them go too, get rid of them more 
quickly and cheerfully than of the little donkey itself. 
Once prepared and trained in this fashion to 
distinguish what is not your own from what is your 
own possession, the things which are subject to 
hindrance from those which are free from it, to 
regard these latter as your concern, and the former 
as no concern of yours, diligently to keep your 
desire fixed on the latter, and your aversion directed 
toward the former, then have you any longer any- 
one to fear .^ — No one. — Of course ; what is there to 
be fearful about .^ About the things that are your 
own, wherein is the true nature of good and evil for 
you ? And who has authority over these ? Who 
can take them away, who can hinder them, any 
more than one can hinder God ? But shall you be 
fearful about your body and your property ? About 
the things that are not your own ? About the 
things that are nothing to you ? And what else 
have you been studying, from the very outset, but 
how to discriminate between what is your own and 
what is not your own, what is under your control 
and what is not under your control, what is subject 
to hindrance and what is free from it .'' For what 
purpose did you go to the philosophers ? That you 
might no less than before be unfortunate and 
miserable.'' You will not, then, in that case, be free 
from fear and perturbation. And what has pain to 



yap TTpoahoKcofxevoiv (f)6^o<;, yiverai ^ Kal XvTrrj 
irapovTcov. €7rL0u/jLr]a€i<; 5e rLvo<i en ; rwv fiev 
yap 7J- poaiperiKcov are kuXmv ovtcov kuI irdpovTcov 
av/jL/xerpov e^^i^ kcu KaOidTafiev^jv rrjv ope^iv, 
TOiv 8' air p oat per ay V ovBevo^; opeyr), Iva Kal tottov 
^XV '^^ aXoyov eKelvo Kal axriLKOv Kal irapd ra 
fjuerpa '))irei'yfievov. 

85 "Orav ovv iTpo<; ra 7rp(iyp.ara out(o<; €XV'i> Tt? €ti 
avdpwKo^ hyvarat (po^epo^ elvai ; ri yap e^et 
di'OpcoTTO^ avOpoiiTW (^o(3epov r) 6(b6el<; r) \a\7Jaa<; 
rj 6\w<^ Gvvavaarpacjyei^ ; ov f^dWov tj Xiriro^ 
tTTTTft) ?} KV03V Kwl Tj jxk\iGcra piekLaar). dWa ra 
irpdyfiara eKaarw (fyo/Sepd iariv' ravra S' orav 
TrepLTTOielv tl<; hvvi^jal tlvl rj dcpeXeaOai, rore koI 
avTo<; (fyo/Sepo'^ yuveraL. 

86 TIw? ovp dKp67ro\i<; KaraXverai ; ov acByjpM 
ov8e TTvpi, dWd BojfiaaLV. dv yap rrjv ovaav iv 
rfj TToXet Kadekwjjiev, fiyj tl Kal rrjv rov TTvperov, 
firj ri Kal rrjV twv KaXcov yvvaiKapCwv, fit] tl 
a7r\&)9 Trjv iv tj/jLLV aKpoiroiXiv Kal tov<^ ev r^pblv 
Tvpdvvov^ d7To^€/3\7]Ka/ji€v, ov<; €(/)' eKaaTOi^i Ka6^ 
r]fjLepav e^o/xei^, irore /jL€v tou? avrov^, Trore 5' 

87 dXXov<; ; dXX' evOev dp^aaOaL Bel Kal evOev 
KaOeXelv rrjv aKpoTToXiv, eK^dXXetv tol'9 rvpdv- 
vov<i' TO acofxaTLOv d(f)€tvai, Ta fiepr] avTOv, ra? 

* The punctuation is by Capps ; (p6&os yivirai, Kai is 
the ordinary reading. 

^ Probably a reference to some proverb, or well-known 
saying, like that of Alcaeus, " Valiant men are the tower of 
a city" (Smyth, Grrrk Mclir, Poets, frag. 15). — The citadel is 
the keep, or tower, from which a tyrant is represented as 
overawing a city. 


BOOK IV. I. 84-87 

do with you ? For fear of thinf^s anticipated he- 
comes pain when these things are present. And 
what will you any longer passionately seek ? For 
you possess a harmonious and regulated desire for 
the things that are witliin the sphere of the moral 
purpose, as being excellent, and as being within your 
reach ; and you desire nothing outside the sphere 
of the moral purpose, so as to give place to that 
other element of unreason, which pushes you along 
and is impetuous beyond all measure. 

Now when you face things in this fashion, what 
man can inspire fear in you any longer ? For what 
has one human being about him that is calculated to 
inspire fear in another human being, in either his 
appearance, or conversation, or intercourse in general, 
any more than one horse, or dog, or bee inspires fear 
in another horse, or dog, or bee ? Nay, it is thing.<; 
that inspire man with fear ; and when one person 
is able to secure them for another, or to take them 
away, then he becomes capable of inspiring fear. 

How, then, is a citadel destroyed ? ^ Not by iron, 
nor by fire, but by judgements. For if we capture 
the citadel in the city, have we captured the citadel 
of fever also, have we captured that of pretty wenches 
also, in a word, the acropolis within us, and have we 
cast out the tyrants within us, whom we have lord- 
ing it over each of us- every day, sometimes the 
same tyrants, and sometimes others ? But here is 
where we must begin, and it is from this side that we 
must seize the acropolis and cast out the tyrants ; we 
must yield up the paltry body, its members, the 

' So Schweighjiuser ; but there is some uncertainty about 
the meaning of er^' kKatrrois, which Rchegk, Wolf, and Upton 
take to refer to matters, or affairs [irpayfiaTa, as in § 85). 



Bviuifi€i(;, ri)v fCTf](Tii', Trji> cj)/j/^7}i', dp)(^(i^, ri/bLd<i, 
T€Kva, dBe\(f)OV'^, <J)l\ov(;, iravra ravra y'jyjjaaaOai 

S^ dWorpia. kclv evOev iK/BXijOcoaLv oi rvpavvoi, ri 
en dnoreix^^f^ ryv dtcpoiroXiv ifiou ye eveKa ; 
earCocra yap tl /jloi iroiel ; tl en eV/SaXXco toi)? 
Sopv(j)6pov(; ; ttov yap avrayv aladdvo/nai ; err 
aWov^ e^ovaiv Ta<=i pdfiBov<; kol tou? fcovrov<i Ka\ 

89 rd<; /xa;^at/3as". eyco S' ovircoTror ovre OeXcov 
ifccoXijOijv out' 7)i'ayKda07]v /xt) OeXwv. Kal ttw? 
TOVTO ZvvaTov ; TTpocr/caraTeTaxd jjlov Trjv opfxrjv 
Tft) Oew. Oekei fi eicelvo^ TTvpeaaeiv Kdyo) 
OeXo). deXet, oppidv eirl rr Kayco OeXdu OeXet 
opeyeaOat' Kdyco deXco. ^eXeL fie rv)^eLP nv6<;' 

00 Kuyoi ^ovXo/xai. ov OeXec ov ^ovXopai. diro- 
Oavelv ovv OeXw arpe^XwOrjvai ovv OeXw. rt? 
en /uL€ fccoXvaai SvvaraL irapd to efiol (paivofievov 
rj dvayKaaai ; ov /idXXov ?) top Ata. 

91 OuTO)? rroLovcn kol tmv oSoiTTopcov oi da(f)a- 
Xearepoi. dfCijKoev on X-pareverai rj 63o9" fji6vo<; 
ov roXfid KaOelvai, dX\a irepLepLeivev avvohiav 7] 
Trpea/SevTOv i) ra/xlov rj dvOvirdrov Kal irpoa- 

^ The metaphor in this passage is complicated. I take it 
to mean, using wealth as a convenient example, something 
like this: The tyrant is a false judgement [Zoyjxa) about 
wealth ; the acropolis and the bodyguard are wealth itself, 
which is dangerous only so long as the false judgement pre- 
vails. Once that is overthrown, actual wealth itself need 
not be destroyed, at least for the man who is freed from the 
false judgement about it, because wealth as such has no 
longer any power over him. Other people may be menaced 
by it, but every man has a ready means of defence, which is 
to secure a correct judgpinent about the tiling itself. Many 
matters or affairs (7r/)a7/xoTa) like death and disease cannot, 


BOOK IV. I. 87-91 

faculties, property, reputation, offices, honours, 
children, brotliers, friends — count all these things 
as alien to us. And if the tyrants he thrown out of 
the spot, why should I any longer raze the fortifica- 
tions of the citadel, on my own account, at least? 
For what harm does it do me by standing ? Why 
should I go on and throw out the tyrant's body- 
guard ? For where do I feel them ? Their rods, 
their spears, and their swords they are directing 
against otliers. But I have never been hindered in 
the exercise of my will, nor have I ever been sub- 
jected to compulsion against my will.^ And how 
is this possible ? I have submitted my freedom of 
choice unto God. He wills that I shall have fever ; 
it is my will too. He wills that I should choose 
something ; it is my will too. He wills that I 
should desire something ; it is my will too. He 
wills that I should get something ; it is my wish 
too. He does not will it ; I do not wish it. There- 
fore, it is ray will to die ; therefore, it is my will to 
be tortured on the rack. Who can hinder me 
any longer against my own views, or put com- 
pulsion upon me ? That is no more possible in my 
case than it would be with Zeus. 

This is the wav also with the more cautious 
among travellers. A man has heard that the road 
which he is taking is infested with robbers ; he does 
not venture to set forth alone, but he waits for a 
company, either that of an ambassador, or of a 
quaestor, or of a proconsul, and when he has attached 

in any event, be destroyed. It is vain labour to try to 
destroy the things themselves, when it is only the false judge- 
ments' that are dangerous, and these any man can himself 



92 /caraTafa? eavrov Trapep'^^erat da(f)aX(o<;. ovtco<^ 
KoX iv ra> Koafxo) iroicl 6 (Pp6i>i/io<;. " iroXXa 
Xyarypia, rvpavvoL, ;^e//xa)re?, airopLaL, airo^oXai 

93 tQ)i> (f)iXr(LTcov. ttov rL<; Kara<^vyr} ; ttw? aX77crTeL'- 
T0-? irapeXOrj ; iroiav avvohiav TrepijJLeiva^ dcrcfya- 

94 X(b<; SieXOrj ; tivl it poa KaTaTd^a<^ eavrov ; tm 
helvL, Tco irXovaiw, tm vTvarLKO) ; fcal tl /jlol 
ocpeXof; ; avTo<; eKSverai, olfiwl^et, irevOel. tl B\ 
av 6 avvohonr6po<i avro^ eV 6/ze arpac^el^ Xr)aTi]<^ 

95 fiov yeviirat ; tl Trocjjaco ; <^tXo9 eao/iai K^alaa- 
po?* €K€Lvov /Ji€ ovTU eTolpov ovhel^ dhiKrjo-eL. 
irpMTOv fjL€v, Iva yevco/jiai, iroaa ^ /xe BeX TXrjvai 
KOi iraOelv, 7roadKL<; Kal v-tto iroawv XyjaTevOPjvat' 

96 cItu idp yevcofiai, Kal ovto<; 6vt]t6<; iaTiv.^ dv 
5' avTO<; 6K Tivo<i rreptaTdaew^; eyfip6<; [xov jevy-jTai, 
dva-^wprjaaL ttov iroTe Kpelaaov ; et? eprj/xlav ; 

97 dye, CKel Trfpero? ovk epxeTai ; tl ovv yev^iTai ; 
ovK eaTLv evpelv dcr(paXri avvohov, ttigtov, i(T}^v- 

98 pov, dveiTi^ovXevTov ; " ovtco<; icpLa-TTjatv fcal 
Ivvoel, OTL, idv tw 6ew irpoa KaTaTd^rj kavTov, 
hieXevaeTai d<j(^aX(i)<;. 

99 Ilw? Xey€L<; irpoaKaTaTd^aL ; — "\v\ o dv 
€Kelvo<^ OeXrj, Kal avTO^ OeXr], Kal o dv iK6Lvo<; fjir) 

100 OeXrj, TOVTO /jltjS' avTO^; OeXr}. — ITo)? ovv tovto 
yevrjTai ; — IIw? yap dXXa)<; i) €7riaK€yjfafi€V(p Td<; 
opfid^ Tov Oeov Kal tt]v SLOLKrjatv ; tl fiOL BeScoK€v 
ifiov Kal avTe^ovatov, tl avTW KaTektrrev ; rd 

1 Schenkl : irpSaa S. 

^ After this word S repeats «ol olros dfrjrSs. 


r^ooK IV. I. 91-100 

himself to them he travels along the road in safety. 
So in this world the wise man acts. Says he to 
himself: ''There are many robber-bands^ tyrants, 
storms, difliculties, losses of what is most dear. 
Where shall a man flee for refuge? How shall he 
travel secure against robbery } What company shall 
he wait for that he may pass througli in safety .'* To 
whom shall he attach himself? To So-and-so, the 
rich man, or the proconsul ? And what is the good 
of that ? He himself is stripped, groans, sorrows. 
Yes, and what if my fellow-traveller himself turn 
upon mie and rob me ? What shall I do ? I will 
become a friend of Caesar ; no one will wrong me if 
I am a companion of his. But, in the first place, 
the number of things I must suffer and endure in 
order to become his friend ! and the number of 
times, and the number of persons by whom I must 
first be robbed ! And then, even if 1 do become his 
friend, he too is mortal. And if some circumstance 
lead him to become my enemy, where indeed had I 
better retire ? To a wilderness ? VVliat, does not 
fever go there ? What, then, is to become of me ? 
Is it impossible to find a fellow-traveller who is safe, 
faithful, strong, free from the suspicion of treachery ? " 
Thus he reflects and comes to the thought that, if 
he attach himself to God, he will pass through the 
world in safety. 

How do you mean '^attach himself" ? — Why, so that 
whatever God w ills, he also wills, and whatever God 
does not will, this he also does not will. — How, then, 
can this be done ? — Why, how else than by observing 
the choices of God and His governance ? What has 
He given me for my own and subject to my authority, 
and what has He left for Himself.'' Everything 



irpoaLpeTLKd /xoi SeBcoKev, eV ifiol TreTroirjKev, 
ave/^TroStara, uKMXvra. to ao)/j.a ro TrtjXivov 
TTco? ihvvaro (\kco\vtov TronjcraL ; vrre-Ta^ev ovv rfj 
Tcov 6\(ov irepiohw, rrjv kt)](TLi>, to. crK€vr], r-qv 

101 OLKiav, TO, reKva, Tr]V yvvacKa. ri ovv Oeofia- 
'^co ; ri 6e\w ra /jLtj OeXrjTa, ra fir) SoOevra fxoi 
e^ a7ravro<; exetv ; dWa ttw? ; w? SeSorac 
Kal e(^' Dcrov Svvarai,.^ aX-V o Sou? dcpaipelrai. 
TL ovv dvTCT€LV(o ,' ov Xc^ci), OTL 7)\iOto<; eaofiac 
Tov la^vporepov (Sia^ofievo^, a\V eri, irporepov 

102 aS^Aco?. iroOev yap e')(^oyv avrd rfkOov ; 6 Trary^p 
fjbov avrd eScoKev. eKeivco he rt? ; tov rjXiov he 
Ti<; 7r€7roL7jK€, rov<; fcap7rov<; Be rt?, rd^; 8' o)pa<; 
Tt?, rrjV he tt^o? dWr}\ov<; (TVfJLirXoKrjv Kal koivco- 
viav Tt? ; 

103 EZra (TVfxiTavTa elXi)(^d><; nap dXXov Kal avrov 
aeavTov, dyavaK-rels Kal pbefK^r] tov hovTa, dv aov 

104 Tt d<peX7]Tai ; rt? o)v Kal eVt tl €X7]XvO(t)<; ; ovxl 
eKelvo^ ae elatjyayev ; ov)(l to ^w? eKelvo<; aoi 
ehei^ev ; ov crvvepyov<; hehcoKev ; ov Kal ala6i]aeL<^ ; 
ov Xoyov ; o)? Ti'va he elcryyayev ; oi)% o)? OvifTov ; 
ov)( CO? yLtera oXlyov aapKihlov ^t](70VTa eirl yri<; 
Kal deaao/xevov tvjv hioLKijcriv avTOV Kal av/nTro/ju- 
irevaovTa avTw Kal crvveopTaaovTa 7rpo<; oXiyov ; 

' Se'SoTtti .s. But cf. explanatory note. 

^ Very similar is the phrase itp" uaov tiv oJ6u re ^ in § 79 

2 As Job i. 21 : " The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken 

3 That is, God. 


BOOK IV. I. 100-104 

within the sphere of the moral pur])Ose He has ^iven 
me, subjected tliem to my control, uniiampered and 
unhindered. My body tliat is made of clay^ how 
could He make that unhindered? Accordingly He 
lias made it subject to the revolution of the universe — 
my property, my furniture, my house, my children, 
my wife. Why, then, shall 1 strive against God r 
Why shall I will what is not in the province of the 
will, to keep under all circumstances what has not 
been given me outright ? 13ut how should I keep 
them? In accordance with the terms upon whicli 
they have been given, and for as long as they can be 
given. ^ But He who gave also takes away.^ Why, then, 
shall I resist ? I do not say that I shall be a fool for 
trying to use force u})on one who is stronger than I am, 
but before that I shall be wicked. For where did 1 
get these things when I came into the world ? My 
father gave them to me. And who gave them to 
him? Who has made the sun, who the fruits, who 
the seasons, who the union and fellowship of men 
one with another ? 

And so, when you have received everything, and 
your very self, from Another,^ do you yet complain 
and blame the Giver, if He take something away 
from you ? Who are you, and for what purpose 
have you come? Did not He bring you into the 
world ? Did not He show you the light ? Did not 
He give you fellow-workers ? Did not He give 
you senses also and reason ? And as what did He 
bring you into the world ? Was it not as a mortal 
being ? Was it not as one destined to live upon 
earth with a little portion of paltry flesh, and for a 
little while to be a sj)ectator of flis governance, and 
to join with Him in His pageant and holiday? Are 



105 ou Oe\€i<; ovv, eo)? hehorai aoi, 6eaadfJL6vo<; ryv 
7ro/jL7T7)v Kal TT]i' TTavj'jyvpLv ecra, orav a l^uyy, 
TTOpeveaOaL irpoaKwi'iaa^ Kal evxcipi'(TTi]aa<i virep 
MV i'-jKovaa's /cat el^e^ ; " ov' d\X' en eoprd^eiv 

lOQy'jdeXov" Kal yap oi pvarat, fivelaOai, Td)(a Kal 
01 iu 'OXvpLiria dXXov^ a^X^/ra^ (BXeireLV dXkd t) 
iravi'j'yvpL^ 7T6pa<; eY^*" e^eX^e, diraWd'yrjOL co? 
€vxdpi<no<;, (o? alSij^icoi" So? d\\oi<; tottov Set 
yeveaOai Kal dWov^, KaOdirep Kal av iyevov, Kal 
yevofxevov^i t^eiv ')(d)pav Kal OLKi'jaeLf;, rd eTTLTi'jheia. 
dp 3' ol irpdiToi pLJ] v7re^dy(i)(TLV, rl VTroXeiireraL ; 
ri dirXrja-TO^; el ; ri dvLKavo^ ; tl (JTevo)(^(t)pel<; 
Tov KOdixov ; 

107 Nar dXXd rd TSKvia fier ipavrov elvai deXw Kal 
rrjv yvvalKa. — Sa ydp iariv ; ou)(l rov S6i'to<^ ; 
ov)(l Kal rod ere 7Tt7roL'>]K6ro<; ; elra ovk eKarijat] 
TOiv dXXoTpLwv ; ov 7rapa)((op7]a€L<^ rw KpeiaaovL ; 

108 — Tt ovv fx elarjyev eirl Tovroc<; ; — Kat et yu?) 
iroLel aoLy e^eXOe' ovk ex^t^ XP^^^^ Oearov fiefiyjn- 
fjLoipov. Twv avveopja^ovTcov Setrai, ro)v avyxo- 
pevovTwv, 'iv eiTLKpoTOiai fidXXov, eTTLOetd^coaiv, 

109 vpLVcoat Se tijv Travi^yvpLV. tou? draXaLTraypov^ ^ 
Be Kal Set/Vou? ovk di)h(h<s o^erai diroXeXeL/ji/jLevov^; 
ri)^ TraP'iyvpecofi' ovSe ydp 7rap6vT€<i &>? ev eoprfj 
hirjyov ovB' e^cTrXypovv ttjv %cu^az^ ryv irpeirovaav, 

dXX' CdSwCOVTO, €p.6fl(f)0VT0 TOP halpLOVa, T7]P 

TvxV^'y Tou? avvopra'^' dpaiaOrjroL Kal ojp ervxop 
^ Schweighauser : raXanrwpovs S. 

* Or possibly, " He does not suit you," as Capps suggests. 

BOOK IV. I. 105-109 

you not willing, then, for so long as has been given 
you, to be a spectator of Kis pageant and His 
festival, and then when He leads you forth, to go, 
after you have made obeisance and returned thanks 
for what you have heard and seen ? '• No," you say, 
" but I wanted to go on with the hohday." Yes, 
and so do the initiates in the mysteries want to go 
on with the initiation, and no duubt the spectators 
at Olympia want to see still other athletes; but the 
festival has come to an end ; leave, depart as a 
grateful and reverent spectator departs ; make room 
for others ; yet others must be born, even as you 
were born, and once born they must have land, and 
houses, and provisions. But if the first-comers do 
not move along, what is left for those who follow 
after ? Why are you insatiate ? Why never satisfied ? 
Why do you crowd the world .' 

'^ es, but I want my little children and my wife to 
be with me. — Are they yours? Do they not belong 
to Him who gave them? To Him who made your 
Will you not, therefore, give up what is not your 
own? Will you not yield to your superior? — Why, 
then, did He bring me into the world on these 
conditions ? — And if they do ^ not suit you, leave ; 
God has no need of a fault-finding spectator. He 
needs those who join in the holiday and the dance, 
that they may applaud rather, and gloiifv, and sing- 
hymns of praise about the festival. But the peevish 
and the cowardly He will not be distressed to see 
left out of the festival ; for when they were present 
they did not act as though they were on a holiday, 
nor did they fill the proper role ; but they were dis- 
tressed, found fault with the Deity, with fate, and 
with the company ; insensible to what had been 



fcal Tcbu eavTMv Suiui/xecop, a? elXfjcj^aat, Trpo? ra 
evairla, fi6'y<i\o\lrv)(ia^, yein'ai6Tt]ro<;, dpSpeia<;, 

110 avT)]^ tt}? pvp ^j]rou/j,ev)]<; eKevOepia^;. — 'EttI tl 
ovr eJ'X^^^a ravra ; — \p)]a6fi€vo(;. — Ale^/ot tlvo<; ; 
— yie)(pi<^ av 6 ')(pj]aa<; OeXrj. — *Ai^ ovv dvayKalu 
fiOL 7j ; — M^ irpoaTTaa-xe avrol^ Kal ov/c eaTai. 
cru avrd avrSi /j,t] 6i7rrj<; dpayKala Kal ovk earLV. 

111 liavTriv TTjv fieXeTTjv ecoOei' eZ? eairepav fiekerav 
eSei. diTO Tojv fJUKpoTuTdiv, diTo TOiv eveirrjpeaa- 
TOTuTcov ap^d/j.epo<^, ciTTo yjuTpa^, airo ttoti)- 
pioVy eiO^ ovTco<; iirl ^(^LTwvdpiov irpoaeXOe, eVt 
Kvvdpiop, €7tI iTTTrdpLOP, €7rl dypihiov evOev eirl 
aavTov, TO acj/ia, rd pLeprj rod aoo/jLaro^, rd rsKva, 

l\2 rrjv yvval/ca, rov<; aSeX,0ou9. iravTa\ov irepL- 
/SXe-v/ra? aTroppiyjrop diro aeavrov' KuO^ipov rd 
huy/xara, fiyj re TrpocrypTfjTal aot rwv ov acov, jj,rj 

TL (TU/jL7Te(f)U/C€P, fJH] TL 6SvVi]Cr€L CF^ dTTOaTrdy/jLePOl'. 

113 /cat \ey€ yv/jLi'a^6/ji€P0<; KaO' rj/xepap, &)? eKci, fiy 
OTi 4>L\o(JO(f)el<; (ecrrco cpopTLKOP to opofia), dXX 
OTL KapiTLaTrjP hihoi^' tovto yap iaTLP i) Tal^ 

Hi dX7]d€Lai,<; eXeudepia. TavTTjp i-jXevOepcjiOr] Ato- 
yipi)<^ Trap* WpTLaOepovt; Kal ovKeTL €(/)>/ KaraSov- 

l\5Xcodi]i'aL SvpaaOuL vn ovhepo^;. Bid tovto tt&j? 
edXo), TTco? TOi? 7r€LpaTaL<; i)(^pfJTO' /xy] tl KupLOP 

^ It is tempting to conjecture KapTnar^iav, "making pro- 
vision for your emancipation/' since every man must win his 
own freedom for himself. But Epictetus probably is think- 
ing here of a man being won to freedom b}' following some 
great philosopher, mIio is his emancipator, as in the famous 
illustration in the next sentence. It is interesting to observe 
how, with all its insistence upon individual responsibility, 
even Stoicism at this time was becoming a religion of books, 
examples, and saviours. 


BOOK IV. I. 109-115 

vouchsafed them, and to their own powers which 
they had received for the very opposite use — high- 
mindedness, nobiUty of character, courage, and the 
very freedom for which we are now seeking. — For 
what purpose, then, did I receive these gifts ? — To 
use them. — How long.^ — For as long as He who lent 
them to you wills. — But what if tliey are necessary 
to me? — Do not set your heart upon them, and they 
will not be necessary to you. Do not say to yourself 
that they are necessary, and they will not be. 

This is what you ought to practise from morning 
till evening. Begin with the most trifling thingSj 
the ones most exposed to injury, like a pot, or a cup, 
and then advance to a tunic, a paltry dog, a mere 
horse, a bit of land ; thence to yourself, your body, 
and its members, your children, wife, brothers. Look 
about on every side and cast these things away from 
you. Purify your judgements, for fear lest something 
of what is not your own may be fastened to them, or 
grown together with them, and may give you pain 
when it is torn loose. And every day while you are 
training yourself, as you do in the gymnasium, do 
not say that you are '^^ pursuing philosophy" (indeed 
an arrogant phrase !), but that you are a slave 
presenting your emancipator in court ; ^ for this is 
tlie true freedom. This is the way in which Diogenes 
was set free by Antisthenes,^ and afterwards said 
that he could never be enslaved again by any 
man. How, in consequence, did he behave when 
he was captured ! ^ How he treated the pirates ! 

2 See III. 24, 67. 

^ A very famous incident in the life of the pliilosopher. 
See especially, Musonius f rag. 9 (p. 49, 8ff., Hense) : Gellius, 
II, 18, 9-10 ; Lucian, Fit. Auct. 7 ; Diogenes Laertius, 6, 30 ; 
36 ; 74 ; Ps.-Crates, Epist. 34 ; and above, III. 24, 66. 



elirev nva avrdv ; Koi ov Xeyco to 6vo/ia' ov yap 

Ti-jV (f)coi'7]V c^ofBovfJiai, aWa to irdOof;, dcf)' ov rj 

ll6(j)0)in] iKire/jLTTeraL. ttw? iTTLTL/xd avTo2<;, ojt, 

KaKO)<; €Tp€(f)ov T0U9 eaX(t)K6Ta<i' ttw? eTrpdOrj' 

lirj TL KVpiOV €^7JT€L / dWd 80V\0V. TTWV Se 

7rpa9el<; dvecrrpecpero Trpo? tov Seairoryjv' evOv<; 
BieXiyeTO tt/jo? avrov, on ovx ovtco<; iaroXlaOat 
Bel avTov, ovx ovtw^ KeKdpOai, irepl tojv viwv, 

117 TTW? Set avTOv^ Sidyeiv. Kal tl OavpiaaTov ; el 
yap 7raLSoTpLl37]v id)V7)ro, iv toI<^ 7ra\aiaTpi/coi<^ 
vTTTjpeTrj dv avrcp i^P^'^^ V K'^P^^p >' ^^ ^' larpoi', 
co(7avTa)<;, el S' dp^i'TeKrova. Kal ovrw^ icp^ 
eKdaTrj<; v\ri<; tov epLireipov tov drreipov KpUTelv 

118 irdaa dvdyKi). octti? ovv KaOoXov ttjv irepl /3lov 
€7rtaTi]fjL7]v K€KT7]Tai, TL dXXo Tj TOVTOv elvai hel 
TOV SecTTroTTjv ; rt? ydp Icttlv ev vrjl /cvpLo<; ; — 'O 
Kv/3epv7]Tr]<;. — Aia tl ; oti 6 direiOdyv avTco f?;- 

lld p,L0VTaL. — 'AXXd helpai fie hvvaTai, — Mr; tl ovv 
d^7]p,Lco<; ; — 0{5T<y9 P'Cv Kayo) e/cptvov. — 'AXX* otl 
ovK d^r)pLco<;, Bid tovto ovk e^eaTiv ovSevl S' 

120 ci^yjpLov eaTi to TTOietv Ta dSiKa. — Kal rt? /; 
^rjpla Tcp Bi'-jaavTi tov avTov BovXov, rjv Bokj] ; ^ 
— To Brjaau' tovto o Kal av 6poXoy7']aeL<i, dv 
deXTj^ aw^eiv, otl dvOpcoTro^ ovk €(ttl 6i)piov, dX}C 

121 7]piepov ^wov. eirel ttot dpiieXo^ irpdaaec KaKM<i ; 
oTav irapd ttjv eaVTr}<s (pvcriv irpdaar]. ttot 

^ Matheson : V 5o/ce?s S. 

1 The phrase is from Plato, Sophistcs, 222 B. See also IV. 
5. 10. 


BOOK IV. I. 115-121 

He called none of thein master, did he? And 1 am 
not referring to the name ! it is not the word that I 
fear, but the emotion, which produces the word. 
How he censures them because they gave bad food 
to their captives ! How he behaved when he was 
sold ! Did he look for a master ? No, but for a 
slave. And liow he behaved toward his master after 
he had been sold ! He began immediately to argue 
with him, telling him that he ought not to dress 
that way, or have his hair cut that way, and about 
his sons, how they ouglit to live. And what is there 
strange about that? Why, if he had bought a 
gymnastic trainer, would he have employed him as a 
servant, or as a master, in the exercises of the 
palaestra ? And if he had bought a physician, or a 
master-builder, the same would have been true. 
And thus in every subject-matter, it is quite un- 
avoidable that the man of skill should be superior to 
the man without skill. In general, therefore, who- 
ever possesses the science of how to live, how can 
he help but be the master? For who is master in a 
ship? — The helmsman. — Why? Because the man 
who disobeys him is punished. — But my master is 
able to give me a sound flogging. — He cannot do so 
with impunity, can he ? — So I thought. — But because 
he cannot do so with impunity, therefore he has no 
authority to do it ; no man can do wrong with im- 
punity. — And what is the punishment that befalls 
the man who has put his own slave in chains, when 
he felt like it ? — The putting of him in chains ; this 
is something which you will admit yourself, if you 
wish to maintain the pro})Osition that man is not a 
wild beast but a tame animal.^ For when is a vine 
faring badly ? When it is acting contrary to its own 



122 d\eKTpv(ov ; 6)aavT(o<;. ovkovv koI avOpoiiro^, 
Tt? ovv avTov i) (f)vai,<; ; hciKveiv kuI XaKrl^etv koI 
et? (f)v\aKr]i> ^dWeiv koI diroKec^aXi^eLv ; ov' 
dXX! €u TTocetv, avvepyelv, eirev'^eaOai, roj ovv 
KaKco<^ TTpdaaec, civ re OeXrj<; dv re pn], orav 

123 ''n<7Te ^coKpdTi]<; ouk eirpa^e KaKco<; ; — Oi;, 
dXk' ol Sifcaaral teal o'l K.aTi]yopoL. — OuS' Iv 
'Pd)p,Tj 'EjXovlSlo^ ; — Ov, dX)C 6 aTTOKreivaf; 

\2\avr6v. — Do)? \e'y€L<; ; — 'H? kuI av dXeKrpvova 
ov Xey€L^ KaK(x)<i Trpd^ai rov vLKyaavra kuI 
KaraKoirevra, dXXd rov dirXrjya rjTTrjdei'Ta- 
ovBe Kvva €vBaipiovL^€t<; rov pbrjTe SicoKOvra prjre 
TTovovvraj dXX^ orav ISpcovTa lBtj^, orav ohvvco- 

125 fjuevov, orav prjyvvp.evov viro rov BpopLOV. ri 
TrapaSo^oXoyov/jLev, el Xeyo/xev iravro^ KaKov 
elvai ro irapd rrjv eKeivov (pvcrLv ; rovro rrapd- 
So^ov iariv ; av yap avro iirl rrdvrcov rcov 
dXXcov ov X6y6c<; ; Slcl ri irrl fzovov ovv rov 

126 dvdpcoTTOv dXXa)<i (jyeprj ; dXX^ ore Xiyo/iev 
i]p.6pov elvai rov dvOpcoirov rrjv <^vaiv koI 
(f>iXdXX7]Xov KOi 7na-rj]v, rovro TrapdSo^ov ovk 

127 earLV ; — Ov8e rovro. — IIw? ovv en ov Bep6p.evo<i 
jSXdrrreraL rj heapLevopuevo'^ i) d7roK€(j)aX(^6p,€vo<i ; 
ovxi ovr(o<; pbiv eP yevvaLCo^i Trdax^h f<^^^ 
irpoa/cepSalvcov koX irpoacocpeXovpLevo'i direpx^raL, 
€K€cvo<; Be 6^ ^Xairropievo^ eartv 6 rd OLKrporara 
rrdaxf^i^ k^oX ataxiara, 6 dvrl dvOpcorrov XvKO<i 
yiv6p-€V0<i rj e^f'^i V ^^V?>* 

^ el added by Schenkl (after Upton). ^ 6 added by Blass. 

* A prominent Stoic senator at Rome. See I. 2, 19 ff. 

BOOK IV. I. 121-127 

nature. When is a cock faring badly? Under the 
same conditions. So also man. What, then, is his 
nature ? To bite, and kick, and throw into prison, 
and behead ? No, but to do good, to work together, 
and to pray for the success of others. Therefore, he 
is faring badly, whether you will or no, when he acts 

You imply, then, that Socrates did not fare badly ? 
— He did not; it was his judges and accusers who 
fared badly. — Nor Helvidius ^ at Rome ? — Xo, but the 
man who put him to death. — How so.^ — Just as you 
too do not say that the cock which has won a victory, 
even though he be severely cut up, has fared badly, 
but rather the one who has been beaten without 
suffering a blow. Nor do you call a dog happy 
when he is neither in pursuit nor toiling hard, but 
when you see him sweating, suffering, bursting from 
the chase. What is there paradoxical in the state- 
ment, if we say that everything's evil is what is 
contrary to its own nature? Is that paradoxical? 
Do you not say it yourself in the case of everything 
else ? Why, then, do you take a different course in 
the case of man alone ? But our statement that the 
nature of man is gentle, and affectionate, and faithful, 
is this not paradoxical? — No, that is not paradoxical, 
either. — How, then, does it come about that he 
suffers no harm, even though he is soundly flogged, 
or imprisoned, or beheaded ? Is it not thus — if he 
bears it all in a noble spirit, and comes off with in- 
creased profit and advantage, while the other man is 
the one who suffers harm, the man who is subjected 
to the most pitiful and disgraceful experience, who 
becomes a wolf, or a snake, or a wasp, instead of a 
human being ? 



128 *'A76 ovi^ eireXOoyfjiev ra cofioXoytj/jLeva. 6 
aKu)\vro<; ai>6pcoiT0<; i\ev6epo^, w TTp6-)(eLpa ra 
Trpdy/jLara o)? /SovXerai. ov 8' eariv r) KcoXvaat rj 
avayKciaat rj iixirohiaaL rj aKovra el? Tt ifx^aXelv, 

129 hov\6<^ icTTLV. Tt9 h' a/C6t)\fT09 / 6 /jLr]Sepo<; to)V 
dWorpicov i^Lefievo^. riva 3' dWorpia ; a ouk 
ear IP e(/)' rjfjuv ovr^ ^X^^^ ovre firj 6')(^eLV ovre 

130 TTOtd €)(^€t,v rj TTW? €'x^ovTa. ovKOvv TO aodfjua 
dWoTpiov, ra fJiepi] avrov dWorpta, i) KTrjac^i 
dWoTpia. dv ovv tlvX tovtcov ft)? Ihiw rrpoa- 
7ra6fj<i, Sco(T€i<; SLKa<; a? d^LOv top tmp dWorpioyp 

131 i(f)L€/jL€POP. avrr) rj 0809 eV iXevdeptap dyei, 
avTT) fjLOprj diraWayrj SovXela^, to hvPijOrjpai 
TTOT* elirelv ef oX,?;9 '^v)(7]<; to 

dyov Be yu-', o) Zev, kol <jv y 1) Heirpco/jbevrjy 
OTTOL iroO' vfup elfxl SiaTeTay/Jiipofi, 

132 *AXXa Tt XeyeL^, (pcXocrocpe ; KaXel ae 6 
Tvpappo^ ipovPTd tl oip ov irpeTrei aot. Xeyec^; 
r) ov Xiyei^ ; elire jjlol. — ■"A^69 a-Keyjrco/xai. — 
NOr aKeyjrrj ; otg 3' ep tj] a')(^oXrj 7^9, tL ia/ceTTTOV ; 
ovK e/AeXera?, Tipa iaTL tu dyadd fcal ra KaKa 

133 Kal TLPa ovSeTepa ; — 'EaKeTTTo/jLijp. — Tlpu ovp 
i'lpecTKep v/jllp ; — Ta SuKaca Koi KoXd dyaOd 
elpaL, Ta dScKa kol ala')(^pd KaKd. — M?; ti to 
^Pjp dyad OP ; — Oi;. — M?; ti to diroOapelp Kaicop ; 

1 From the Hymn of Cleanthea. See on II. 23, 42. 

BOOK IV. I. 128-133 

Come;,now,aiid let us review tlie points on which we 
have reached agreement. The unhanij)ered man, who 
finds things ready to hand as he wants tliem, is free. 
But the man who can be hampered, or subjected to 
compulsion, or hindered, or thrown into something 
against liis will, is a slave. And who is unliampered? 
Tile man who fixes his aim on nothing that is not 
his own. And what are the things which are not 
our own .'* All that are not under our control, either 
to liave, or not to have, or to have of a certain 
quality, or under certain conditions. Therefore, the 
body is not our own, its members are not our own, 
property is not our own. If, then, you conceive a 
strong passion for some one of these things, as 
though it were your immediate possession, you will 
be punished as he should be who fixes his aim upon 
what is not his own. This is the road which leads 
to freedom, this is the only surcease of slavery, to 
be able to say at any time with your whole heart. 

Lead thou me on, O Zeus, and Destiny, 
To that goal long ago to me assigned.^ 

But what say you, philosopher? The tyrant calls 
upon you to say something that is unworthy of you. 
Do you say it, or not say it? Tell me. — Let me 
think about it. — ^Think about it now ? But what 
were you thinking about when you were attending 
lectures ? Did you not study the questions, what 
things are good, and what bad, and what are 
neither good nor bad .^ — I did. — What conclusions 
were api^roved, then, by you and your fellows? 
— That things righteous and excellent were good, 
things unrighteous and disgraceful bad. — Life is not 
a good thing, is it? — No. — Nor death a bad thing? 



Oij. — M?; TL <^v\aKi'i ; — Qv. — A070? 5' dyevvy]^ 
Koi aiTLGTO's Koi cf)i\ov irpohoaia Koi KoXaKela 
134: Tvpdvpov TL vjjlIi' i(f)aLV€TO ; — KaKci. — Tt ovv ; 
ov'xi (T/ceTTTT}, ovxL ^' ecTKey^rai koX ^e^ovXevaat. 
TToia yap cTKe'^L^, el Ka6i]Ket. fioL Bwa/xevo) rd 
fxeyLara dyaOd e/jLavrw TrepLTroiijcrai, rd fieyiara 
KUKd firj TrepLTTOLTJaaL ; fcaXr] aKe^\n<; Kal dvay- 
Kaia, 7roXXrj<; /Sol/Xt}? Seop^ipr). rt r}p,LV e/iTral- 
fet9, dvOpcoire; ovheirore roiavrrj aKeyjn^; yiverai. 

135 ou5' el rat? dXrjOeiaL^ xaxd /aev icpaprd^ov rd 
alay^pd, rd S' dXXa ovSirepa, yXOe^ dv eirl 
ravTijp Ti]P eiriaraaiP, ovS^ iyyv<;' aXX' avroOep 

136 hiaKpipeiP eZ^69, wairep oyp-eL, rjj Bcapola. ttots 
ydp aKeTTTTj, el rd p^iXapa Xev/cd €<ttlp, el rd 
^apea Kov(f)a ; ov)^l Be rol'i ipapyco^ ^aipopLevoL'^ 
eiraKoXov6el<i ; ttw? ovp pup aKeTTrecrOac Xey€i<i, 

137 6t^ rd ovBerepa tcop fcaKMP (^evKTorepa ; dXX^ 
ovK e^ez? rd Boyp^ara ravra, aXXd (PaLPerai. aoL 
0VT6 ravra ovBerepa, dXXd rd pieyiara KaKa, 

138 our eKelva KaKa^ aXX' ovBep 7rpb<; 7)p,d<i. ourw^ 
ydp ef dp-^Pjf; eiOtaa<; aeaurop' " ttou elpii ; ep 
(TXoXfj. Kal aKououai pou ripe^ ; Xeyco perd rayp 
(f)LXoa6(f)cop. dXX^ e^eXyjXvOa rPj<; crxoXr}^;' dpop 

^ (I added by Wolf. * /ca/ca added by Upton. 


BOOK IV. I. 133-138 

— No. — Nor imprisonment? — No. — But ignoble 
speech and faithless, and betrayal of a friend, and 
flattery of a tyrant, what did you and your fellows 
tliink of these ? — We thought them evil. — What 
then? You are not thinking about the question 
now, nor have you thought about it and considered 
it hitherto. WHiy, what kind of inquiry is it, to 
raise the question whether it is fitting, when it is 
in my power to get for myself the greatest goods, 
not to get for myself the greatest evils ! A fine 
and necessary question, forsooth, that requires a 
great deal of deliberation. Why are you making 
fun of us, man.? Such an inquiry is never made. 
Besides, if you had honestly imagined that dis- 
graceful things were bad, and all else indifferent, 
you would never have approached this inquiry, no, 
nor anything near it ; but you would have been able 
to settle the question on the spot, by intuition, just 
as in a case involving sight. W'hy, when do you 
stop to "think about it," if the question is, Are 
black things white, or. Are heavy things light? 
Do you not follow the clear evidence of your senses ? 
How comes it, then, that now you say you are 
thinking it over, whether things indifferent are 
more to be avoided than things bad ? But you do 
not have these judgements ; on the contrary, im- 
prisonment and death do not appear to you to be 
indifferent, but rather the greatest evils, and dis- 
honourable words and deeds are not bad in your 
sight, but rather things that do not concern us. 
For that is the habit wliich you developed from the 
start. " Where am 1 ? " you say. " In school. And 
who are listeninij to me ? I am talking in the com- 
pany of philosophers. But now 1 have left the 



eKelva ra tCov a)(o\aaTiKMU Kal roiv fKopcju.*' 
ovr(i)<; KarafiapTvpetrai (f)L\o<; vtto <pi\oa6(pov, 
ISdovTUx; Trapaairel (f)i\6ao(po<;, ovrw's eV apyvplfp 
eKpLiaOol eavTov, ovtcc^; ev avjKXfjTM tl<; ov 
XeyeL ra cjiatvo/jieva' evhoOev to Soy/xa avrov 

140 ^oa, ov^ -y^rvxpov Kal TaXaiirwpov vttoXj]- 
'y^reihiov Ik Xoycov elKaiwv ^ co? eV TpL')(o<i r/prrj- 
fxevov, aWa Icry^ypov Kal ')(^ptiaTLtcoii Kal vtto 
Tov Sia ra)V epywv yeyvfivdaOai /jL€/j,vr]/jLevov. 

141 Trap acpvXa^ov aavrov, ttw? dKov€L<; — ov Xeyco, 
on TO iraihiov aov aTreOaveV iroOev (TOL ; dXX^ 
OTL aov TO eXaLov €^€)(^e67), 6 olvo<i e^eiroOt], 

142 tW Ti? eVfCTTa? hiaTeiVfJievcp gol tovt avTO 
/jLovov elirr] ^' (piX6ao(f)e, dXXa Xey6t<i ev Trj 
cy)(oXf)' Tt /;yaa9 i^airaTa'; ; tl aKcoX^j^ mv 

143 Xey€c<;, on dv6pci)7ro<i el ; " i)6eXov eTriaTr^vai 
TLVL avTMv avvovatd^opTL, fW I'Sco, TTW? TeiveTai 
Kal TToia'^ (jicopd^i d(fiiticnv, el p.ef.LvriTaL tov 
oi'oyU.aTo? avTov, TMv Xoywv ov<; dKovei i) Xkyei 
rj dvayiyvdiGKei. 

144 Kal Tt TavTa tt/OO? eXevOepiav ; — Ovk dXXa 
fiev ovv i) TavT, dv re OeXrjTe v/xeh ol TrXovcnoc 

143 dv Te pLJ]. — Kal TL^ aoL fiapTvpec TavTa ; — Tt 
yap dXXo y auTol vpLel<i ol tov Kvpiov tov /leyav 
6)(0VT€'; Kal TT^o? TO €Keivov vevjia Kal KLvij/xa 
^(0VTe<i, Kav Tiva v/jl(ov lSj} jjlovov avveaTpafxpiiVU) 
^Xe/JLfiaTL, d7royjrvxo/J'€VOi, Ta? ypaia^ depairevov 

^ Schweighauser : av S. * Reiske : e/ kuI wp S. 

3 Schenkl: rls S. 

^ Possibl}' an allusion to Egnatius Celer, who accused his 
friend, Barea Sorauus, in the reign of Nero, a.d. 66, when 


BOOK IV. I. 138-145 

school ; away with those sayings of pedants and 
fools ! " That is how a friend is condemned on the 
testimony of a philosopher/ that is how a j)hilosopher 
turns parasite^ that is how he hires himself out for 
money, that is how at a meeting of the senate a man 
does not say what he thinks, while within his breast 
his judgement shouts loudly, no cold and miserable 
remnant suspended from idle argumentations as by 
a hair, but a strong and serviceable judgement, and 
familiar with its business by having been trained in 
action. Watch yourself, and see how you take the 
word — I do not say the word that your child is 
dead ; how could you possibly bear that ? — but the 
word that your oil is spilled, or your wine drunk up. 
Well might someone stand over you, when you are 
in this excited condition, and say simply," Philosopher, 
you talk differently in the school ; why are you de- 
ceiving us ? Why, when you are a worm, do you 
claim that you are a man? " I should like to stand 
over one of these philosophers when he is engaged 
in sexual intercourse, so as to see how he exerts 
himself, what manner of words he utters, whether 
he remembers his own name, or the arguments that 
he hears, or repeats, or reads ! 

And what has all this to do with freedom ? — Nay, 
nothing but all this has to do with freedom, whether 
you rich people so wish or not. — And what is your 
witness to this ? — Why, what else but you yourselves 
who have this mighty master,- and live at his nod 
and gesture, who faint away if he but look at one 
of you with a scowl on his face, paying court to the 

Epictetus was a boy. See Tacitus, Annals, 16, 32, and 
Juvenal, 3, ll6f. 
* i.e., the Emperor. 



T69 Kai TOL"? y€povTa<; kg) \eyovTe<; on " ov 

146 Svva/jLai tovto irotrjaar ou/c e^eari fiot'' ; Sid 
TL ovK e^eaTLV aoc ; ovk dpri €fjLd')(^ov /jlol Xeycov 
iXevOepof; elvai ; *' dWd "AirpvWd fie KeKOiXv- 
K€v" \€<y6 ovv ra? dXr}6eLa<;, SovXe, koI /jltj 
hpairereve crov rov^ Kvplov<; fitjB^ dirapvov /jLijSe 
ToXfia Kap7rLcrT7]v SiBovai roaoinov^ ^X^^ "^^"^ 

147 3ouX.6ta9 iXeyx^^'^- fcairoL rov fiev vir epo)TO<i 
dvajfca^ofievov tc Troielv irapd to (fiaivofxevov 
KOI dfxa fiev opcovra to d/jL€Lvov, afia 8' ovk 
e^evTovovma dKoXov6?}aai avTM en fidXXov av 
Tt<i (Tvyyuco/jLT)^ d^LOv v7roXd/3oL, dO' utto nvo<; 
jScaiov KoX rpoirov npd Oeiov KaTea)(7)ixevov. 

148 aov he Tt? dvda')(oi70 rcov ypawv epwvT0<; kol 
r(ov yepovTcov koX eKeiva<^ diroixvaaovro^ fcal 
dirOTTXvvovTd Kol BcopoSoKOvPTO*; /cat d/jua fiev 
voaovcra^ OepaTTevovro^ co? hovXov, dfia 3' diro- 
Oavelv ev'X^o/xevov Kal tou? larpovf; BiaKplvovro^;, 
el ijBt] 6avaalfjLW<; ex^ovaiv ; rj irdXiv orav vnep 
Tojp fieydXcov tovtwv koX aefivoiv dp')(o)v kol 
TifiMV rd^ ')(€lpa<; rcov dXXojpicov SovXcov /cara- 

149 (j)iX7J<;, Iva /x?;S' iXevOepwv 8ov\o<; y<; ; elrd jmol 
aeuvo<; TrepiTrarel^ arparrjycov, vTrarevcov. ovk 
olBa, TTco? eaTpaTr)yi]oa<;, irodev Trjv VTrareCav 

160eXa^69, Tt? aoL avrrjv eScoKep ; eyco /juev ovSe 
^r]v ijOeXoi', el Sid ^^jXifCicova eSet ^ijaai t/}? 
6(f)pvo<; avTOv Kal rod BovXikov (ppvdy/xaro^; 
dvcKj-x^ofxevov olSa ydp, tl earl SovXo<i evrv^odv 
fc)? Sofcel Kal Terv(^(jL>/jLepo<;. 

^ Obviously some rich old woman. 

2 See § 113 and note. 

3 A frcedman of Nero's. See I. 17, 19, 20 and 21. 


HOOK IV. I. 145-150 

old woQieii and the old men, and saying, " I cannot 
do this; I am not allowed"? Why are you not 
allowed? Were you not just now arguing with me 
and claiming that you were free ? " But Aprulla ^ 
has prevented me." Tell the truth, then, slave, and 
do not run away from your masters, nor make denial, 
nor dare to present your emancipator,^ when you 
have so many proofs to convict you of slavery. And, 
indeed, when a man out of passionate love is under 
the compulsion to do something contrary to his 
opinion, all the time seeing the better thing but 
lacking the strength to follow, one might be all the 
more inclined to regard him as deserving pity, 
because he is in the grip of something violent, and, 
in a manner of speaking, divine. But who could 
endure you with your passion for old women and 
old men, wiping the noses and washing the faces of 
old women, corrupting them with presents, and all 
the while you are nursing them, like a slave, in some 
illness, praying for them to die, and asking the 
physicians if they are finally on their deathbed ? 
Or again, when for the sake of these mighty and 
dignified offices and honours you kiss the hands of 
other men's slaves, so as to be the slave of men who 
are not even free ? And then, God save the mark, 
you walk around in your dignity as a praetor or a 
consul ! Don't I know how you came to be praetor, 
how you got your consulship, who gave it to you ? 
As for me, 1 should not care even to live, if I had 
to owe my life to Felicio,^ putting up with his 
insolence and slavish arrogance ; for I know what a 
slave is, who is prosperous as the world goes, and 
])ufied up with pride.* 

* A pretty clear reference to his experiences with his 
master, Epaphroditua, who had been a slave of Nero. 



151 'Ev ovv, (pr)aLP, 6\ev6epo<^ el ; — BeX.&) vt] tou? 
deoij^; Koi evxofjLat, aXX' ovirco hyvafxau avri- 
^Xeyfrac roU KvpioL^, en rifico to aco/jLciTiov, 

6Xufc\t]pOV aVTO €)(€tV CLVtI TTOWoV TTOlOVfiai 

152 Kairoi firjS' oXoKkiipov ej((A)v. aWa Svvafial aoi 
Bel^ac eXevdepov, ha fiyjKen ^?7t^^9 to irapd- 
Seiy/jLa. Aioy€i>r]<; r)v eXevOepo^. rroOev tovto ; 
ov)(^ on e^ iXevdepcov i]v, oii yap rjv, dXX^ on 
at'To? ?^v, on diro^e^X-qKeL 7rdaa<; Td<; ti]<; 
Sov\€La<; Xa/3d<;^ ovB' yv, oiray^ rt? TTpoaeXOr} 
7rpo<i avTov ovB^ 66ev Xd^rjraL 7rpo<; to KaTa- 

153 BovXcoaaaOaL. irdvTa evXvTa 62%ei/, irdvTa 
fiovov TrpocryjpTTjfieva. el r?}? KTrjaew<^ eireXd^ov, 
avT-qv d(f)y]Kev dv aoi fxdXXov rj rj/coXovOyaev 
Si* avT7]V' el Tov cr/eeXou?, to crKeXo<i' el oXov 
Tou a-(OfxaTL0V, oXov to acofMaTLOV olKeLov<;, 
<f)LXov<;, TraTplSa 6)cravT(o<;. ySec, iroOev e')(^ei Kal 

154:7rapd tlvo<; Kal eirl Tuatv Xa/3(t)v. tou? fiev y 
dXTjdipou'; TTpoyovov^, tov^ 6eov'^, Kal ttjv tS) 
ovTt rraTpiSa ovSeTTcoTroT dv iyKaTeXnrev, ovhe 
7rap€)(d)p7]crep dXX(p /xaXXov TTeWeaOai avT0L<; 
Kal viraKoveLP, ovB' vtt e paired avev dv evKoXooTepov 

155 T^9 iraTpiha dXXo<;. ov yap e^rJTec TTore ho^ai ^ 
TL TTOLelv virep tQ>v oXcov, dXX* ifie/JLvrjTO, otl 
irdv TO yevofievov eiceWev eaTLV Kal vnep ^ 
eKeivr)<; irpdTTeTai Kal viro tov SiotKovvTo<; 

1 Sb : $\a$ds S. 2 Meibom : B6^ei S. 

3 ISchweighauser : l-tt' S. 

^ Alluding to his lameness, as the Scholiast observes. See 
Vol. 1, Introd., pp. ix-x. 

2 That is, not grown to him so as to cause pain when torn 
loose, as in § 112. 


BOOK IV. 1. 151-155 

Are ?/(>//, then, free, says someone? — By the gods 
1 wish to be, and pray to be, but I am not yet able 
to look into the face of my masters, I still honour 
my paltry body, I take great pains to keep it sound, 
although it is not sound in any case.^ But I can 
show you a free man, so that you will never again 
have to look for an example, Diogenes was free. 
How did that come? It was not because he was 
born of free parents, for he was not, but because he 
himself was free, because he had cast off all the 
handles of slavery, and there Avas no way in which 
a person could get close and lay hold of him to 
enslave him. Everything he had was easily loosed, 
everything was merely tied on.- If you had laid 
hold of his property, he would have let it go rather 
than followed you for its sake ; if you had laid hold 
of his leg, he would have let his leg go ; if of his 
whole paltry body, his whole paltry body ; and so 
also his kindred, friends, and country. He knew 
the source from which he had received them, and 
from whom, and upon what conditions. His true 
ancestors, indeed, the gods, and his real Country^ 
he would never have abandoned, nor would he have 
suffered another to yield them more obedience and 
submission, nor could any other man have died more 
cheerfully for his Country. For it was never his 
wont to seek to appear to do anything in behalf of 
the Universe,^ but he bore in mind that everything 
which has come into being has its source there, and 
is done on behalf of that Country, and is entrusted 

3 Clearly, from what follows, the Universe. 

* Compare Marcus Aurelius, 7, 73 : " When thou hast 
done well to another . . . why go on like the foolish to 
look for . . . the credit of having done well ? " (Haines). 



avrrjv irapey^yvarai. roiyapovv 6 pa, ri Xeyei 

ISGauTO? Kal 'ypu(f)€r " Blo, touto ctolJ" ^rjaiv, 

** e^eariv, o) ^i6yev6<;, koI to) Ylepaoiv /3aai\€L 

Kal Wp)(^LBci/j.q) rw AaKeSaL/jLOVLCov &)? ^ovXei 

157 hiaXeyeaOaL.'' apd 7' on ef iXevOepwv rjv ; 

7rdvT6<; yap ^AdrjvaloL Kal irdvre^; XaKehaifiovioL 

Kal Kopli'dioi Blcl to e/c BovXwv elvat ovk 

rjSvvavTO avTOL<; co? tj^ovXovto SiaXeyeadai, 

158aX,V eSeBoLKeaav Kal eOepdirevov ; Sia ri ovv, 

(^rjcyiv, e^earLV ; " on rb awiidrLov i/xov 01);^ 

-qyovfiai, on ovSevo^; Biofxai, on 6 v6/jL0<; /jlol 

ndvra earl Kal dWo ouSeV." ravra r]v ra 

eXevOepov eKslvov edaavra. 

159 Kat Xva fir) S6^r}<;, on TrapdSety/Mi BeLKVVfiL 
dvSpo<; aTrepiardrov pLi'^re yvvacKa e^ovro^; fii-jre 
reKva fMJjre TrarplSa rj <pL\ov<; rj auyyeveh, v(f 
MV Kd/jLTTTeadac Kal irepiGirdaOai yBvvaro, Xd/Se 
^oiKpdrr] Kal Oeacrai yvvalKa Kal iraiSia e^ovra, 
dXXa ft)9 aXXoTpia} irarpiha, e^' oaov ehei Kal 
0)9 ehei, (plXov;, avyyevel'^, Trdvra ravra virore- 
ra')(^6ra rw v6/jL(p Kal rij Trpo? eKelvov eviretOeia. 

160 Sta rovro, arpareveaOai fiev oiror eBei, rrpoyro^; 
drrrieL KuKel eKivSvvevev d(f)€iBiarara' irrl Aeovra 
S* V7T0 ro)v rupdvvcov Tre/ic^^et'?, ore ala)(^pov 
rjyelro, ovS* eire^ovXevaaro elBd}^, on drroOavelv 

161 Berjaei, av ovro}<; rvxV' '^^^ "^^ avra> Biecpepev ; 

^ Salmasius : aWorplav S. 

^ A leader of the opposition, whom the Thirty Tyrants 
wished to murder. See Plato, Apolog-y, 32 C. 

tiOOK IV. I. 155-161 

to us by Him who <rovern.s it. Therefore, see what 
he himself says and writes : " For this reason/' he 
says, ^^you are jiermitted, O Diogenes, to converse 
as you please with the king of the Persians and with 
Archidamus, the king of the Lacedaemonians." Was 
it, indeed, because he was born of free parents ? 
No doubt it was because they were all the children 
of slaves that the Athenians, and Lacedaemonians, 
and Corinthians were unable to converse with these 
monarchs as they pleased, but were afraid of them 
and paid court to them ! Why, then, someone asks, 
are you permitted ? " Because 1 do not regard my 
paltry body as my own ; because I need nothing ; 
because the law, and nothing else, is everything to 
me." This it was which allowed him to be a free 

And that you may not think 1 am showing you 
an example of a man who was solitary, and had 
neither wife, nor children, nor country, nor friends, 
nor kinsmen, who might have bent him and diverted 
him from his purpose, take Socrates and observe a 
man who had a wife and little children, but re- 
garded them as not his own, who had a country, as 
far as it was his duty, and in the way in which it 
was his duty, and friends, and kinsmen, one and all 
subject to the law and to obedience to the law. 
That is why, when it was his duty to serve as a 
soldier, he was the first to leave home, and ran the 
risks of battle most ungrudgingly ; and when he 
was sent by the Tyrants to fetch Leon,^ because he 
regarded it as disgraceful, he never deliberated 
about the matter at all, although he knew that he 
would have to die, if it so chanced. And what 
difference did it make to him? For there was 



aWo yap ri ao'y^eir -ijOeXev ov to aapKihiov, 
aWa Tov mcTOV, top alSy/xova. ravra dirapey- 

\62 )^€Lpt]Ta, avvTTOTaKTCi. eW or dTroXoyelaOai 
eBet vTvep rov ^t]V, fi/] n 6)s reKva e'xwi' dvaarpe- 
<f)6TaL, fjL7] Ti OX? yvvaiKa ; a\V co? fji6i'0<;. tl S\ 
ore TTielv eSei to cfidpfiaKOv, ttw? dvaaTpe<^6iai, ; 

\i^^ Swdfievo^ Siacra)Ot]i'ai Kal tov KpiTcovo^ avrw 
XeyovTO^; otl " e^eXOe Std to, TraiSia" tl Xeyei ; 
epfiaiov rjyelTO avTO ; iroOev ; dXXd to eva^Vf^^v 
(TKOTTsl, ToXXa S' ovh^ opa, ouS' einXoyi^eTaL. ov 
yap I'-jOeXeVy (^rjaiv, awaai to awixdTLOV, dXX! 
€K€LPo, Tfp hiKaicp pi€V av^€TaL fcal cr(i)^€Tai, tco 

164^' dSifCO) ixeiovTat koI diToXXvTai. %coKpdTr)<; 8' 
aiaxp(h<; ov aw^sTai, 6 /jltj e-nty^n^ciiiaa'^ W.dt]vaLcoi> 
K6\ev6vTwv, 6 Tov<; Tvpdvvov^ virepiScov, 6 TOiavTa 
irepl dp€T7]<; /cal KaXoKuyaOia^ StaXey6p,6i'o<;' 

165 TOVTOv ovK eaTL aojaai ala-)(po)(;, dXX' aTroOptjaKcov 
crftj^erat, ov (f)€vycov. Kal yap o dyaOo^ vTroKpiTr)^ 
iravopevo^ ots Se.l acp^eTai p,dXXov r) viroKpivo- 

166 p€vo<; rrapd Kaipov. tl ovv iroLi'iaei tcl iraihia ; 
" el (lev e/? ^eTTaXiav dirijetv, €Tr€fieX7]07]T6 
avTMV' 6i9 " Xihov Be pLov diToh-iipii'^aavTO's ovhe\<; 
ecTTai 6 e7n/jLeXrja6p,ei'o<; ; " opa, ttwv inroKopii^eTat. 

161 Kal (TKcoTTTei, TOV OdvaTOv. el B' eyu) Kal gv 

1 A free paraphrase of Plato, Crilo, 47 D. 

2 In the illegal action of the assembly after the battle of 
Arginusae. See Xenophon, Memorabilia, I. 1, 18; Plato, 
Apology, 32 B. 

^ A singular parallel to " He that loseth his life for my 
sake shall find it" (Matt. x. 39). 

* A paraphrase of Plato, Crito, 54 A. 

BOOK IV. I. 161-167 

something else that lie wished to preserve ; not his 
paltry flesh, but the man of honour, the man of 
reverence, that he was. These are things which 
are not to be entrusted to another, not to be made 
subject. Later on, when he had to speak in defence 
of his life, he did not behave as one who had 
children, or a wife, did he ? Nay, but as one who 
was alone in the world. Yes, and when he had to 
drink the poison, how does he act ? When he might 
have saved his life, and \vhen Crito said to him, 
" Leave the prison for the sake of your children," 
what is his reply ? Did he think it a bit of good luck ? 
Impossible I No, he regards what is fitting, and as 
for other considerations, he does not so much as 
look at or consider them. For he did not care, he 
says, to save his paltry body, but only that which 
is increased and preserved by right conduct, and is 
diminished and destroyed by evil conduct.^ Socrates 
does not save his life with dishonour, the man who 
refused to put the vote when the Athenians de- 
manded it of him,2 the man who despised the 
Tyrants, the man who held such noble discourse 
about virtue and moral excellence ; this man it is 
impossible to save by dishonour, but he is saved by 
death, 3 and not by flight. Yes, and the good actor, 
too, is saved when he stops at the right time, rather 
than the one who acts out of season. What, then, 
will the children do ? " If I had gone to Thessaly, 
you would have looked after them ; but when I 
have gone down to the house of Hades, will there 
be no one to look after them ? " * See how he 
calls death soft names,^ and jests at it. IJut if it 

^ " I have been lialf in love with easeful Death, 
Call'd him soft names in many a mus^d rime." 

Keats, Ode to a Nightingale. 


y}fjL€V, €vOv<; av Kara(j)LXoao(f)r}aavT€<; on " toi)? 
dSi/covuTa<^ hel rol<; iaoc<; afivveaOai " kol irpoa- 
devre^ otl " ocpeXo^; eaofxai, iroWol^ avd pcoiroL^; 
acoOei^;, airodavayv S' ouBevl,'' el ap ^ eSet Sta 

168 Tp(oy\T)<s eKSvpra^;, e^i'^XOofiev av. koa ttw? av 
a)(f)6\y]aa/jL€V riva ; irov yap civ, el en efievov eKel ; ^ 
rj el^ 6vT€<; 7]/iev oic^eXipiOL, oxj-x^l ttoXv /jidWov 
a'TTo6av6vTe<; av ore eSec kul &)? eSei, (jo(^e\7]aafiev 

169 avOpcoTTOVf; ; Kal vvv SwArparov? airodavovro^ 
ovdev rjTTOv rj Kal irXelov ux^eKiiio^ eariv dvOpw- 
TTot? 7; /jlv7]/i7] oiv 6Tt toiv eiT pa^ev 57 elirev, 

170 TaOra fieXera, ravra rd hoyjiara, tovtov; 
T0L/9 X070U9, et? ravra d(f)6pa rd irapaheiyfiara, 
el deXeL^ eXevdepo^ elvai, el emOvfiel^i Kar d^iav 

171 rod rrpdy/jLaro<;. Kal ri Oavfiaarov, el rrfXiKovro 
irpdyp-a roaovrwv Kal rrjXiKovrwv oivfj ; virep 
rr)<i vo/JLi^o/xevr]<; eXev6epia<^ ravry]<; ol /lev dirdy 
yovrai, ol Se KaraKpyfivc^ovaiv aurov<^, eari S' 

172 ore Kal TroXet? oXat dircoXovro' vrrep tt}? d- 
X7]di,vr}<; Kal dveir L^ovXevrov Kal da(f)aXov<; 
eXev6epLa<; diraLrovvrt rw Oew a SeScoKev ovk 
eKarjjaj] ; ** ov^* co? UXdrcov Xeyei, /JL€Xer7](T€i<; 
ov)^l diToOvrjcrKeiv [lovov, d\kd Kal arpe^Xovadai 
Kal (pevyecv Kal SepeaOat Kal rrdvO^ dirXw^ 

l~'.\ dTroSiSovaL rdXXorpia ; eaei roivvv SovXo'^ ev 
BovXoL<!;, Kciv iivpiaKi'^ vTrarevar)'^, kclv et? to 

^ Schenkl : yap S. ^ Capps : h.v iri ef.i.€yoy (Kflvoi S. 

' Salmasius : **ol S. 
Schenkl (apparently) : ovK*(rTr}(rr]i S. 

^ This is probabl}' the best emendation that has been 
suggested for a corrupt passage, but I do not feel certain 
that it is what Epictetus actually said. 


BOOK IV. I. 167-173 

had been you or I, we should forthwith have fallen 
into the philosophic vein, and said, " One ought to 
repay evil-doers in kind," and added, " If I save my 
life I shall be useful to many i)ersons, but if I die 
I shall be useful to no one"; yes, indeed, and if 
we had had to crawl out through a hole to escape, 
we should have done so ! And how should we 
have been of use to anybody ? For where could 
we have been of use, if the others still remained 
in Athens ? ^ Or if we were useful to men by 
living, should we not have done much miore good to 
men by dying when we ought, and as we ouglit? 
And now that Socrates is dead the memory of him 
is no less useful to men, nay, is perhaps even 
more useful, than what he did or said while he still 

Study these things, these judgements, these 
arguments, look at these examples, if you wish to 
be free, if you desire the thing itself in proportion 
to its value. And what wonder is there if you buy 
something so great at the price of things so many 
and so great .^ For the sake of what is called 
freedom some men hang themselves, others leap 
over precipices, sometimes whole cities perish ; for 
true freedom, which .cannot be plotted against and 
is secure, will you not yield up to God, at His 
demand, what He has given? Will you not, as 
Plato 2 says, study not merely to die, but even to be 
tortured on the rack, and to go into exile, and to 
be severely flogged, and, in a word, to give up 
everything that is not your own ? If not, you will 
be a slave among slaves ; even if you are consul 
ten thousand times, even if you go up to the 

2 I'haedo, 64 A, and Republic, II. 361 E. 



iroKdriov ava^y^, ovSev 7]Ttov' Kal ala6y](T€L, 
on Tvapdho^a /xev ia(o<s (fyaalv oi (piXoaocpoi, 
KaOdiTep Kal 6 KX€dvOi]<; eXeyev, ov /jlijv irapd- 
114\oya. €py(p yap elcrj], on dXrjOrj earl /cat tov- 
Twv Tcoi^ Oav/j.a^o/jLei'0)p Kal airovhai^ofievwv 
6(f)€\o<i ovSiv ecrn rots" TV)(ovaL' rol'; Be /xyjSeTra) 
T6Tev)(^6aL (pavTaaia yiverat, on Trapayevofievcov 
a\jTO)v diravja Trapearai avrol'^ rd ay aOd' eW^ 
orav Trapayivjjrai, ro Kavfia Xaov, 6 pi7rTaa/j.6<; 
6 avTo^, 7] dai], i)'^ roiv ov jrapovrcov €7nOv/j,ia. 

175 ov yap €K7r\ripd)aeL tcov eirLOvjjLoviieviov iXevOepia 
TTapaaKevd^erai, dXXd dvaaKevfj tt}? eiriOvfJiLa^;, 

176 Kol (V elhf]^, on dX7)6rj ravrd eanv, a)<i eKelvoiv 
€V6Ka TreTTovrjKa'^, ovto)<; Kal eVl ravra iieTd9e<; 
TOP TTOvov dypvirvr\(jov eveKa rod Boy/xa Trepi- 

177 TTOii^aacrOai eXevOepoTroiov, Oepdirevaov dvrl 
yepovTO<; irXovacov (pcXoaocpov, irepl Ovpa^ 
6(f)0i]n rd<; tovtov ovk da)(^y]/jLov/)creL'=; 0(p6ei<^, 
ovK direXevar] yte^'09 ovS' a/cepS?;?, civ w? Sec 
irpoaeXOij^. el Be firj, Trelpaaov y' ovk eanv 
ala^^pd 7] TTeipa. 

/3'. Uepl avp,7repi(f)opd<i.^ 

1 Toi^Tfi) Tw TOTTCp Tvpo TrdvToov (T6 Bel 7rpoa€)(^€iv, 
fitj TTore dpa rcov Trporepcov avvijOwv rj (piXcop 

1 7, added by Wolf. 

2 Bentley (and the index of chapters) : <TviJ.<popas S here. 

1 A somewhat similar remark ascribed to Zeno (Gnoviol. 
Vat., ed. Sternbach, 295) has in the second clause "contrary 
to law," a much less pointed remark, and true only with 
important qualifications. 

BOOK IV^ I. 173-11. I 

Palace — a slave none the less; and you will j)erceive 
that, as Cleanthes^ used to say, "Possibly the 
philosophers say what is contrary to opinion, but 
assuredly not what is contrary to reason." For you 
will learn by experience that what they say is true, 
and that none of these things which are admired 
and sought after are of any good to those who attain 
them ; while those who have not yet attained them 
get an impression that, if once these things come 
to them, they will be possessed of all things good, 
and then, when they do come, the burning heat is 
just as bad, there is the same tossing about on the 
sea, the same sense of surfeit, the same desire for 
what they do not have. For freedom is not acquired 
by satisfying yourself with what you desire, but by 
destroying your desire. And that you may learn 
the truth of all this, as you have toiled for those 
other things, so also transfer your toil to these ; 
keep vigils for the sake of acquiring a judgement 
which will make you free, devote yourself to a 
philosopher instead of to a rich old man, be seen 
about his doors ; it will be no disgrace to be so 
seen, you will not retire thence empty and without 
})rofit, if you approach him in the right fashion. 
Anyway, try it at least ; there is no disgrace in 
making the attempt. 


Of social intercourse 

To this topic you ought to devote yourself before 
every other, how, namely, you may avoid ever being 
so intimately associated with some one of your 



(ivaKpaO])<^ Tivl oiJtw?, war ei^ ra avra avyKara- 

2 ^ijvat, avTfp' el Be fii], (nTo\el<; creavrov. av he a 
vTrorpexD on " aSe^to? avrw (^avovfiai koI ov')(^ 
6/jLOLco<; €^€l CO? irporepov" fiefivi^ao, otl irpoLKa 
ovBev jLveTaL oi/8' eart Svparop firj ra avra 

3 TTOiovvra top avTOv elvai rw irore. eXov ovv 
TTorepop 6e\€i<;, 6/jLol(o<; (^uXelaOat v(f)^ cop Trporepop 
6/j.oco<; o)P T(p TTporepop aeavrw r/ Kpeiaawp mp 

4 /jLTj Tvy)(^dpeLP TCJV lawp. el yap tovto Kpelaaop, 
avToOep aiTOPevaop eVl rovro firihe ae irepi- 
airdrwaap ol erepoi SiaXoyca/jLOL' ovSel^i yap 
i7ra/jL(f)OT€pi^cop Svparac TrpoKoyjrat, aXX' el tovto 
irdpTWp irpoKeKpiKa<;, el Trpo^i rovTOi /xopo) Oe\€L<i 
elpai, el tovto eKTTOPrjaai, a(f)€<; drrapTa TokXa' 

5 el he pLYj, ovTO^ 6 i7rafjL(f>0T€pta/j,6<i d/i(f)6Tep6p ^ aoL 
7roir]aeL, ovTe irpoKo^ei'^ KaT d^iap ovt eKeivcop 

6 Tev^r], MP irpoTepop eTvyx^ape^. irpoTepop yap 
el\iKpipco<; €(f)Le/jLepo(; to)p ovhepo'^ d^lcop t^Si)? 

7 7]<; T06? (Tvpovaip, ov hvpaaai K ep dficpOTepo) to) 
ethei hi€PeyK€LP dXX' dpayKi), KaOocrop dp tou 
eTepov Koipoypfjf;, dTroXeLTTeadai a ep OaTepw. ov 
hvpaaat /jltj itlpwp jxeO' ojp e7ripe<; 6/jloIo)<; rJSi)? 
avTol<i <f)aivea6ar eXov ovp, iroTepop p,e6vaTy]<; 
elpai de\ei<; kul r}hv<; €K€iPOi<; rj P7](f)cop drjh/]^. ov 
hvpaaat pr) ahcop /j,eO' o)P r'Se? 6/jL0L(o<i (piXelaOai 

1 Oldfather: Udrtpoy S. Cf. IV. 10,25; Ench. 1, 4. 

BOOK IV. n. 1-7 

acquaintances or friends as to descend to the same 
level with him ; otherwise you will ruin yourself". 
But if there slips into your mind the thought, " He 
will think me unmannerly und will not be as friendly 
as he used to be," remember that nothing is done 
without paying for it, and that it is impossible for 
a man to remain the same person that he used to 
be, if he does not do the same things. Choose, 
therefore, which you prefer; either to be loved just 
as much as you used to be by the same persons, 
remaining like your former self, or else, by being 
superior to your former self, to lose the same 
afiection. Because if this latter alternative is the 
better choice, turn forthwith in that direction, and 
let not the other considerations draw you away ; for 
no man is able to make progress when he is facing 
both ways. But if you have preferred this course 
to every other, if you wish to devote yourself to 
this alone, and labour to perfect it, give up every- 
thing else. Otherwise this facing both ways will 
bring about a double result : You will neither make 
progress as you ought, nor will you get what you 
used to get before. For before, when you frankly 
ed at nothing worth while, you made a pleasant 
ompanion. You cannot achieve distinction along 
both lines, but you must needs fall short in the one 
to the degree in which you take part in the other. 
If you do not drink with those you used to drink 
with, you cannot in their eyes be as pleasant a com- 
panion as you used to be ; choose, therefore, whether 
you wish to be a hard drinker and pleasant to those 
persons, or a sober man and unpleasant. If you do 
not sing with those you used to sing with, vou can- 
not be loved by them as you used to be ; choose, 




vn avTMV e\ov ovr koI ii'ravOa, iroTepov OeXei^. 

8 et 'yap Kpelaaov to aiByj/jLora elvai teal Koafuov 
Tov elire'lv riva " ySix; dvOpcoTro';,'''' a^e? ra erepa, 
a-KD'yvcoOL, a'iToaTpd(^i-i6i.y fxiihev aol /cal avTol<;. 

9 el Be 111] dpeaec Tavra, 6\o(; drroKXivop irrl 
TavavTia' <yevov €l<; rodv Kivaihwv, el^ tmp p,0L')(^a)v, 
Kol TToiei rd €^7)<; kuI tcv^tj cjv OeXeif;. kol 

10 dvain]ho}v iiriKpavyate rfp opXV^'^V' Bidcpopa S' 
ovr(o<; irpocrcoTra ov /jLiyvvraf ov hvvaaai kol 
%epcriTqv viroKpivaaOai kol ^Aya/ie/juvora. dv 
%6paiTii<; elvai 6e\rj<;, Kvprov ae elvai Bel, 
(paXaKpov dv ^AyafMe/xvcov, /xejav kol KaXov kuI 
TOv<i VTroTerayfievovi (piXovvra. 

y. Tli>a TLvcov avTiKaraXXaKTiov ; 

1 ^Ek6LV0 lTp6')(^6LpOV €')(^6, OTaV TCVO^ dTroXeLTTTJ 

Tcov fc'/CT09, Tt az/r' avrov TTepLTroifj' kuv y irXeiovo^i 

2 d^LOv, /jL)]Be7roT eiV?;? on ** cft/yLttcoyaai "• ovB' dv^ 
dvrl ovov I'ttttov, ovB' dvrl 7rpo/3drov jBovv ovB' 
dvrl Kep/iaTo<; irpd^iv KaXrjv, ovB^ dvrl '^v'^po- 
Xoyiaf; riav')(^iav o'lav Bel, ovB^ dvrl alaxpoXoyLa<; 

3 alBo). TOVTcov fie/jLV7]/jLev('(; 7ravTa')(ov Biaad}<J€L<i 
TO aavTov TrpoacoTrov olov €)(eii' ae Bel. el Be 
fjii], GKoirei, on diToXXvvTaL ol \p6voL cIkt] kol 

^ 6.V added l)y SchweiglKUiser. 

BOOK IV. II. 7-ni. 3 

therefore, here also, wliicli you wish. For if it is 
better to be a man of respectful and modest be- 
haviour than for someone to say of you, "He is a 
pleasant fellow," give up all other considerations, 
renounce them, turn your back uj)on them, have 
nothing to do with them. But if that does not 
please you, turn about, the whole of you, to 
the opposite ; become one of the addicts to un- 
natural vice, one of the adulterers, and act in the 
corresponding fashion, and you will get what you 
wish. Yes, and jump up and shout your applause 
to the dancer. But different characters do not mix 
in this fashion ; you cannot act the part of Thersites 
and that of Agamemnon too. If you wish to be a 
Thersites, you ought to be humpbacked and bald ; 
if an Agamemnon, you ought to be tall and hand- 
some, and to love those who have been made subject 
to you. 


What things should he exchanged for what things ? 

Here is a thought to keep ready at hand 
whenever you lose some external thing : What are 
you acquiring in its place ? and if this be more 
valuable than the other, never say, " 1 have suffered 
a loss." You have lost nothing if you get a horse 
for an ass, an ox for a sheep, a noble action for 
a small piece of money, the proper kind of peace 
for futile discourse, and self-respect for smutty talk. 
If you bear this in mind you will everywhere main- 
tain your character as it ought to be. If not, I 
would have you observe that your time is being 



oaa vvv 7rpoa€^€t,<; aeavrw, /xeXXei,^ eV^et/' 

4 airavra ravra koI avarpeiretv. oXiyov he y^peia 
earl 7rp6<; ti)V arrcoXeiav rrjv Travrcov /cal avarpo- 

5 tdJv, /jLL/cpd(; aTToarpocfyrj^ rod \6you. Xva 6 
KV^6pv)JT7)<; avarpeyjrj] rb irXolov, ou y^peiav e^et 
tT/? avTP)<; 7rapaaK€vr]<;, o(Tri<^ eU to awaar dXXa 
fiiKpbv 7r/309 Tov av€/xov av eTrtarpeylrrj, aircioXerO' 
Kcw fir) avTo<; e/ccov, vtt oir apevO v p^rjO fj h\ dircoXeTO- 

6 TOLovTov earl rt Koi evOdhe' fxticpov dv dirovva- 
rd^r]^;, dirrfKOev iravra rd fM6')(pL vvv o-vveikey- 

7 fieva. irpoaex^ ovv Tal<; (jyavraaiat';, iTraypvirvei. 
ov ydp /jLLKpou TO rrjpou/jLevov, dW alSco^ koI 
Trlari^ koX eva-rddeta, dirdOeia, dXviria, d(f}o/3La, 

8 drapa^la, ttTrXco? iXevOepia. tlvcjv /xeWei<; 
ravra TTcoXelv ; /SXeire, iroaov d^iayv. — 'AXX' ov 
rev^ofiai roiovrov ri,vo<; dvr avrov. — BXeTre Kal 
rvyxdvwv ^ irdXiv eKeivov, ri dvr avrov Xa/nfid- 

9 i^et?.^ " iyo) evKoa/iLav, €Keivo<; 87]/jLap-)(^Lai^' iK€Lvo<: 
arpari^yiav, iyco alSo). dXX* ov /cpavyd^cOy ottov 
ttTT/oeTre?* dXX^ ovk dvaari^aopai, ottov /xt) Sec. 
iXevdepo^ ydp el/xL Kal (fiiXo^; rov 6eov, Xv €Kcdv 

10 TreidcofiaL avrw. roiv 8' dXXcop ovBepo^; dvri- 
TTOielaOaL fie hel, ov ad)/jLaro<;, ov Krrjaew^;, ovk 
dp^rj^;, ov ^7;/a7;?, aTrXw? ovSevo^i' ovSe ydp 

^ airoTvyxo-f'i'y Reiske : TvyxoivovTos Elter. 
2 Xafx^dvei Schvveighauser. 

^ This sense may conceivably be contained in the MS. 
reading, but it seems more probable that the text is corrupt, 
although no convincing correction has yQt been made. — Capps 
regards ^Ktivov and iKflvos (§ 9) as referring to the same 
person. — The quotation following is what Epictetus sug- 
gests as appropriate comment for the man who has made a 
wise choice. 

BOOK IV. III. 3-10 

spent to no purpose, and all tlie pains you are now 
taking with yourself you are sure to spill out utterly 
and upset. Little is needed to ruin and upset 
everything, only a slight aberration from reason. 
For the helmsman to upset his ship he does not need 
the same amount of preparation that he does to 
keep it safe ; but if he heads it a little too much 
into the wind, he is lost ; yes, even if he does nothing 
by his own deliberate choice, but merely falls to 
thinking about something else for a moment, he is 
lost. In life also it is very much the same ; if you 
doze but for a moment, all that you have amassed 
hitherto is gone. Pay attention, therefore, to your 
sense-impressions, and watch over them sleeplessly. 
For it is no small matter that you are guarding, but 
self-respect, and fidelity, and constancy, a state of 
mind undisturbed by passion, pain, fear, or con- 
fusion — in a word, freedom. What are the things 
for w hich you are about to sell these things ? Look, 
how valuable are they ? — But, you say, I shall 
not get anything of that kind in return for what 
1 am giving up. — Observe also, when you do get 
something in the exchange, just what it is you 
are getting for what you give up.^ " I have a 
modest behaviour, he has a tribuneship ; he has a 
praetorshi}), I have self-respect. But I do not shout 
where it is unseemly ; I shall not stand up where I 
ought not ; for I am a free man and a friend of God,- 
so as to obey Him of my own free wdll. No other 
thing ought I to claim, not body, or property, or 
office, or reputation — nothing, in short ; nor does 

2 Probably this was the phrase which suggested the point 
of the famous epigram :"...!, Epictetus, was the friend 
of God" (quoted Vol. I, Introd. p. vii). 


ifceu'0<i /3ou\€Tal /jl avmroielaOaL avrwv. el yap 
i]de\ev, dyaOa ireTTonjKei avra av i/xoL vvv 8' 
ov 7r€7rou]K€V' Sia tovto ovhev Suva/nat irapa- 

11 ^rjvaL TMV e'l'ToXwr." ri'ipei ro ayaOov to aavrov 
€v TravTi, rcbv 8' aXXcov Kara to SlB6/jl€vov f^e^pi' 
Tov evXoyiaTetv iv avT0L<;, tovtm jjlovw apKOv- 
/ji€vo<;. €1 Se fJLH], SvaTVX^')(^€t<;, dTV)(7]a€i<;, k(o\v- 

12 Oyjarj, i/jLiToSiaOTjarj. ovtol elaiv ol ifcecOev 
cLTreaTaXfjievot vofioi, TavTa ra SiaTciy/jiaTa' 
TOVTcov i^7]yT]T)]i' Bet yeveaOai, tovtol<; VTroT€Tay- 
fievoVy ov T069 ^laaovpiov /cal Kaaaiov. 

S'. TTpo? Tou? Trepl TO iv r)(jv')(ia hLciysLV 

1 MeV'-'^/crOj OTL ov jiovov iTriOvfUa dpXV^ ^^^^ 
ttXovtov Taireivov<; iroiel kuI aWoL<; viroTSTay- 
fiivov^, dXXa /cal 7]avy^ia'^ fcal cr^^oX)')? Kal diro- 
Syj/jLLa^; fcal (faXoXoyua^;. aTrXco? yap olov av ^ y 

2 TO eKTo^y T) TifiT] avTOV VTTOTaaaei aXXcp. tl ovv 
Bia<j)€peL avyKXyjTOV imOvpelv rj tov /xrj elvai 
avyKXrjTLKOV ; tl Biacpepei dpXV'^ €7n6vfjL€Lv rj 
dvapyia^ ; tl hia^epei Xeyeiv otl " KaKa)<; fxoi 
ecTTiv, ovSkv e;^a) tl Trpd^o), dXXd TOi? /3f/3Xtof9 
TrpoaSiSe/iat w? veKpo^i,'' t) Xeyeiv " /caKM<i fioi 

3 ecTTLV^ ovK evaxoXo) dvayvcovai " ; &)? yap dairaa- 

1 Upton from his "codex" (after Schegk and Meibom): 

BOOK IV. III. lo-iv. 3 

He wish me to claim them. Had He so desired 
He would have made them good for me. But as it 
is, He has not so made them ; therefore 1 cannot 
transgress any of His commands." Guard your own 
good in everything you do ; and for the rest be 
content to take simply what has been given you, 
in so far as you can make a rational use of it. If 
you do not, you will have bad luck and no good 
luck, you will be hampered and hindered. These 
are the Liavs that have been sent you from God, 
these are His ordinances ; it is of these you ought 
to become an interpreter, to these you ought to 
subject yourself, not the laws of Masurius and 


To those who have set their hearts upon lirhig in peace 

Remember that it is not merely desire for office 
and wealth which makes men abject and subservient 
to othersj but desire also for peace, and leisure, and 
travel, and scholarship. For it makes no difference 
what the external object be, the value you set 
upon it makes you subservient to another. What 
difference, then, does it make for you to set your 
heart (tn the senate, or on not becoming a senator? 
What difference does it make to desire office or to 
desire not to hold office ? What difference does it 
make to say, " I am in a bad way, I have nothing to 
do, but am tied to my books as though I were a 
corpse," or to say, " I am in a bad way, I have no 
leisure to read " ? For just as salutations and office- 

1 Two distinguished jurists of the first half of the first 
century after Christ. 



4 ixol Kal (ipxh '^^^ €kt6<; iari Kal dirpoaLpeToov, 
ovTco<; fcal /Si^Xlov. rj TLvo<i €V€Ka deXeci avayvM- 
vai ; el-ne /jloi. el p.ev yap eV avro ^ /caraarpe- 
<f)€i<; ^ TO ylrv^aycoyTjOjjvac j) pLaOelv tl, yjrvxpo^ 
€1 fcal dTa\aL7r(jopo<;.^ el 8' icp' o Sec di>a(f)€- 
pet?, TL TOUT eaTLv dXko rj evpoia ; el he aoi to 
dvayiyi'coaKeiv evpoiav firj Trepirroif), tl 6(^e\o<; 

5 avTOv ; — 'A\Xa TrepiTrocel, ^r]aLV, kol Sid tovto 
dyavaKTO) o)? d7ro\eL7r6/jLevo<; avTov. — Kai rt? avTrj 

7] evpoia, T]v 6 TV^div epLTTohiaai hvvaTai, ov Xeyoj 
\\aZoap T] Katoapo? (f)LXo<^, dXXd Kopa^, avXi^T-qs, 
TTVpeTOS, dXXa Tpiopivpia ; rj 8' evpoia ovSev ovtojs 
e)(ei CO? TO hiTjveKes Kal dvepirrohioTOv. 

6 Nw KaXovjjiai npa^ajp rt, aVet/xt vvv irpoa- 
e^ojv ToZs pieTpois d Sei T7]peiv, otl atSi^/xdrco?, 

OTL dac^aXoy^, otl Slxcl ope^eax; Kal eV/cXtcreo)? 

7 Trj<; 7r/909 ra €fCT0<;, Kal Xoirrov irpoaey^w toI<; 
dvdpcoTTOt^, TLva <f)aai, ttw? KivovvTai, Kal tovto 
ov KaKor]6w<^ ovV Xva eyw yjreyeiv rj KaTayeXw, 
dXX' eV e/xavTov eTricrTpecfxo, el TavTa Kayco 
dfiapTdvw. " TTW? ovv iravawfiaL ; " rore Kal eyo) 
i^fjidpTavov' vvv 5' ovKeTL, y^dpi'^i rw Oew. . . .'* 

^ Reiske : avrov S. 

2 The words eV aiirS after this were deleted l)y Schweig- 

3 Schweighauser : raXai-nwpos S. 

* The lacuna marked by Oldfather. An answer to the 
question asked is obviously required. 

^ Answering the man who complains because he has 
" nothing to do " (§ 2). 

2 So Horace, Sat. I. 4, 136 f. : . . . numquid ego ilU 
imprudcns olim. faciam simiU ? Both were following the 
custom of Plato as recorded by Plutarch, De capienda tx 
inimicis lUilitate, 5. 

BOOK IV. IV. 3-7 

holding are among things external and those which 
lie outside the province of the moral purpose, so 
also is a book. Or for what purpose do you wish to 
read ? Tell nie. If you turn to reading merely for 
entertainment, or in order to learn something, you 
are futile and lazy. But if you refer reading to the 
proper standard, what else is this but a life of 
serenity r However, if reading does not secure for 
you a life of serenity, of what good is it f — Nay, it 
does secure me serenity, one says, and that is why 
I am discontented because I am deprived of it. — 
And what kind of serenity is this which any chance 
comer can impede, not merely Caesar, or a friend 
of Caesar, but a crow, a flutist, fever, thirty thou- 
sand other things ? But no feature of serenity is 
so characteristic as continuity and freedom from 

At this instant I aw being called to do some- 
thing ; 1 at this instant I shall go home with the 
purpose of observing the due measure which I 
ought to maintain, acting with self-respect, with 
security, apart from desire and avoidance of things 
external ; and in the second place I observe men, 
what they say, how they move, and this in no 
malignant spirit, nor in order to have something to 
censure or ridicule, but I look at myself the while, 
to see if I too am making the same mistakes.^ 
" How, then, shall I cease to make mistakes ? " 
There was a time when 1 too made mistakes, but 
now no longer, thanks be to God. . . .^ 

2 The exact connection of these two sentences is obscure. 
Matheson, with a certain degree of plausibility, divides them 
between the interlocutor and Epictetus, but they are 
generally assigned to one person. —See also the crit. note. 



S 'A^e, ravra •won^aa's Kal Trpo? tovtol<; yevo- 
/jL6vo<; ')(elpov epyov tt € tto it] Ka<i i) 'y^ikiov^; arL)(^ov'^ 
avayi'OV<i rj ypdy\ra<i aWov<; ToaovTOv<; ; orav 
yap iaOiTj'^, axOrj, on /xj] avayLyvai(JKeL<; ; ovk 
dpK7J rw Ka6^ a dveyvwKa^ eaOieLV ; orav \ovp ; 

9 orav yv/nvd^y ; Bid tl ovv iirl Trdvrwv ov')(^ ofia- 
Xl^€l<;, Kal orav K^auaapt 7rpoaL7j<; kol orav rS) 
Belvi ; el top aTraOrj Trjpet'^, el top d/cardTrXrjKTOv, 

10 el TOP KaTearaXfJievov, el /SXevrei? /jbdXXop rd 
yivofieva rj /SXeTrrj, el fir) (pdopel^i roh TrpOTC/xco- 
/jLepot<i, el fiT] eKirXt^aaovalv ae al vXat, ri aoi 

11 XeiTTeL ; jBi^Xia ; ttw? t) eirl tl ; ov^l yap eVt 
TO /3iovv TrapadKevi] rt? eariv avrrj ; to /3covp 
5' e^ aXXcop tipcjp r) tovtcop crv/jiTrXrjpovTat. 
olop dp el 6 dOX7]Tr)<i KXair) ei? to aTdSiop elaicop, 

12 OTL /IT] e^co yv/ipd^eTat. tovtcop epeKa eyv/xpd^ov, 
eirl tovto ol dXTr}pe<;, r) d(f)7], ol peapiaKOt. koI 
pvp €K€LPa ^ijTeh, ore tov epyov KaLp6<^ eaTip ; 

13 OLOP el eTrl tov crvyKaTaOeTLKov tottov irapiaTa- 
fiepoyp (paPTaaccop twp /xep KaTaXrjTTTiKcop, tmp 
8' dKaTaX7]7TTcop p,r] TavTa<i SiaKpLpeLP OeXoc/iep, 
dXX dpayiypd)(T/C€ip Td Uepl KaTaXjjyp^ecof;, 

14 Tl ovp TO acTiop ; otl ovhe-noTe tovtov epeKa 
dpeypwpiep, ovhiiroTe tovtov ePSKa eypdyj/a/xep, 

^ In the absence of pages, as in the case of the papyrus 
roll, prose as well as poetry was counted by lines. 
« See III. 15, 4. 


BOOK IV. IV. 8-14 

Come, if you have acted like this and devoted 
yourself to these things, have you done anything 
worse than reading a thousand lines, or writing a 
thousand } ^ For when you eat, are you annoyed 
because you are not reading ? Are you not satisfied 
to be eating in accordance with the princij)les you 
learned by reading ? And wlien you bathe and 
take exercise ? VVhy, then, are you not consistent 
in everything, both when you approach Caesar, and 
when you approach So-and-so .'' If you are maintain- 
ing the character of a man of tranquillity, of imper- 
turbability, of sedateness, if you are o})serving what 
happens rather than being yourself observed, if you 
are not envying those who are preferred in honour 
above you, if the mere subject-matter of actions does 
not dazzle you, what do you lack ? Books ? How, 
or for what end ? What, is not the reading of books 
a kind of preparation for the act of living ? But the 
full measure of the act of living is made up of things 
other than books. It is as though the athlete on 
entering the stadium were to fall a- wailing because 
he is not exercising outside. This was what you 
exercised for, this is the purpose of your jumping- 
weights, your wrestler's sand,^ your young training 
partners. And are you now asking for these things, 
when the time for action is come .'' It is as if, 
when in the sphere of assent we were surrounded 
with sense-impressions, some of them convincing, 
and others not convincing, we should not wish to 
distinguish between them, but to read a treatise On 
Comprehension ! 

What, then, is the reason for this ? It is because 
we have never read for this purpose, we have never 
written for this purpose — in our actions, to treat in 


Xv eirX Toov epycov Kara (pvaiv XP^f^^^^ '^^^^ 
irpoaiTLiTTOTjaaL'^ <^ai>TaaiaL<^, aXX' avrov fcara- 
Xi]yo/x€v iv TM ^ jjLaOelv, tl Xeyerat, Kal aWo) 
hvvaaOai i^yyijaacrdac, top cruWoyia/jLov ava- 

15 \vaai Kal tov viroOeTLKOv i(f)oBevaaL. 8ia tovto 
OTTOV r) a-TTOvS^], iK€L Kal 6 6/jL7roSiafj.6<;. OeXet'^ 
ra fXT] iirl aol i^ aiTavTO<^ ; kcoXvov roivvv, i/jLiro- 

16 Bl^ov, aiTOTvyyave, el Be ra Hepl 6pfi'r]<i rovrov 
eveKa avaycyvcaaKoifiev, oi)^ Xva tBcofMev, tl Xeye- 
rai irepl 6pp.r}<^, dXX' Iva ev 6pfi(Ofj,ev'^ ra Hepl 
6pe^e(o<; Be Kal eKKXiaew^;, Lva pLrjiror opeyojievoi 
a7roTvy)(^dv(i)/ji6v jJirjr eKKXivovre^; irepiiriTTTW fiev 
ra Ylepl Ka6i]Kovro^ B\ Xva fiefivrfpLevov rS)v 
(T'X^eaeaiv p^rjBev dXoyLarco<; p,rjB€ irap' avrd ttoloo- 

17 pLev ovK av r^yavaKrovpLSV rrpo<; ra dvayv(£>crp,ara 
epTToBi^opLevoi, dXXd ra) ra epya diroBLBovai ra 
KardXXrjXa rjpKovpeOa Kal r)pLdfiovp.€v dv ov 
ravra, a p^eypi vvv dpiOpelv eWiajJieOa, " aij/juepov 

18 dveyvwv an^^ovf; roaovaBe, eypayjra roaovaBe,'^ 
dXXd " (jrjpepov oppif) expv^^^/^V^-'* ^^ rrapayyeX- 
Xerai vtto rcop (f)LXoa6(f)0)v, ope^et ovk e-^pT^adpijv, 
eKKXla-ei tt/do? p,6va ra irpoaLpenKd, ov Kare- 
TrXdyjjp rov Belva, ovk eBvawrrrjOiiv vtto tov 
Belvo^, ro dveKTLKOv eyvpivaaa, ro dcf)eKriK6p, ro 
(jvvepyiiTLKov^^ Kal ovrco<^ dv T^vyaptarov pLev rw 
6e(p e(p' oh Bet ev')(^api(7relv. 

19 NOi^ 3' TjpLeh OVK tapiev, on Kal avrol dXXov 
rpoTTOv opLOLOL roU TToXXoh yivupeOa. dXXo<i 
(po^elraL, pir] ovk dp^y av, pL7]^ dp^rj';. prjBa- 

1 iv T(f) added by Richards. 

* A late hand in S : 'lva 6*w/j.fv S. 

8 Wolf : M^<ru 3. 

BOOK IV. IV. 14-19 

accordance with nature tlie sense-impressions which 
come to us ; but we stop with havin<r learned what is 
said, and with the abihty to explain it to someone 
else, and with analysing the syllogism, and examin- 
ing the hypothetical argument. That is why, where 
our heart is set, there also our impediment lies. 
Do you wish at any cost to have the things that 
are not under your control ? Very w^ell then, be 
hindered, be obstructed, fail. If we should read a 
treatise O71 Choice, not in order to know about the 
subject, but in order to make correct choices ; a 
treatise On Desire and Aversion, in order that we 
may never fail in our desire nor fall into that which 
we are trying to avoid ; a treatise On Duty, in order 
that we may remember our relations in society and 
do nothing irrationally or contrary to the principles 
of duty ; we should not be vexed by being hindered 
in regard to what we have read, but we should find 
satisfaction in doing the deeds required by our mutual 
relations, and we should be reckoning, not the things 
which we have been accustomed hitherto to reckon : 
"To-day I have read so many lines, I have written 
so many," but, " To-day I made a choice in the way 
that the philosophers teach, I did not entertain desire, 
I avoided only those things that are in the sphere of 
the moral purpose, I was not overawed by So-and-so, 
I was not put out of countenance by So-and-so, I 
exercised my patience, my abstinence, my co-opera- 
tion," and thus we should be giving thanks to God for 
those things for which we ought to give Him thanks. 
But as it is, we do not realize that we ourselves, 
though in a different fashion, grow like the multi- 
tude. Another man is afraid that he will not have 
an office ; you are afraid that you will. Do not so, 



20 /Ltfo?, avOpwne. aXX' ci)? KarayeKa^ tov (po/Sov- 
fievov fir} ovK^ ap^ai, oi/to)? fcal aavrov KarayeXa. 
ovSev yap hiachepet rj BLyjrjjv irvpeaaovra rj &>«? 

21 XvacrcoBrj vBpo(p6/3ov elvaL. rj ttm^ en hvvrjar] 
eliTelv TO TOV XwKpaTOV^ " el TavTjj <pi\ov tw 
060), TavTT] yiveaOco" ; Sok€l<;, ^(OKpdTrj<; el 
eTreOu/jiec iv AvKeiw r) ev WKaSrj/jLeia a-)(^o\d^€iv 
Kal BiaXeyeaOai Ka6' i)/jL€pav Toh v€ol<;, €v/<:6\a)<; 
av iaTpaTsvaaTO 6adKi<; iaTpaTevaaTO ; ov'y^i S' 
wSvpcT av Kal earevev " TaXa9 eyco, vvv evOdS^ 
aTV^o) d9\L0<i hvvdfievo's €v KvKeiw yXid^eaOac " ; 

22 TOVTO ydp aov to epyov r)v, rfkidt^ecrOai ; ovyX 
he TO evpoelv, to d,K(o\vT0v elvai, to drrapa-no- 
hiaTOV ; Kal ttw? av ert ^v ScoKpdTrj^, el TavTa 
oiSvpeTO ; TTw? dv gtl ev tj} (f)vXaK[] Traidva'^ 
eypa(f)€v ; 

23 'AttXw? ovv eKeivov fiefivrjao, oti, irdv o e^o) 
rr)? 7rpoaipeaeoD<; r?}? aavTOV TifirjcreL^, dirooXeaa^ 
TYjV irpoaipeaLv. e^co S* eaTLV ov fiovov dp'^rj, 
dXXd Kal dvap'X^la, ov fiovov da^^oXia, dXXa Kal 

24 axoX^h " ^^^ ovv i/xe iv rw Oopvfiw tovtw 
Steady €Lv ; " Tt Xeyei<; Oopv^w ; ev rroXXol^ 
dvdpco7roL<; ; Kal tl ^aXeTToz/ ; So^ov ev ^ OXv fXTr ia 
elvaL, Travrjyvpiv avTov -tjyijaaL, KaKel dXXo<; 
aXXo TL KeKpayev, aXXo<; dXXo tl irpdaaeL, dXXo'^ 

ovK added by Schweighauser, 

1 Plato, Crito, 43 D (slightly modified). Compare I. 4, 24, 
wliere the quotation is exact. 

' Referring to the famous gymnasia in these places, 
^ Plato, P/taedo, 60 D, sa^'s that he translated some fables 
of Aesop into verse and composed a hymn {irpooifxiov) to 
Apollo. This latter composition is called a paean by 


BOOK IV. IV. 19-24 

man! But just as you laugh at the man who is 
afraid he will not have an office, so also laugh at 
yourself. For it makes no difference whether a 
j)erson is thirsty with fever, or is afraid of water 
like a man with the rabies. Or how can you any 
longer say with Socrates, " If so it please God, so 
be it " ? ^ Do you suppose that, if Socrates had 
yearned to spend his leisure in the Lyceum or the 
Academy,^ and to converse daily with the young 
men, he would have gone forth cheerfully on all the 
military expeditions in which he served? Would 
he not have wailed and groaned, " Wretched man 
that I am I here I am now in misery and mis- 
fortune, when I might be sunning myself in the 
Lyceum"? What, was this your function in life, 
to sun yourself? Was it not rather to be serene, 
to be unhampered, to be unhindered ? And how 
would he have been Socrates any longer, if he had 
wailed like this ? How would he have gone on to 
write paeans in prison ? ^ 

In a w^ord, then, remember this — that if you are 
going to honour anything at all outside the sphere 
of tiie moral pur})ose, you have destroyed your 
moral purpose. And outside the sphere of your 
moral purpose lie not merely office, but also 
freedom from office ; not merely business, but also 
leisure. '^ Am I now, therefore, to pass my life in 
this turmoil ? " What do you mean by '' turmoil " ? 
Among many people ? And what is there hard about 
that? Imagine that you are in Olympia, regard the 
turmoil as a festival. There, too, one man shouts this 
and another that ; one man does this and another 

Diogenes Laertiiis, 2, 42, who professes to give the first line 
of it. 



Tft) dWay ivaeUrar iv tol<; ^aXaveioK; 6)(\o<;. 
Kal TtV i)fjLO)v ov -x^aipei rfj Travyjyvpei ravrrj kol 

25 6hvvcoi.Levo<^ avTi)'^ airaWdaaeraL ; fit) yivou 
hv(jdpeaTO<^ /.iTjSe KaKoaroiiay^O'^ 7rpo<; ra <yii>6- 
fxeva. " TO 6^o<; aaTTpov, SpLfiv yap "• " to fieXt 
(Tairpov, dvarpeireL yap jjlov rrjv efii'"* '*\d')(^ai'a 
ou OeXco^ ovTco<; Kal ** (tx^oXt^v ov OeXo), iprjixia 

26 earivr "' oj^Xov ov OeXw, 66pv^6<; eariv.^ dXX 
dv fxev ovTO)(; (f^eprj rd Trpdyfiara, ware fiovov rj 
[ler dXiywv hie^ayayelv, y)av)(^iav avro KdXec Kal 
XP^ '^(p TrpdypLan et? 6 hel' XdXet aeavrw, 
yvfjiva^e ra? ^avraaia^, i^epyd^ov ra? irpoXr]- 
yjr€L<;. dv 8' et? o^Xov efXTrear)^, dyoiva avro Xeye, 

27 7Tav7]yvpLV, eopri]v, avveoprd^ecv ireipo) rol<; 
dvdpcoTTOL^. ri ydp cariv ySiov Oeajxa too c^iXav- 
6p(t)7ray rj dvOpwiroi iroXXoi ; I'mrfov dyeXa'^ rj 
^ooiv //Sew? opcofiev, rrXola rroXXd orav I'^cofjiev, 
Biax^ofieOa' dv6p(i)Trov<i 7roXXov<; /SXeTrcov Tt? 

28 dvidrat, ; " dXXd KaraKpavyd^ovaL fiov.'^ ovkovv 
r) dfC07] aov i/nrroSL^erai. ri ovv 7rpo<; ere ; jMrj n 
Kal Svva/jii<; r) ral^ (f)avraaiat<; ;^p7;o-T£AC7; ; Kal 
rL<; ae kwXvsl ope^ei Kal eKKXiacL XPI^^^^ Kara 
(f)vcriv, op/ifj Kal dcpop/jifj ; 7roLo<; 66pv/3o<; tt/oo? 
rovro iKavo^; ; 

^ Referring clearly, I believe, to the baths at Olynipia, 
where the accommodation seems to have been inadequate. 
See I. 6, 26. 

2 Cf. "But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved 
with compassion on them " (Matt. ix. 36) ; and the remark 
attributed to Abraham Lincoln: "God must have loved 
the common people ; He made so manj' of them." The 
characteristic emotions here indicated as arising at the con- 


BOOK IV. TV. 24-28 

that ; one man jostles another ; there is a crowd in 
the baths. ^ And yet who of us does not take dehght 
in the Olympic festival and leave it with sorrow ? 
Do not become peevish or fastidious towards events. 
" The vinegar is rotten^ for it is sour." " The honey 
is rotten, for it upsets my digestion." " I don't like 
vegetables." In the same fashion you say, ^' I don't 
like leisure, it is a solitude." " 1 don't like a crowd, 
it is turmoil." Say not so, but if circumstances 
bring you to spend your life alone or in the com- 
pany of a few, call it peace, and utilize the condition 
for its proper end ; converse with yourself, exercise 
your sense-impressions, develop your preconceptions. 
If, however, you fall in with a crowd, call it games, 
a festival, a holiday, try to keep holiday with the 
people. For what is pleasanter to a man who loves 
his fellow-men than the sight of large numbers 
of them ? 2 We are glad to see herds of horses or 
cattle ; when we see many ships we are delighted ; 
is a person annoyed at the sight of many human 
beings ? " Yes, but they deafen me with their shout- 
ing." Oh, well, it is your hearing that is interfered 
with ! What, then, is that to you } Your faculty 
of employing external impressions is not interfered 
with, is it .'' And who prevents you from making 
natural use of desire and aversion, of choice and 
refusal ? What manner of turmoil avails to do 

templation of large numbers of one's fellow-men, though 
somewhat ditferent in tone from that in Epictetus, as well 
as from one another, are still essentially at one with the 
Stoic ideal of sympathetic fellowship, and are fundamentally 
opposed to that selfish or snobbish aversion towards mankind, 
which became so prevalent, even in religious circles, during 
the great decadence of ancient civilization. 



29 ^v fjLQvov fie/ivyjao rcov kuOoXikow " tl i/iov, 
ri ovK ifiov ; rl /xoi BiSoraL ; ri OeXei fie iroLelv 

30 6 6eh<^ vvv, t/ ov OeXei ; " irpo oXiyov ■)(p6vov 
rjdeXev ae axoXd^eiv, cravrcp XaXelv, ypd(f)€tv 
Trepl rouTcov, dvayiyvooaKeiv, uKoveiv, irapa- 
crK6vd^€adar €ax€<i et? tovto iKavov y^povov. vvv 
a 01 \iy6i " eXde ijSrj eirl rov dyoiva, Bel^ov i'j/jllv, 
ri €/iaOe<;, ttw? 7]6Xr)aa<^. P'^XP^ tlvo^ yvpLvaa- 
6)']aj] fiovo^ ; 7]Sr] Kaipo^ yvwvai ae, TTorepov rwv 
d^iovLKcov el Tt? dOXrjTwv r) eKeivcov, ot ryv oIkov- 

31 fievTjv irepiepy^ovraL viKcop^voc.'' rl, ovv dyavaK- 
reh ; ovSeU dycov ^t%a ^ Oopv^ov yiverai. 
TToXXov^ Bel 7rpoyv/jLvaard<; elvai, iroXXov^ rov<; 
€7rLKpavyd^ovra<i, 7roXXov<; emardra^, 7roXXov<; 

32 deard^. — 'AXV iyco rjOeXov i(p' i](TV)(^La<; Sidyeiv. 
— OtpLco^e roivvv Kal areve, coairep d^io<i el. ri<^ 
yap dXXr) p.ei^(ov ravrfj^ ^rjpia rw aTraiSevro) 
Kal direiOovvrL rol<; Oeioi'i BiardypuaaLV rj ro 
XvrrelaOai, ro rrevOelv, ro (^Oovelv, dirXMi; ro 
dTV)(elv Kal Bvarv^elv ; rovrcov ov 6eXet.<; diraX- 
Xd^ac aeavTov ; 

33 Kal 7rw9 drraXXd^u) ; — Ov iroXXdKL^ 7]Kovaa<;, 
orL ope^iv apai ae Bel 7ravr6Xco<;, rrjv eKKXiaiv 
eirl p,6va rpeyfrai rd irpoaiperiKd, dc^elvai ae Bel 
rrdvra, ro aM/xa, rr/v Krvjaiv, rrjv (prj/xrjv, rd 
ySt/SXta, 66pv/3ov, dp^d^;, dvap)(^iav ; ottov yap dv 
kXlvt)<;, eBovXevaa^;, V7rerdyy]<;y KO}Xvro<i iyevov, 

1 Ed. of Salamanca, Bentley, and Upton's "codex" (after 
Schegk); 5id S. 

BOOK IV. IV. 29-33 

Do but keep in reinenihrance your general prin- 
ciples : " Wliat is mine ? What is not mine ? What 
has been given me ? What does God will that I do 
now, what does He not will ? " A little while ago 
it was His will for you to be at leisure, to converse 
with yourself, to write about these things, to read, 
to listen, to prepare yourself ; you had time sufficient 
for tliat. Now^ God says to you, '' Come at length 
to the contest, show us what you have learned, how 
you have trained yourself. How long will you exer- 
cise alone } Now the time has come for you to discover 
whether you are one of the athletes who deserve 
victory, or belong to the number of those who travel 
about the world and are everywhere defeated." 
Why, then, are you discontented? No contest is 
held without turmoil. There must be many train- 
ing-partners, many to shout applause, many officials, 
many spectators. — But I wanted to live a life of 
peace. — Wail, then, and groan, as you deserve to do. 
For what greater penalty can befall the man who is 
uninstructed and disobedient to the divine injunc- 
tions than to grieve, to sorrow, to envy, in a word 
to have no good fortune but only misfortune ? Do 
you not wish to free yourself from all this .'* 

And how shall I free myself? — Have you not 
heard over and over again that you ought to eradi- 
cate desire utterly, direct your aversion towards the 
things that lie within the sphere of the moral pur- 
pose, and these things only, that you ought to give 
up everything, your body, your property, your repu- 
tation, your books, turmoil, office, freedom from 
office ? For if once you swerve aside from this 
course, you are a slave, you are a subject, you have 
become liable to hindrance and to compulsion, you 



34 cLvayKaaTO^;, 0X09 eV dXkoi^. dWa to KXedv- 
6ov<i TTpo-^eipov 

dyov Se fx, o) Zev, Kal av y 7; XleTTpwfievrj. 

OeXer ei? 'Pcofjbrjv ; et? 'Fco/iyjv.^ et? Fvapa ; eU 
Vvapa. et? \\Oi]va^ ; £t? 'A^r/Va?. 6i? <f)v\a- 

35 K7]v ; ei? <f)v\aKr,v. dv diTa^ €L7rr)<; '* ttotc Tt9 
€19 'A^/;z'a? aTTeXOr} ; " clttcoXov. dvdyKTj ye rav- 
T7]v rrjv ope^iv dreXr) fiev ovaav dTV')(r) ae iroielvy 
reXeiwOelaav he Kevov, e(f oU ov Bel iiTatpo- 
/levov TidXiv dv €fjLTroBia6fj<;, hvarv)(rj, irepi- 

36 TTLTTTOPTa 0^9 OV OcXei'^. d(^e<; ovv ravra nravra. 
" KaXal ai ^ KOrjvair dXXd to evBaifiovelv KdX- 
Xiov TToXv, TO aTraOrj elvai, to aTapw^^^ov, to cttI 

37 fMrjhevl KelaOai rd ad irpdy/iara. " 06pvfio<; ev 

Pco/jLr} Kal da'TTaa/jLOL.'' dXXd to evpoelv dvrl 
TrdvTCDv Tcbv SvaKoXwv. el ovv tovtcdv Kaip6<; 
eariv, Sid tl ovk alpeL<; avroiv rrjV eKKXtaiv ; ri^ 

38 dvdyKTj &)9 oVoi^ ^vXoKoirovfJLevov d-^^Oo^opelv ; el 
he p,7], opa OTL ^ hel ae hovXeveiv del tS) hvva- 
fievM aoL BiaTTpd^aadai rrjv e^ohov, tm irdv 
efiTTohiaai hwafievo), KdKelvov Oepaireveiv 0)9 

39 Mia 6S09 eVl evpoiav (tovto Kal opOpov Kal 

^ The second els'PciiJ.T]v is supplied in the margin by Sb. 
2 Wolf (and Upton's " codex ") : ri S. 

^ From a celebrated hymn. See on II. 23, 42. 

* An island used as a place of exile. See on I. 25, 19. 

^ There may be here an allusion (before Lucian and 
Apuleius) to the theme of a (bewitched) ass trying to escape 
from being an ass, and constantly being hindered. In the 
famous romance the ass is certainly often enough overloaded 
and soundlj' cudgelled. 


BOOK IV. IV. 33-39 

are entirely under the control of others. Nay, the 
word of Cleanthes is ready at hand, 

Lead thou me on, O Zeus, and Destiny. ^ 

Will ye have me go to Rome ? 1 go to Rome. To 
Gyara ? I go to Gyara.^ To Athens .'' I go to 
Athens. To prison ? 1 go to prison. If but once 
you say, " Oh, when may a man go to Athens ? " 
you are lost. This wish, if unfulfilled, must neces- 
sarily make you unfortunate ; if fulfilled, vain and 
puffed up over the wrong kind of thing ; again, 
if you are hindered, you suffer a misfortune, falling 
into what you do not wish. Give up, then, all these 
things. "Athens is beautiful." But happiness is much 
more beautiful, tranquillity, freedom from turmoil, 
having your own affairs under no man's control. 
"There is turmoil in Rome, and salutations." But 
serenity is worth all the annoyances. If, then, the 
time for these things has come, why not get rid of 
your aversion for them : Why must you needs bear 
burdens like a belaboured donkey ? Otherwise, I 
would have you see that you must be ever the slave 
of the man who is able to secure your release, to 
the man who is able to hinder you in everything,^ 
and you must serve him as an Evil Genius.* 

There is but one way to serenity (keep this 

* For this rare spirit of folk-lore, see Aristophanes, 
Equites, 111-12, where lie is called the Aal/j.'xy KaKodaifjwy. 
His counterpart is the much commoner 'Ayadbs Aaijuwy. The 
Evil Genius, though seldom referred to (and in fact ignored 
by many, if not all the standard works of reference, I 
believe), is presupposed by the association of the KaKoSai- 
fioyia-rai (Lysias, frag. 53, 2, Thalheim), and by the very 
word KaKo5aifj.<vu itself. For similar devil-worship, cf. I. 
19, 6, of the God Fever. 


fieO^ y)l.Lepav koX vvKTwp earco 7vp6-)(€ipov), 
airoaraaL^ rcjv dirpoaipeTcov, to fXTjSev tSiov 
))y€La6aL, to Trapahovvai ircivTa tTo SaifiovLO), 

TTj TU^T), €K€LVOV^ ilT LT p 077 OV <i aVTUiV ITOLI^CJ aaOai, 

40 ou? Kai 6 Zeu? ireTroirjKev, avTov he tt/oo? ev\ 
elvau fx6v(p, tm ISlw, tm ukcoXvtw, koI ava- 
ytyvodaKeiv iirl tovto ava(^epovTa ttjv dvdyvcoaLP 

41 Kal ypd(p€LV Kal dKOveiv. hud tovto ov hvpafiai 
elTTelv (piXoTropov, dv dKovaw tovto fiovov, otl 
dvayiyvoLXJKei tj <ypd(f>ei, /cav TTpoaOfj Tt?, otl 
6\a<; Ta^ vvKTa<;, oviro) Xeyo), dv fjuy yvco ttjv 
dpacpopdv. ovSe yap crv Xey€i<i ^lXottopov top 
Sid iraiSiaKdpLOP dypvirpovpTa' ov tolpvv ouS' 

42 e"7co. dXX' edv fxev 6P6Ka Bo^ij'i avTO ttoitj, X67a> 
(f)LX6So^op, dv 3* €V€Ka dpyvpLOV, (f)LXdpyvpov, ov 

43 i^iXoTTOVOV. dv S' eirl to I'Siov rjye/ioviKOP dva- 
(^epr) TOP TTOvov, Xv eKelvo KaTa (jivaiv e^V f<cu 

44 Bie^dyrj, totc Xeyco jjlovop (^lXottopov. fiyjSeiroTe 
yap dirb tmv kolpojp [iy]T irraLVCLTe /jl^Jtc -y^reyeTe, 
dXXd diro SoyfidTcop. TavTa yap eaTU Ta iSia 
eicdoTOV, Ta Kal Td<; irpd^eL^ al(TXpd<; ?} KaXd<i 

45 TTOLOVPTa' TOVTCOP /jL€fjLPr}/jLepo<; %aZ/oe rot? ira- 

46 povaip Kal dydira TavTa, mp Kaipo^ €<ttip. et 
Tipa 6pa<;, o)p efiaOe^ Kal SieaKeyfrco, drraPTchpTd 
aoL et? TO, epya, evf^paipov €it^ avTol<^. el to 
KaKu)]Oe'i Kal XoiSopop diroTeOeiCFai, fxe/jLeLcoKa<;, 


BOOK IV. IV. 39-46 

thout^ht ready for use at dawn, and by day, and at 
night), and that is to yield up all claim to the things 
that lie outside the s})here of tlie moral purpose, to 
regard nothing as your own possession ; to surrender 
everything to the Deity, to Fortune ; to yield every- 
thing to the supervision of those persons whom 
even Zeus has made supervisors ; and to devote your- 
self to one thing only, that which is your own, that 
which is free from hindrance, and to read referring 
your reading to this end, and so to write and 
so to listen. That is why I cannot call a man 
industrious, if I hear merely that he reads or writes, 
and even if one adds that he sits up all night, I cannot 
yet say that the man is industrious, until 1 know 
for what end he does so. For neither do you call 
a man industrious who loses sleep for the sake of a 
wench ; no more do I. But if he acts this way for 
the sake of reputation, I call him ambitious ; if for 
the sake of money, I call him fond of money, not fond 
of toil. If, however, the end for which he toils is 
his own governing principle, to have it be, and live 
continually, in accordance with nature, then and 
then only I call him industrious. For I would not 
have you men ever either praise or blame a man for 
things that may be either good or bad, but only for 
judgements. Because these are each man's own 
possessions, which make his actions either base or 
noble. Bearing all this in mind, rejoice in what 
you have and be satisfied with what the moment 
brings. If you see any of the things that you have 
learned and studied thoroughly coming to fruition 
for you in action, rejoice in these things. If you 
have put away or reduced a malignant disposition, 
and reviling, or impertinence, or foul language, or 



et, TO TrpoTreri'i, el to ala^poXo'yov, el to el/catov, 
el TO emaeavpiievovy el ov Kiufj e(^' 0I9 irpoTepov, 
el ovx ofjioiw^ y o)<^ irpoTepov, eopTTjp ayeiv 
Suvaaat, KaO^ ijfiepav, ai'jfxepov, otl /caXw? dve~ 
aTpdcf)7]<; ev Ta>Se tw epyo), avptov, otl ev eTepo), 

47 TToaci) fxei^wv aiTia 6vaLa<i rj viraTela rj eirap^ia. 
TavTa €K aov avTOV ylveTai aoi KaX cltto tcjv 
Oewv. eKelvo fxeixvTjcro, rt? hihov^i ccttl Kal 

48 Tiaiv KOL Sia TLva. tovtoi<; TOL<i hta\o'yiafjLOL<; 
evTp6(j)6p,evo<; eVt Btacpeprj, ttov mv evBai/jiovi]aeL(;, 
TTov MP dpea'€L<; tw Oeo) ; ov 7ravTa')(^66ev to 
'laov dire^ovcnv ; ov 7raPTa)(^60ep oyaoio)? opoxjip 
TO, yip6\xepa ; 

e'. Tlpo<; TOL'9 fia^iiJLOv^i kol OjjpLcoBei*;. 

1 O Ka\o<; KOi dyad6<; out'' auro? fid^^^eTai tipl 

2 ovT dWop ia KUTa Svpa/jLip. irapdheLyfia Se kol 
TovTOV KaOdirep Kal tcop dWcop eKKeLTai i)iup 6 
/9to? o S&)/f/oaTou9, 09 ov fjLOPOP avT0<; iraPTa^ov 
i^e(pvyep fxd-)(r]p, dW ovB' d\\ov<; pbd-^eaOai eta. 

3 opa TTapd 'B,epo(f>MPTL ip tw XvjjLTTOcriw 7r6(Ta<; 
p,d')(^a<^ \e\vKePy ttw? ttuXip t)pea)(eTO (dpaa-v- 
fid-)(^ov, 7r6)<s H(t)\ov, TTws" KaWiKXeov;, ttw? t?}? 
yvpaLfc6<i 7/veL^€To, ttw? tov vlov e^eXeyXofMepof; 

^ The first in Plato's Republic^ Book I ; the other two in 
his Oorgius. 

BOOK IV. IV. 46 -V. 3 

recklessness, or negligence ; if you are not moved 
by the things that once moved you, or at least not 
to the same degree, then you can keep festival day 
after day ; to-day because you behaved well in this 
action, to-morrow because you behaved well in 
another. How much greater cause for thanksgivjxig 
is this than a consulship or a governorship 1 Tiiese 
things come to you from your own self and from 
the gods. Remember who the Giver is, and to 
whom He gives, and for what end. If you are 
brought up in reasonings such as these, can you any 
longer raise the questions where you are going to be 
happy, and where you will please God ? Are not 
men everywhere equally distant from God ? Do 
they not everywhere have the same view of what 
comes to pass ? 


Against the contentious and brutal 

The good and excellent man neither contends 
with anyone, nor, as far as he has the power, does 
he allow others to contend. We have an example 
before us of this also, as well as of everything else, 
in the life of Socrates, who did not merely himself 
avoid contention upon every occasion, but tried to 
prevent others as well from contending. See in 
Xenophon's Symposium how many contentions he 
has resolved, and again how patient he was with 
Thrasymachus, Polus, and Callicles,^ and habitually 
so with his wife, and also with his son when the 
latter tried to confute him with sophistical argu- 



4 utt' avTOV, ao(pL^6/j.€VO<;. \iav yap acrc/'aXw? 
€/j,€/jLvr}To, OTL ovSe\<; aWorplov yyefiovi/cov kv- 

5 pievei. ovhev ovv dWo i^OeXev ?/ to Iolov. tl 
S' iarl Touro ; ov^ Ik . . 09 ovro^ . . .^ Kara 
(f)vaLV' TOVTO yap aWorpiov (iW otto)? €K6lvo)v 
TO, iSia iTOLOvvTcov, ft)? auTOt? hoKsl, avTo<; /jL7]8€v 
yrrov Kara (^vctlv e^ei koI Sie^d'^ec^ fiovov rd 
avTOv TTOLWV 7r/309 TO fcdfcelvovf; ex^^^ Kara cpvaiv. 

6 TOVTO yap iaTiv, o del TrpoKeiTai tw koKw kul 
dyaOw. aTpaTrjyyjcraL ; ov' dW\ dv BtSa)Tai, 
eirl TavTt]'^ t?}? v\r}<; to lSlov rjye/jLOVLKov Trjprjaai. 
yrjpLai ; ov' dW\ dv BtBcoTai yd/jLO<;, ev TavTrj 

7 T^ v\r] KaTa ^vaiv e^ovra avTOV Trjprjaai. dp 
Se Oekr) TOP VI OP fir) d/jbapTapeiP rj t7]p yvpalKU, 
OeXec Ta dWoTpia fir] elpai dWoTpia. kul to 
TraLhevecrOai tovt ecTTLP, fiapOdpetv Ta i8ia Kal 
Ta dWoTpia. 

8 rioO ovp eTi /ubd'xyj'i TOTTO? TO) ouTO)<; e^oPTL ; 
fjLT) yap 6avfj,d^€L tl tcjp yipo/xipwp ; /i?) yap 
/caipop avTU) (paupeTat ; firj yap ov x^ipora Kal 
XaXencoTepa Trpoahe)(€Tai Ta irapd tcop (pavXcov 
rj dTTojBaipeL avTU) ; /jurj yap ov KepBo^; Xoyl^eTai 
Trap 6 TL diroXeLTTOvaiP ^ tov eaxuTOV ; " eXoL- 

9 Soprjaep ae 6 helpa^ iroXXij %apt9 avTw, otl 

^ Schenkl places a lacuna here : Ik . . os ovtos Kara S. 

2 Salmasius : e|a|et -S'. 

3 Schenkl : airoXe'nraa-iv S. 

^ This may be a reference to Xenophon, Memorabilia, 11. 
2, as is commonly supposed, but if so, it is a highly in- 
adequate presentation of the case there described, where 
Socrates is the "confuter," and the son merely makes a few 
natural and (juite conventional attempts to defend himself. I 

BOOK IV. V. 3-9 

ments.^ For Socrates bore very firmly in mind that 
no one is master over anotlier's governinf^ principle. 
He willed, accordingly, nothing but what was his 
own. And what is that? [Not to try to make 
other people act ^] in accordance with nature, for 
that does not belong to one ; but, while they are 
attending to their own business as they think best, 
himself none the less to be and to remain in a state 
of harmony w ith nature, attending only to his own 
business, to the end that they also may be in 
harmony with nature. For this is the object which 
the good and excellent man has ever before him. 
To become praetor ? No ; but if this be given him, 
to maintain his own governing principle in these 
circumstances. To marry ? No ; but if marriage be 
given him, to maintain himself as one who in these 
circumstances is in harmony with nature. But if he 
wills that his son or his wife make no mistake, he 
wills that what is not his own should cease to be 
not his own. And to be getting an education means 
this : To be learning what is your own, and what is 
not your own. 

Where, then, is there any longer room for con- 
tention, if a man is in such a state ? Why, he is 
not filled with wonder at anything that happens, is 
he ? Does anything seem strange to him ? Does 
he not expect worse and harsher treatment from 
the wicked than actually befalls him ? Does he not 
count it as gain whenever they fail to go to the limit ? 
" So-and-so reviled you." I am greatly obliged to 

suspect that Epictetua was referring (following Chrysippus, 
probably) to some other incident recorded in the very large 
body of Socratic dialogues that once existed. 

* This is probabh' the general sense of a passage where 
something has evidently been lost. 



/x;/ eirXTj^ev. " aWa fcal eTrXif^ev." ttoWi] 
-)(^dpL<^, on /jltj erpcoaep. " aWa koX erpcoaev.^' 

10 TToWy] '^dpL's, OTL JUT) direKTeLvev. ttots ^ap 
e/xaOev y irapa tlvl, on i^fiepov ian, ^wov, on 
(f)i.\dX\i]\ov, on peyciXi] ^Xafirj rw dhiKOVvn 
avrrj i) dBiKua ; ravra ovv firj fiefJLaOijKco^; /iijSe 
7re7r€La/jL6vo<;, Sid tl firj dKoXovdijarj tgo (f)aivo- 

11 /jL€i'(p (Tvp,(j)6popn ; " ^e/3Xr)K€v 6 ycLTcov XiOov^." 
1X1] n ovv av rj/jLdprrjKa'^ ; " dXXd rd iv oXkw 

12 Karedyrj." crv ovv aKcvdptov el ; ov, dXXd 
7rpoaipecrL<;. tl ovv croi SlSoraL Trpo? rovro ; co? 
fi€v XvKcp dvnBdfcvetv fcal dXXov<; 7rXeLova<; 
Xt^ou? ^dXXcLV dvOpcoiTw S' idv ^^;t^?, irri- 
aK€\}raL aov to Tafiieiov, tSe Tiva^ hwdfiei^; 6)(^cov 
eX7]Xvda<;' /itj tl t}]V d^jpLcoBtj ; fi7] tl ttjv fivrjai- 

13 KaKy^TiKrjv ; iVtto? ovv ttot' uOXlo^ idTLV ; otuv 
Tcov (pvaLKWv Bvvd/jLecov aTeprjTaL' ov^ OTav /jlt) 
Svvr]TaL KOKKV^eLV, dXX' otuv /xrj Tpe)(^€LV 

14 Be Kvcov ; otuv ireTeaOaL fir) hvvi)TaL ; dXX' 
OTav fir) l')(yeveLv. fir) ttot' ovv ovTa><i kol 
dv6p(i)7ro<; BvaTv^i)<^ iaTiv ov\ o fir) Bvvdfievo<; 
XeovTa<i TTviyeiv r) dvSpLdvTa<; TrepiXafi^dveLV {ov 
yap iTpo^ TovTo Bvvdfi€L<i TLvd^ ^X(^v iXjjXvOev 
irapa t^9 (f)va6co<;), dXX' 6 d7roXcoX6Ka)<; to 

1 See IV. 1, 120. 

2 A familiar idea in Plato, especially in the Crito, Gorgias, 
and Republic, but nowhere, as I recall, in exactly these words, 
though Crito 49 B and lU^ublic 366 E and 367 D bear a close 


BOOK IV. V. 9-14 

him for not striking me. " Yes, but he struck you 
too." I am greatly obliged to him for not wounding 
me. " Yes, but he wounded you too," I am greatly 
obliged to him for not killing me. For when, or from 
what teacher, did he learn that man is a tame animal,^ 
that he manifests mutual affection, that injustice in 
itself is a great injury to the unjust man.^'^ If, 
therefore, he has never learned this, or become 
persuaded of this, why shall he not follow what 
appears to him to be his advantage ? " My neigh- 
bour has thrown stones." You have not made a 
mistake_, have you ? " No, but my crockery is 
broken." Are ^o?^ a piece of crockery, then ? No, 
but 1/oit are moral purpose. What, then, has been 
given you with which to meet this attack ? If you 
seek to act like a wolf, you can bite back and throw 
more stones than your neighbour did ; but if you 
seek to act like a man, examine your store, see what 
faculties you brought with you into the world. 
You brought no faculty of brutality, did you ? No 
faculty of bearing grudges, did you ? When, then, 
is a horse miserable ? When he is deprived of his 
natural faculties. Not when he can't sing "cuckoo!" 
but when he can't run. And a dog .^ Is it when he 
can't fly f No, but when he can't keep the scent. 
Does it not follow, then, that on the same principles 
a man is wretched, not when he is unable to choke 
lions,^ or throw his arms about statues* (for no man 
has brought with him from nature into this world 
faculties for this), but when he has lost his kind- 

^ That is, accomplish something almost superhuman, like 

* That is, in cold weather, as Diogenes was able to do. 
See III. 12, 2. 



15 €Vyi>(OfXOV, 6 TO ITLCTTOV / TOVTOV €^€1 aVV€\66vTa^ 

dpi]velv, et? ocra KaKa iXtjXuOev ov)(l fia ilia 
Tov (f)vuTa 7] Tov aTToOavoj Ta, dXX' c6 ^ojvti 
av/j,^€^yJKeL airoXeaai ra iSia, ov ra irarpwa, 
TO dyplSLOv /cal to olklSiov koI to iravhofcelov 
/cal TCL SovXdpia {tovtcov yap ovSev lSiou tw 
dvOpoiTTcp eaTLV, dWd iravTa dWoTpia, hovXa, 
virevOvva dXXoTe dXXoL<; hihofxeva vtto tmv kv- 
picov), dXXd TCL dvOpwirLKCL, roi/? X^P^'^'^^IP^'^' 

16 ou? €^(ov 6V Tj] Scavoia iXi'fXvOev, o'LOV<i /cal iirl 
TOiv vofiiaiidTCdv ^TfTOVVTe^, dv fxev evpco/neu, Soki- 

/ld^O/JL€V, dv Be fJLT) €Vpa}/jL6V, pilTTOVlXeV. " TLVO<i 

17 ex^i- '^ov y^apaKTYjpa tovto to TeTpdacrapov ; 
Tpaiavov ; (^epe. 'Nepcovo^; ; plyfrov efw, dSo- 
Kifjiov idTiv, aairpovr ovToa^ Kal evddhe. TLva 

^ The quotations (slightly modified) are from a famous 
passage in Euripides, Cresphontcs, frag. 449, Nauck^ : "For 
we ought rather to come together to mourn for the one who 
is born, because of all the evils into which he is coming ; 
but, on the other hand, the one Avho has died, we ought with 
joy and words of gladness to send forth from his former 

2 The gods. 

^ This reference is most obscure, for the coins of Nero still 
preserved are numerous and excellent, and there was a great 
systematic reform of coinage in a.d. 64, which became "the 
most complete monetary system of ancient times" (Mattingly 
and Sydenham, The Roynan Imperial Coinage (1923), 1, 138). 
After the death of Caligula, indeed, the senate ordered all 
his bronze coinage to be melted down (Dio, LX. 22, 3), but 
notliing of the sort is recorded, so far as I know, for Nero. 
There was, of course, a slight reduction in weight for the 
aureus and the denarius, and "the amount of alloy in the 
silver was increased from 5 to about 10 per cent.," changes 
which have been regarded as the first step in the process 
of debasement that reached its climax in the third century. 


BOOK IV^ V. 14-17 

ness, and his faithfulness? This is the kind of 
person for whom " men should come toirether and 
mourn, because of all the evils into which he has 
come"; not, by Zeus, "the one who is born," or 
^' the one who has died," ^ but the man whose 
misfortune it has been while he still lives to lose 
what is his own ; not his patrimony, his paltry farm, 
and paltry dwelling-, and his tavern, and his poor 
slaves (for none of these things is a man's own 
possession, but they all belong to others, are sub- 
servient and subject, given by their masters ^ now to 
one person and now to another); but the qualities 
which make him a human being, the imprints 
which he brought with hira in his mind, such as 
we look for also upon coins, and, if we find them, 
we accept the coins, but if we do not find them, 
we throw the coins away. " Whose imprint does 
this sestertius bear ? Trajan's ? Give it to me. 
Nero's ? Throw it out, it will not pass, it is rotten."^ 
So also in the moral life. What imprint do his 

See E. A. Sydenham, Num. Cliron., ser. 4, vol. 16 (1916), 19. 
Nero's particular system of brass and copper coinage was 
also discontinued after his death [ibid. p. 28). Yet it is 
scarcely credible that Epictetus can have had any trifles 
like these in mind. — Of course the moral point here, which 
Dr. Page wishes to have emphasized, is that Trajan was the 
typically good man (fdicior Augusto, melior Traiano was 
an acclamation in the Roman Senate for centuries after his 
death — Eutropius, 8, 5), and Nero the opposite. But the 
difticulty in the passage is to understand how it ever 
occurred to Epictetus to imply that people actually refused 
to take coins of Nero, simply because they bore the imprint 
of a morally bad man, when, as a matter of fact, it is 
extremely doubtful if any human being, except perhaps 
some hopeless fanatic, ever really did so refuse. A note bv 
T. 0. Mabbott, " Epictetus and Nero's Coinage ", CP 36 (1941) 
398-9, explains this perfectly. 



e%et \apaK:Tr)pa ra Soyfiara avrov ; " ij/jiepov, 
KOLvcovLKov, oveKTiKov, <pc\dXXr]\ov." <^ep€, ira- 
pahexofiai, ttolm TroXcTrjv rovrov, TrapaSexo/jLai 

18 yelrova, av/jL7r\ovv. opa jiovov, firj Nepcoviavop 
e%6t -x^npatcrrjpa. pLi) rt opyiXo^; earlv, fir) rt 
firjviTi'j^, fir) ri fi€fxy\riijLOLpo^ ; " av avrw (pavfj, 

19 Trarda-aei ra^ K€(f)a\a<^ twi' diravTOiVTWv." tl 
ovv €\€y€<;, OTL av6pco7r6<; iartv ; fxrj yap eV 
yjrL\r]<; iJiop(f)rj<^ KpiveraL tcov ovtwv cKaarov ; eireX 

20 ovrws Xeye kol to Kt'jpLvov /jLrjXov elvai. Kal 
6B/jli]V e')(€LV avTo Sel Kal yevaiv' ouk dpKel rj 
€fCTO<; 7repLypa(f>7]. ovkovv ovBe tt/oo? top avOpco- 
TTOV rj pt? e^apKet kol ol 6(^0aXfioi, a\X av ra 

21 Boy/jLara e')(r) dvOpwiriKa. ovto^; ovk uKovei 
\6yov, ov irapaKoXovOel eXey^^o/ze^'O?' ovo^ iariv. 
rovrov ro alSrjfiov inroveveKpayrai' d)(pr]aro<; 
eariv, vpo/Sarov,^ irdvra fidWov rj dv6pwTT0<;. 
ovro^ ^rjrei, riva dTravrrjaa^; XaKriar] y hdKr}' 
a>(TT€ ovSe 7rp6(3arov rj 6vo<;, dXXd ri rrore dypiov 

22 Tt ovv ; deXeL<; /xe KaracppoveLadac ; — 'Ttto 
rivwv ; viro elSoroop ; Kal ttco? Karacfipovyjaovaiv 
etSore? rod irpaov, rov alS/j/juovo'^ ; dXX' iirro rMV 
dyvoovvrwv ; ri aoc fieXeu ; ov rivi yap dXXw 

23 re-xyirr) rcjv drexv(ov. — 'AXXd ttoXv fiaXXov 

* irpSBarov added by C. Scbenkl (after Salmasius). 

^ Suetonius, Nero, 2G. 

2 It would seem that the beeswax used in leatlier sewing 
was familiarly called " the cobbler's apple," and when on sale 
may have been moulded in that shape. Such metaphors are 
common enough, as is also the habit of making things like 

BOOK IV. V. 17-23 

judfrenients bear? '^ He is gentle, generous, patient, 
affectionate." Give him to me, I accept him, 1 
make this man a citizen, I accept him as a neighbour 
and a fellow-voyager. Only see that he does not 
have the imprint of Nero. Is he choleric, furious, 
querulous ? " If he feels like it, he punches the 
heads of the people he meets." ^ Why, then, did 
you call him a human being ? For surely every- 
thing is not judged by its outward appearance only, 
is it.-* Why, if that is so, you will have to call 
the lump of beeswax an apple.^ No, it must have 
the smell of an apple and the taste of an apple ; 
its external outline is not enough. Therefore, 
neither are the nose and the eyes sufficient to prove 
that one is a human being, but you must see whether 
one has the judgements that belong to a human being. 
Here is a man who does not listen to reason, he 
does not understand when he is confuted ; he is an 
ass. Here is one whose sense of self-respect has 
grown numb ; he is useless, a sheep, anything but a 
human being. Here is a man who is looking for 
someone whom he can kick or bite when he meets 
him ; so that he is not even a sheep or an ass, but 
some wild beast. 

What then ? Do you want me to be despised ? — 
By whom .'' By men of understanding } And how 
will men of understanding despise the gentle and 
the self-respecting person? No, but by men without 
understanding ? What difference is that to you ? 
Neither you nor any other craftsman cares about 
those who are not skilled in his art. — Yes, but they 
will fasten themselves upon me all the more. — What 


win ia.btCIl LllCIllbClV Cb UJJIJII lliC clll tilC lllUIC. — ♦* XI 

vases, cakes, candy, pincushions, soap, etc., in the shape 
fruits or animals. 



iTTKpvyjaovTaL jjlol. — Ti Xeyei^ ro e/iol ; hvvarai 
T£9 Ti]!' iTpoaipeaLv ti-jv arjv ^Xayp-ac rj KcoXvaai 
raL<; TrpoairLTrTOvaai^ <pavTaaLai<; y^pyjaOai, o)? 

24 'TT€(^VK€v ; — Ov. — Tl ovv €tl rapdaarj koX (j)o/3€- 
pov aavrov OeXeif; eiri^eiKvveiv ; ovx^, Se ira- 
peXdcov et? /jueaov K^]pvaaeL<;, on 6ip)]vip> ay€i<; 
Trpo? 7rdvTa<; dvOpcoTTOv;, 6 n av eKelvoi Troccocn, 
Kol jidXidT i/ceivcov KaTayeXa<;, octol ere ^XdirreLv 
hoKovaiv ; "dvBpdiroSa ravra ovk olBev ovSe Tt? 
elfjil ovSe TTOv /jlov to dyaOov koL to kukov ov^ 
TrpoaoBa avTol^ 7rp6<; to, e/md." 

25 OuTft)? KOL e')(ypdv ttoXlv ol ^ oIkouvt€<; kutu- 
yeXcocTL tmv TroXiopKovvTwv " vvv ovtoi tl 
irpayfjia e^^ovaiv eVt tw /jCTjSevL ; da<f)aXe<; eaTLV 
r)fjLMV TO Tet;^o9, Tpo(f)d<; exoftev iirl irdfiiroXw 

26 xpovov, Trjv aXXriv ciTraaav Trapaafcevijv." TavTd 
eVrt TCi rroXtv ix^pdv /cal dvdXwTov iroLovvTa, 
dvOpoJirov he yJrvx^JJ^ ovSev dXXo rj Soy/xaTa. 
TTolov yap T6Lxo<; ourco? lax^pov rj irolov ao)p.a 
ouTco? dSa/iidvTivov r) Trola KTrjat,<; dva(^aipeTO<i rj 

27 TTolov d^Lco/xa ovto)<^ dv€Tn^ovXevTOv ; irdvTa 
Travraxov 9v>^Td, evdXwTa, ol<; Ttatv tov OTroaaovv 
TTpoaexpVTa irdaa dvdyKrj TapdaaeaOai, Ka/ceX- 
iTLCTTelv, <f)0^ela6ai, irevOelv, areXei? e^eiz^ ra? 

28 6p6^eL<;, irepiTTTcoTiKd^ ex^t^v ra? eKKXiaei^. elTa 
ov OeXofxev tijv fiovrjv hehofxevrfv jj/xlv dac^dXeiav 
ixvpdv iTOLelv ; ouS' d7roaTdvT€<; twv Ovtjtmv koI 
BovXcDV TO, dOdvara kol (pvacL iXevOepa eKiro- 

^ Schenkl : '6ri S. * ol added b}' Schenkl. 

^ Perhaps a reference to Xenophon, Cyropaedeia, VII. 
5, 13. 


% BOOK IV. V. 23-28 

do you mean by the word ^'me " ? Can anyone hurt 
your moral purpose, or prevent you from employing 
in a natural way the sense-impressions which come 
to yoa ? — No. — Why, then, are you any longer dis- 
turbed, and why do you want to show that you are 
a timid person? Why do you not come forth and 
make the announcement that you are at peace 
with all men, no matter what they do, and that 
you are especially amused at those who think 
that they are hurting you ? " These slaves do not 
know either who 1 am, or where my good and my 
evil are ; they cannot get at the things that are 

In this way also those who inhabit a strong city 
laugh at the besiegers:^ "Why are these men taking 
trouble now to no end ? Our wall is safe, we have 
food for ever so long a time, and all other supplies." 
These are the things which make a city strong and 
secure against capture, and nothing but judgements 
make similarly secure the soul of man. For what 
manner of wall is so strong, or what manner of 
body so invincible, or what manner of possession so 
secure against theft, or what manner of reputation 
so unassailable ? For all things everywhere are 
perishable, and easy to capture by assault, and the 
man who in any fashion sets his mind upon any of 
them must needs be troubled in mind, be dis- 
couraged, suffer fear and sorrow, have his desires 
fail, and his aversions fall into what they would 
avoid. If this be so, are we not willing to make 
secure the one means of safety which has been 
vouchsafed us ? And are we not willing to give 
up these perishable and slavish things, and devote 
our labours to those which are imperishable and by 



vecv ; ovSe fiefivyj/jLeOa, oti ovre /SXaTrrcL aX\o<; 
aWov ovre uxf^eXel, dWa to irepl eKciarov rov- 
T(ov hoyfia, Tovro iart to jSXaTrTOv, tovto to 
dvarpeirov, tovto /jlo.'^tj, tovto aTuai^, tovto 

29 TToXe/jLo^ ; 'ET€0K\ea kol TloXvveLKrj to TreTTOtTjfco'; 
ovK ciWo rj TOVTO, TO 86y/ia to irepl TvpavviBo<;, 
TO doyfia to irepl (f)vy7]<;, otv to fiev ea-)(^aTov 

30 TMv KaKO)v, TO he fieyidTOV tcov dyaOayv. ^vai^ 
5' avTrj iravTo^, to SicoKetv to dyaOov, (pevyeiv to 
KaKov Tov d<f)ai,povfJLevov OaTepov Kal Trept- 
^dWovTa TO) ivavTiO), tovtov rjyeiaOac TroXifiiov, 
eiri^ovXov, Kav dSeXcpb^ rj, xav u/09, Kav iraT-qp' 

31 ToO yap dyaOov avyyevecTTepov ovhev. Xolttov el 
TavTa dyaOd Kal KaKa, ovTe iraTrjp viol<; 0tA,o? 
ovT dBeX(f)o<; dSeXcpw, irdvTa he TravTa-y^ov fieaTCL 

32 TToXefiicov, €7n^ovX(ov, crvKocpavTCOv. el h' olta 
hel irpoaipecrL^, tovto jjlovov dyaOov eaTiv, Kal o'la 

jJirf hel, TOVTO flOVOV KaKOV, TTOV €TL fxd)(r] , TTOV 

Xoihopia ; irepl Tivayv ; Trepl tcov ovhev tt/jo? 
r)fjid<i ; Trpo^ TLva<; ; Trpo? tov<; dyvoovvTa<^, 7rpo<; 
T01/9 Sfo-TL';^o{;i^Ta9, tt/jo? tou9 iQ7raTrj/jL€Pov<; irepl 
TCOV /leylaTCOv ; 

33 ToVTOiV ^WKpaTT)^ /1€/JLV7]/J,€V0<; TTjV OLKLaV TTjV 

avTov iLKei yvvaiKo^ dveyop^evo^ Tpa)(^VTdTr)(;, 
viov dyvcofiovo^;. Tpa\ela yap 7rpo<; tl tjv ; Xv 

^ Famous enemy brothers : cf. II. 22, 13-14. 


BOOK IV. V. 28-33 

nature free ? And do we not remember that no 
man either hurts or helj)s another, but that it is his 
judgement about each of tliese things which is the 
thing that hurts him, that overturns liim ; this is 
contention, and civil strife, and war ? That which 
made Eteocles and Polyneices ^ what they were was 
nothing else but this — their judgement about a throne, 
and their judgement about exile, namely, that one 
was the greatest of evils, the other the greatest 
of goods. And this is the nature of every being, 
to pursue the good and to flee from the evil ; 
and to consider the man who robs us of the one 
and invests us with the other as an enemy and 
an aggressor, even though he be a brother, even 
though he be a son, even though he be a father ; 
for nothing is closer kin to us than our good. It 
follows, then, that if these externals are good or 
evil, neither is a father dear to his sons, nor a brother 
dear to a brother, but everything on all sides is full 
of enemies, aggressors, slanderers. But if the right 
kind of moral purpose and that alone is good, and 
if the wrong kind of moral purpose and that alone 
is bad, where is there any longer room for contention, 
where for reviling ? About what ? About the 
things that mean nothing to us ? Against whom ? 
Against the ignorant, against the unfortunate, against 
those who have been deceived in the most important 
values ? 

All this is what Socrates bore in mind as he 
managed his house, putting up with a shrewish wife 
and an unkindly son .2 For to what end was she 

2 Perhaps referring to Xenophon, Memorabilia, II. 2, where 
his son Lamprodes is represented as having lost his temper 
at the constant scolding of Xanthippe. 



vSayp KaraxeT] t?}? Ke(f)aXy]<; oaov /cal OeXei, Lva 
KarajraTrjay] rbv irXaKovvra' kuI rl 7rpo<; e/jL6, av 

34 v7roXdl3(o, OTL ravra ovk ean 7r/)09 e'/ite ; tovto 8' 
ifiov epyov earl koI ovt€ Tvpavvo<; KwXvaei fie 
OeXovra oijre heairorrj^ ovre oi iroXXol rov eva 
ovO' 6 lax^porepo^ rov aaOevearepov rovro 'yap 

35 aK(i)Xvrov SeSorac viro rov Oeov eKacrrw. ravra 
ra SoyfjLara ev OLKLa (f>LXLav iroLel, ev iroXeL 
OjjLovoLav, iv edveaLv elpy]vr)v, irpo's Oeov ev-^dpia- 
rov, iravraxov Oappovvra, ct)9 Trepl rcov dXXo- 

36 rpLcov, ft)? Trepl ovSevo<; d^lcov. dXX' r)/j,eU 
ypdy^raL /jL€v Ka\ dvayvwvai ravra kol dvayiyvco- 
GKOfieva eTraweaaL iKavou, ireiaOrivaL 3' ovK 

37 €771/9. roiyapovv ro irepl rcjv AaKeBaL/iov loiv 

oXkol Xeovre<;, ev 'E^ecroi) 5' aXooireKe^ 

Kal 6^' 7)fia)v dpjxoaer ev a)(^oXT^ Xeovre'i, e^(o 8' 

r . TT/D09 T0U9 eTTL rw eXeeicrdat oSvvco/jievov^. 

1 'Avicofiat, <p7jaLV, eXeovfj.evo'^. — Tiorepov ovv abv 
epyov earl ro eXeelaOai ae rj rcov iXeovvrcov ; rl 
h' ; errl aoi ean ro iravaai avrb ; — 'Ett' epLol, dv 

^ It was a present from Alcibiades. For the incidents 
here referred to see Seneca, De Constant ia, 18, 5 ; Diogenes 
Laertius, 2, 36 ; Athenaeus, 5, 219 B and 14, 643 F ; Aelian, 
Varia Eistoria, 11, 12. 


BOOK IV. V. 33-vi. I 

shrewisli ? To the end that she might pour all the 
water she pleased over his head, and might trample 
underfoot the cake.'^ Yet what is that to me, if I 
regard these things as meaning nothing to me ? But 
this control over the moral purpose is my true busi- 
ness, and in it neither shall a tyrant hinder me against 
my will, nor the multitude the single individual, nor 
the stronger man the weaker ; for this has been 
given by God to each man as something that cannot 
be hindered. These are the judgements which 
produce love in the household, concord in the State, 
peace among the nations, make a man thankful 
toward God, confident at all times, on the ground 
that he is dealing with things not his own, with 
worthless things. We, however, although we are 
capable of writing and reading these things, and 
praising them when read, are nowhere near capable 
of being persuaded of them. Wherefore, the proverb 
about the Lacedaemonians, 

Lions at home, but at Ephesus foxes,^ 

will fit us too : Lions in the school-room, foxes 


To those who are vexed at being pitied 

I AM annoyed, says one, at being pitied. — Is it, 
then, some doing of yours that you are pitied, or 
the doing of those who show the pity ? Or again ; 
is it in your power to stop it ? — It is, if I can show 

' Because of their ill-success in Asia Minor. See also the 
scholium on Aristophanes, Pax, 1189. 



heiKvvco avTOL<; fir) ol^lov eXeov ovra e/iavrov. — 

2 llorepop 8' ySi] crot, virdpyei touto, to fii] elvat, 
eXeov a^iov rj ovx v7rdp-)^eL ; — Aokw eycoye, otl 
v7rdp')(^€L. aX.V ovrol j ovk eVl tovtoi<; iXeouaiv, 
e</)' oU, eXirep dpa, rjv d^iou, iirl rot? d/iapravo- 
fxevoL^, dXX iirl irevia koI dvap-^ia koI v6aoL<^ 

3 Koi OavdroL^ kol dXXoL<; tolovtol<;. — YioTepov ovv 
TreiOetv irapecTKevaaaL rov<; ttoXXou?, o)? dpa 
ovBev TOVTcov KaKov iariv, aW' oloi' re kol irevyri 
Kal dvdp\nvTL ^ koI drl/xw evSaifiovelv, rj cravrop 
imheiKvveLv avrol<; irkovTOvvra koI dp^^ovra ; 

4 TOVTCOV yap to, /lev SevTepa dXa^ovo^ /cal ylru^pov 
Kal OL'Se^'O? d^Lov. Kal rj 7rpoa7roLriai<; opa Si 
oi(ov av yevoLTO' SovXdpid ae "X^pijaaaOai hei]aei 
Kal dpyvpcofidrLa 6\iya KCKTrjaOat, Kal TavTa iv 
(pavepo) heiKvveiv, el olov re, Tavrd TroXXa/ct? Kal 
XavOdveiv ireipdaOaL otl Tavrd eariv, Kal Ifia- 
Tihia (JTiXTTva Kal TrjV dXXijv irojJLTT'qv Kal top 
TLfjid)/jL€vov €77 Kpaiveiv VTTO Tcbv eTrKpaveaTaToyv ^ 
Kal ZeiiTvelv ireipdaOai, Trap avToU rj Sokclv ye, 
OTL SecTTpeli;, Kal rrepl to acofia Be TLva KaKOTe')(^ 
velv, CO? ev/iop(j)6T€pov (^alveaOai Kal yevvaLore- 

5 pov Tov 6vT0<;' Tavrd ae Bel /jLrj)(^ai>daOaL, el r-ijv 
Bevripav oBov dTTievai ^eXet? ware fir) iXeeladai. 

'H TrpdiTTj Be Kal dvi]vvro<^ Kal /xaKpd, o o Zeu? 
OVK r]Bvv)]Orj TroiPjaai, rovro avro €7rL')(€tp€LU, 
irdvra<=; dpOpd)7rov<; irelaai, riva earlv dyaOd Kal 

1 Upton's "codex" : &pxovri 8. 
^ Elter : ivupapuy rovruv S. 


BOOK IV. VI. 1-5 

thein that I do not deserve their pity. — And do you 
now possess the power of not being deserving of 
pity, or do you not possess it ? — It seems to me, 
indeed, that I possess it. Yet these people do not 
pitv me for what would deserve pity, if anything 
does, that is, my mistakes ; but for poverty, and for 
not holding office, and for things like disease, and 
death, and the like. — Are you, then, prepared to 
convince the multitude that none of these things is 
bad, but that it is possible for a poor man, and 
one who holds no office or {)osition of honour, to 
be happy ; or are you prepared to show yourself off 
to them as a rich man and an official ? Of these 
alternatives the second is the part of a braggart, 
and a tasteless and worthless person. Besides, 
observe the means by which you must achieve your 
pretence : You will have to borrow some paltrv 
slaves ; and possess a few pieces of silver plate, and 
exhibit these same pieces conspicuously and fre- 
quently, if you can, and try not to let people know 
that they are the same ; and possess contemptible 
bright clothes, and all other kinds of finery, and 
show yourself off as the one who is honoured by the 
most distinguished persons ; and try to dine with 
them, or at least make people think that you dine 
with thein ; and resort to base arts in the treatment 
of your person, so as to appear more shapely and of 
gentler birth than you actually are. All these con- 
trivances you must adopt, if you wish to take the 
wav of the second alternative and avoid pitv. 

But the first way is ineffectual and tedious — to 
attempt the very thing which Zeus himself has been 
unal)le to accomplish, that is, to convince all men of 
wiiat things are good, and what evil. Why, that 




6 KaKO.. fiif yap SeSoTab aoi rouro ; €K€u>o jjlovov 
aoL SeSorai, (ravrov irelaai. koIov-ttm 7re7r€LKa<;' 

7 elrd fjLOt vvv iTTLxeipel^i ireiOetv toj)? aXXov^ ; Kal 
Tt9 aoi rocrovTcp -^povw crvveaTLv co? av aavjw ; rt? 
Se ovT(i}<i 7n6av6<i iaTc aoL irpo^ to irelaai w? av 
aavT(p ; Tt? 8' evvovarepov Kal OLKeiorepov e^fov i) 

8 au aavTW ; ttw? ovv ovitw ireireiKa^ aavrov jjLaOelv ; 
vvv ou'xl dvo) Karco ; tovt tan irepl o iaTrov- 
Bafca^; ; ov ^ /xauOdveiv, oyare d\vTTO<^ elvai /cal 

9 aTapa')(^o<; Kal draTreivcoro^ Kal i\ev6epo<; ; tt/jo? 
ravra ovv ovk uKyjKoa^, ore p,ia iariv rj 6So<; i) 
(pepovaa, d(l)eLvaL ra dirpoaipeTa Kal eKaTP]vai 

10 avTOiv Kal 6/jLo\oyPjaai avra dWorpia ; to ovv 
dWov Tfc viroXafielv irepl aov iroiov €iBov<i iariv ; 
— Toy diTpoaipeTOV. — Ovkovv ovSev Trpo? ae ; — 
OvSev. — "Et^ OVV 8aKv6/ji€vo<; iirl tovtm Kal 
Tapaaaofxevo^ ol'ec ireireladai irepl dyaOcov Kal 
KaKodv ; 

11 Ov Oekei's ovv d<p€l<; tov<; dWov; avro^ aavro) 
yeveadai Kal /xadr]T7]<i Kal SthdaKaXof; ; " 6\^ovTaL 
01 dWoL, el XvaireXel avTol<; irapd cfyvaiv ey^eiv 
Kal hLe^dyeiv, epLol 3' ouSet? eariv iyyicov efxov. 

12 Tt ovv TOVTO eanv, otl tou? /j.ev \6yov<; dK)')Koa 
Tov^ 7C0V (f)iXoa6(f)(ov Kal avyKaTarlOe/jiac avTOi<;, 

^ oh added by Schenkl. 

BOOK IV. VI. 5-12 

has not been vouchsafed to you, has it ? Nay, this 
only has been vouchsafed — to convince yourself. 
And you have not convinced yourself yet ! And 
despite that, bless me ! are you now trying to 
convince all other men ? Yet who has been living 
with you so long as you have been living with 
yourself? And who is so gifted with powers of 
persuasion to convince you, as you are to convince 
yourself? Who is more kindly disposed and nearer 
to you than you are to yourself? How comes it, 
then, that you have not persuaded yourself to learn ? 
Are not things now upside down ? Is this what you 
have been in earnest about ? Not to learn how to 
get rid of pain, and turmoil, and humiliation, and so 
become free ? Have you not heard that there is but 
a single way which leads to this end, and that is to 
give up the things which lie outside the sphere of 
the moral j)urpose, and to abandon them, and to 
admit that they are not your own ? To what class 
of thing.s, then, does another's opinion about you 
belong ? — To that which lies outside the sphere of 
the moral purpose. — And so it is nothing to you ? — 
Nothing. — So long, then, as you are stung and 
disturbed by the opinions of others, do you still 
fancy that you have been persuaded as to things 
good and evil ? 

Will you not, then, let other men alone, and 
become your own pu})il and your own teacher ? " All 
other men shall see to it, whether it is profitable for 
them to be in a state out of accord with nature and 
so to live, but as for me no one is closer to myself 
than I am. What does it mean, then, that I have 
heard the words of the philoso})hers and assent to 
them, but that in actual fact my burdens have 



ep'ycp 8' ovSev yeyova Kov^6repo<^ ; fj,rj tl ovt(o<; 
d(f)V7J<; el/jLL ; fcal /lltjv irepl ra aXXa, oaa e'/Sou- 
XyjOyjv, ov \iav d(f)ur]<^ evpeOrjV, dWa koI ypafi- 
/xara Ta;;^t'a)9 e/iaOov /cal TraXaieiv Kal yeco/jbe- 

13 rpelv Kal avWoyia/jLov<; dvaXvecv. /jl)} tl ovv ov 
ireireiKe fjL6 6 A.070? ; Kal /jLtju ovk ciXXa riva 
ovT(o<; i^ ^PXV^ iSoKL/jLaaa rj elXofJirjv Kal vvv 
TTepl Tovrcov dvaytyvocxTKa), ravra clkovw, ravra 
<ypd(^o)' dXXov oy^ evpyjKafiev p-^XP^ ^^^ ^^X^' 

14 porepov TovTov Xoyov. tl ovv to XcIttov p.0L 
eaTLV ; /jlt) ovk e^rjprjTai TavavTLa doy/xaTa ; fit] 
avTol ai v7roXijyjr€L<; dyvfivaaToi elcTLV ovS' eWia- 
p^evai diravTav iirl to, epya, dXX! o)? oirXapua 
d7roK€Lp,€va ^ KaTLcoTaL Kal ovSe TrepiapfioaaL pLOL 

15 SvvaTaL ; KaLTOL out iirl tov TrdXaieiv ovt eirl 
Tov ypdcpecv rj dvayLyvcodKeiv dpKovp,aL tw piaOelv, 
dXX! dvo3 KUTO) aTpecpco tov<; 7rpoT€ivop,€vov<i Kal 

16 dXXov<; TrXeKco Kal p^eTaTTLirTOVTa^ coaavTCi)<;. ra 3' 
dvayKala decopijpaTa, defy' wv eaTiv oppLcopievov 
aXvTTOv yeveadaL, cicfyo^ov, diradfj, dKoyXvTOV, 
eXevOepoVy TavTa S' ov yvpLvd^co ovhe p,€X€Tco 

17 KaTCL TavTa ttjv irpoai^KOvaav pbeXeTi-jv. cItu 
pLOL pLeXei, TL 01 aXXoL irepl ipLov epovaiv, el cpavov- 
piaL auTot? d^LoXoyo^;, el cjiavovpbai evhaipbwv ; " 

18 TdXalrrcope, ov 0eX€L<; /SXeTretv, tl av Xeyei<; 
irepl cravTOv ; Tt<? (palprj aavTcp ; tl^ ev tm vtto- 
XapL^dveiv, rt? ev tm opeyeadai, rt? iv tCo €kkXl- 
veLV' Tt9 h> oppifj, TTapaaKevfi, i7n/3oXj}, tol<; dXXoL<; 

^ Reiske : iiriKeifieya S. 

BOOK IV. VI. i2-t8 

become no li<]fhter? Can it be that 1 am so dull ? 
And yet, indeed, in everything else that I have 
wanted I was not found to be unusually dull, but I 
learned my letters rapidly, and how to wrestle, and 
do my <reometry, and analyse syllogisms. Can it be, 
then, that reason has not convinced me ? Why, 
indeed, there is nothing to which I have so given my 
approval from the very first, or so preferred, and 
now I read about these matters, and hear them, and 
write about them. Down to this moment we have 
not found a stronger argument than this. What is 
it, then, that I yet lack? Can it be that the 
contrary judgements have not all been put away ? 
Can it be that the thoughts themselves are unexer- 
cised and unaccustomed to face the facts, and, like 
old pieces of armour that have been stowed away, are 
covered with rust, and can no longer be fitted to me ? 
Yet in wrestling, or in writing, or in reading, I am 
not satisfied with mere learning, but I turn over and 
over the arguments presented to me, and fashion 
new ones, and likewise syllogisms with equivocal 
premisses. However, the necessary princij)les, those 
which enable a man, if he sets forth from them, to 
get rid of grief, fear, passion, hindrance, and become 
free, these I do not exercise, nor do 1 take the 
practice that is approj)riate for them. After all that, 
am I concerned with what everyone else will say 
about me, whether I shall appear important or haj^py 
in their eyes? " 

O miserable man, will you not see what you are 
saying about yourself? What sort of a person are 
you in your own eyes ? What sort of a person in 
thinking, in desiring, in avoiding ; what sort of a 
person in choice, preparation, design, and the other 


Tot9 ai'Op(07riKol<s €pyoL<; ; aWa /xeXet aoi, ei ere 
1!) eXeovaiv ol aWot ; — Nar aWa irapa rr^v a^iav 
iXeov/jLai. — Ovkovv iirl tovtw ohvva ; 6 he ye 
ohvvcofievof; eXee^i^o? eariv ; — Nat. — Hw? ovv ert 
irapa d^iap eXerj ; avrol^ yap oh irepl top eXeop 
7ra(j^6t9 KaTaaKevd^€L<s aeavrov ci^Lov rou iXeel- 

20 aOai. TL ovv Xeyec ^ KvTLaOevTi^ ; ovheTror y- 
K0V(Ta<; ; " fiaaiKiKov^ w KO/je, Trpdrreiv fiev ev, 

21 KaKw<; 5' vLKOveivr ti]V Ke(f)a\7ju vytd e'^co koL 
irdvTe^ OLOVTaL on K6cf)a\a\yM. tl pLOL piiXeu ; 
dirvpeTO^ elp^t kol &)? irvpeaaovri poL avvd^Oov- 
rar " rdXa^, €K toctovtou '^povov ov ^ieXeiTre? 
TTVpea-acov.^^ Xeyco koI iyco crKvOpco7rdaa<; ore 
" vai' rah dX7]deiai<; ttoXi)? 7]Sr] ^p6vo(;, ef ov p,oi 
KaKio<; icTTLV.'' " TL ovv y€vr]Tai ; " &)? av 6 
6eo<^ deXy. /cal dpa viroKarayeXco tmv olkt€l- 
povTwv p,e. 

22 Tt ovv KcoXvei kol ivravOa 6pi0Lw<^ ; TreV/;? 
elpii, dXXd opOov B6yp,a fc'xw Trepl 7r€via<;. rl ovv 
p,oi pLcXei, et pJ €7ri rfj Tvevia iXeovaiv ; ovk dp^w, 
dXXoL 8' dp)(Ovcriv. dXX' o Set viTeLXti(^evaL, 
v'7r€LXy](j>a irepl rov dp^eiv fcal p,i] apx^Lv. 

23 oyjrovTai ol iXeovvT6<; p,e, iyo) 3' ovre Treivd) ovt€ 
SL-yjra) ovre ptyo), dX\! dcp^ mv avrol ireLvoicnv 7) 
hiy^roycTLV ol'ovTai KupL tl ovv avToh TTOUjaco ; 
iT6piep-x^6pievo<^ Kiipvaaw kol Xeyw " pLVj irXa- 
vdaOe, dv8pe<;, ipLol KaXay^; earLv ovre 7revia<; 

^ So also Marcus Aurelius, 7, 36 ; and cf. Diogenes 
Laertius, 6, 3. 

BOOK IV. VI. 18-23 

activities of men f Vet you are concerned whether 
the rest of mankind pity you? — Yes, but I do not 
deserve to be pitied. — And so you are pained at 
that ? And is the man who is pained worthy of 
pity ? — Yes. — How, then, do you fail to deserve pity 
after all ? By the very emotion which you feel con- 
cerning pity you make yourself worthy of pity. What, 
then, says Antisthenes .^ Have you never heard? 
"It is the lot of a king, O Cyrus, to do well, but to 
be ill spoken of."i My head is perfectly sound and 
yet everybody thinks I have a headache. What do 
I care ? 1 have no fever, and yet everybody 
sympathizes with me as though I had : " Poor 
fellow, you have had a fever for ever so long." I 
draw a long face too, and say, " Yes, it truly is a 
long time that I have been in a bad way." " What 
is going to happen, then ? " As God will, I reply, 
and at the same time I smile quietly to myself at 
those who are pitying me. 

What, then, j^revents me from doing the same 
thing in my moral life also ? I am poor, but I have 
a correct judgement about poverty. Why, then, am 
I concerned, if men pity me for my poverty ? I 
do not hold office, while others do. But I have the 
right opinion about holding office and not holding it. 
Let those who pity me look to it,- but as for myself, 
I am neither hungry, nor thirsty, nor cold, but from 
their own hunger and thirst they think I too am 
hungry and thirsty. What, then, am I to do for 
them ? Shall I go about and make proclamation, 
and say, '' Men, be not deceived, it is well with me. 

« As in IV. 7, 23, and 8, 24, and Acts xviii. 15. Probably 
orpei, in S, I. 4, 13, can be defended on the analogy of these 
other cases. 



iTTLCTrpecpo/jLat ovre dvap-)(ia'^ ovre uttXm's aXXov 
ovB€J>6<; i) Soy/jLciTfov opOCov ravra e^w aKcoKvra, 

24 ov8evb<; 'ne<^p6vTLKa en " ; Kal rtV avT7] (^Xvapia ; 
7r(o<; en 6p6a Soyfiara €)(^co /xr; dp/cov/jL€vo<; roG 
elvuL o? el/jLL, a\X' eirroi'ipevo'^ inrep rov SoKelu ; 

25 'A\V dWoi ifkeiovwv rev^ovrai koI irpon- 
fjLT]0^aovTai. — Tt ovv evXoycorepov i) roi)? Trepi n 
ea-7rovSaK6ra<; iv eKeivw irXelov e)(€iv, ev cS eairov- 
SaKaaiv ; irepl dpx^'^ iaTrovSuKaaLv, av irepl 
Soy/JLara' koI irepl ttXovtov, av irepl ttjv 'X^prjCTLV 

26 TOiv (pavraaiwv. opa, el ev tovto) aov irXeov 
e^ovaip, irepl o av fxev eairovSaica'^, eKelvoi 8' 
dfieXovaiv el avyKaTariOevTac /xaXXov irepl ra 
(pvaiKo, /jierpa, el opeyovrai aov dvairorevKrorepov, 
el €kkXlvov(tlv dire piirr cot ore pov, el ev em^oXfj, 
ev irpoOecrec, el ev op/jbrj /xaXXov eucrro^ovaiv, el 
TO irpeirov aoj^ovatv &)? avhpe^, co? vioi, o)? yovel^i, 
eW^ e^rj<; kutcl rd ciXXa rcov a'^^eaecov ovu/jLura. 

27 el S' ap^ouaiv eKelvoi, av S' ^ ov 6eXei<; cravTw 
ra? dX7]0eLa<; elirelv, on av fiev ovSev tovtov 
eveKa irotel^, eKelvoi he irdvra, dXoycoTarov Se 
Tov eiri/j-eXovfievov Tivo<i eXarTov (f>epeaOai rj rov 
dfieXovvra ; 

28 Ov,^ dX')C eirethrj (f)povTi^(o e^co Boy/jLarcov 
opOSiv, evXoycorepov fie eariv ap\eiv. — 'Ei^ w 

1 Defended in apodosis by Reiske and Schenkl : Upton 
added oj/ia after S' and Scliweighauser ov. 

* Transferred to this position by s from before ¥i just 


BOOK IV. VI. 23-28 

I take heed neither of poverty, nor lack of office, 
nor, in a word, anything else, but only correct 
judgements; these 1 possess free from hindrance, I 
have taken thought of nothing further " ? And yet, 
what foolish talk is this ? How do I any longer 
hold correct judgements when I am not satisfied 
with being the man that I am, but am excited about 
what other people think of me ? 

But others will get more than I do, and will be. 
preferred in honour above me. — Well, and what is 
more reasonable than for those who have devoted 
themselves to something to have the advantage in 
that to which they have devoted themselves ? 
They have devoted themselves to office, you to 
judgements; and they to wealth, you to dealing 
with your sense-impressions. See whether thev 
have the advantage over you in what you have 
devoted yourself to, but they neglect ; whether 
their assent is more in accord with natural 
standards, whether their desire is less likely to 
achieve its aim than is yours, whether their aversion 
is less likely to fall into what it would avoid, 
whether in design, purpose, and choice they hit the 
mark better, whether they observe what becomes 
them as men, as sons, as parents, and then, in order, 
through all the other terms for the social relations. 
But if they hold office, will you not tell yourself the 
truth, which is. that you do nothing in order to get 
office, while they do everything, and that it is most 
unreasonable for the man who l)ays attention to 
something to come off with less than the man who 
neglects it ? 

Nay, but because I greatly concern myself with 
correct judgements, it is more reasonable for me to 



(f)poi'TL^€i<i, €i> Soyfiacnv ev co 3' ciWot fidWou 
aov ire^povTiKaaiv, eKelvoL^ Trapax^t^peL. olov el 
hia TO BoyfjLara ex^LV 6p6a r)^LOv<; ro^evcov fidWov 
iTTLTvyxdveLP rcov to^otmv y) ^^XKevcov fidWov 

29 TMV x^Xkcwv. a(pe<; ovv ttjv ^ rrepl ra Soy/xara 
(TTTGvSijv Ka\ Trepl efcelva dvaaTpecbov, a Krijaa- 
oOai deXet^, koI rore Kkale, idv ctol /irj irpoxoip]]' 

30 KXaieLV yap d^io<; el. vvp Se tt/qo? d\\oL<; 
yiveadat, \€y€L<;, aWcov eTTi/ieXela-Oac, ol ^ ttoWoX 
he TOVTO Ka\a)<; Xeyovaiv, on epyov €py(p ou 

31 KOLvcovel. 6 /jL€V i^ opOpov dvadTCL^ Cv^el, Tiva 
ef oIkov rod KaicTapo<;^ dcrirda'qraL, rivu Kexa- 
piafievov Xoyov eiirr], tlvl Scopov ire/xyp-i], ttw? tw 
opx^^crrf) dpear), ttw? KaKorjO Ladixevo<i dXXov 

32 dXXw ;^a/)tcr7;Tat. orav ev^V^^^^* Trepl tovtcov 
evx^'TCii' orav Ovr), eirl tovtol<; 6-uer ro rov 

/jLt] 8' VTTVOV fiaXaKolaLV eV Ofjifjiacn irpoa- 

33 evravda irapareOetKev. "'Try Trape/3>]v^ tmv 
7r/)o? KoXa/ceiav; ' ru epe^a ; ' * /j,/] ri o)? iXevOe- 
po<i, /jL7] Tt &)? yevvalo'^ ; " Kav evprj tl tolovtov, 
iTTLTi/id eavro) koI iyKaXet, " ri ydp aoi kol 

^ fiv supplied by 8b. 
2 Upton : Kai S. 

* rod Kaia-aoos added by Wolf : i^i6vTa suggested by 

* .Salmasius : ^p^^a S. 

1 Cf. IV. 10, 24. 

2 Golden Verses, 40. See III. 10, 2. 


BOOK IV. VI. 28-33 

rule. — Yes, in what you ijreatly concern yourself 
with, that is, judgements ; but in that with which 
other men have concerned themselves more greatly 
than you have, give place to them. It is as though, 
because you have correct judgements, you insisted 
that you ought in archery to hit the mark better than 
the archers, or to surpass the smiths at their trade. 
Drop, therefore, your earnestness about judge- 
ments, and concern yourself with the things wdiich 
you wish to acquire, and then lament if you do not 
succeed, for you have a right to do that. But as it is, 
you claim to be intent upon other things, to care for 
other things, and there is wisdom in what common 
people say, '* One serious business has no partnership 
with another." ^ One man gets up at early dawn 
and looks for someone of the household of Caesar to 
salute, someone to whom he may make a pleasant 
speech, to whom he may send a present, how he may 
please the dancer, how he may gratify one person 
by maliciously disparaging another. When he prays, 
he prays for these objects, when he sacrifices, he 
sacrifices for these objects. The word of Pytha- 

Also allow not sleep to draw nigh to your languor- 
ous eyelids, 

he has wrested to apply here. '^ ' Where did I go 
wrong — ' ^ in matters of fiattery ? ' What did I do ? ' 
Can it be that I acted as a free man, or as a man of 
noble character } " And if he find an instance of the 
sort, he censures and accuses himself: '' Why, what 

' The single quotation-marks enclose famous phrases from 
the Golden Versen, which Epictetus, with bitter irony, repre- 
sents such a self-seeker as employing in a sense appropriate 
to his own contemptible behaviour. 



rovTO elirelv ; ov yap evfjv ylrevaaaOai. ; Xeyovcnv 
Kal ol <piX.6(TO(l)oc, ore ovSev KOikvei -v/reO^o? 

34 elireh'.^' av 8' etirep rat? dXyOelai'i ovS€Vo<; 
(iWov 7re(f)p6vTiKa<; i) ^ ^prjaeco^; o'ia<; Sel ^avra- 
aiMv, €vOu(; avaara^i ecodev ivOvfJLov " rlva /jlol 
XeLTTec TTpo^ dirdOeiav ; riva irpo^ drapa^iav ; 
Tt? elfjbi ; ixrj TL awfidrLOv, fi7] ri KTrjaL<;, /it] ti 
(fiijfir} ; ovSev tovtcov. dWd tl ; XoyiKOP elfiL 

35 ^(hov. ' riva ovv ra d7raiT7']fiaTa ; dvairoXei rd 
7r67rpay/jieva. " ' irfi Trape^tjv* rwv irpo'^ evpoiav ; 
' Tt €pe^a ' rj d(f)LXov rj dtcoLvcovi^Tov i) dyvco/xov ; 
* ri poL heov ovk ereXeaOr) ' Trpo? ravra ; " 

36 TocjauT?;? ovv SLa(f)opd<; ovay]<; rcjv iiTLOv/jLOV- 
p,evo)v, T03V epywv, tmv ev\^MV en OeXei^ to caov 
ex^i^v €K€Lvoi<;y irepl a av pL€v ovk iairovhaKa^, 

37 i/celi'OL 3' iaTTOvhdKaaiv ; elra Oavp,d^€i<;, €l a 
iXeovaiv, Kal dyavaKrel^ ; eKclvoi 6' ovk dya- 
vaKTovcriv, el av avT0V<; eXeet?. Bid tl ; on 
€K6LV0L p.6v TTeiveia p,evoL elaiv, on dyaOcov Tvy- 

38 ydvovaiv, av S' ov irkireiaai. hid tovto av 
fiev OVK dpKTJ TOt? aoL<;, dXX* e(f)L€aat tmv 
eKeiVcov eKelvoi 8' dpKOvvrac TOL<i eavrcov Kal 
OVK €(f)L€VTaL T(x}v awv. €1761 Toi el ral<s 
dXr}6eiaL<^ eireTreiao, on irepl rd dyaOd av 6 
eiriivy^dvwv el, eKelvoi 3' diroTreTrXdvrjVTaL, ovS' 
av iveOvp,ov, Tt Xiyovat ire pi aov. 

^ ¥l supplied by s. 

1 Cf. Stobaeus, Eel. 11. 7, H*" (vol. II. p. Ill, 13 ff. 
Wachsmuth) : "They (the Stoics) think thai he (the wise 
man) will upon occasion employ falsehood in a number of 
dififerent ways." 

BOOK IV^ VI. 33-38 

business did you have to say that ? For wasn't it 
possible to lie ? Even the philosophers say that 
there is nothing to hinder one's telling a lie." ^ 
But if m all truth you have concerned yourself 
greatly with nothing but the proper use of sense- 
impressions, then as soon as you get up in the 
morning bethink you, "■ What do I yet lack in order to 
achieve tranquillity ? What to achieve calm } What 
am I ? I am not a paltry body, not property, not 
reputation, am I } None of these. Well, what am 
I ? A rational creature." What, then, are the 
demands upon you ? Rehearse your actions. 
" ' Where did I go wrong ? ' in matters conducive 
to serenity ? ' What did I do ' that was unfriendly, 
or unsocial, or unfeeling ? ' What to be done was 
left undone ' in regard to these matters ? " 

Since, therefore, there is so great a difference 
between the things which men desire, their deeds, 
and their prayers, do you still wish to be on an 
equal footing with them in matters to which you 
have not devoted yourself, but they have ? And 
after all that, are you surprised if they pity vou, and 
are you indignant ? But they are not indignant if 
you pity them. And why } Because they are 
convinced that they are getting good things, while 
you are not so convinced in your own case. That is 
why you are not satisfied with what you have, but 
reach out for what they have. Because, if you 
had been truly convinced that, in the case of the 
things which are good, you are the one who is 
attaining them, while they have gone astray, you 
would not even have taken account of what they say 
about you. 



1 Tt TTOiel (^ojSepov top rvpavvov ; — Ot Bopv- 
(f)6pot, (p^ialv, Kal al /jid^aipaL avroov kuI 6 eVt 
Tou KOtT(Dpo<; KoX 01 CLTTOKkeiovTe^ Tou? €icn6vTa<;. 

2 — Aid TL ovv, dv TTaLhiov avrro 7rpoaaydyi]<; fierd 

TWV SopV(f)6pQJV OVTL, OV (po/36LTaL ,' 1] OTL OVK 

W aladdverai tovtcov to rraLhiov ; dv ovv twv 
Bopv<p6prov Tf9 alaOdvrjTaL Kal otl /jLa)(^aLpa'^ 
exovdLv, eV avTo Se tovto Trpoaepx^raL avTW 
deXcov diToOavelv hid Tiva TreplaTaaiv kol ^tjtcov 
VTT dWov rraOelv avTo €vk6\(i)<;, /irj tl (^o^etTaL 
TOU? hopvcpopovi; ; — 0eXet yap tovto, Si o (f)0' 

i ^epoi elaiv. — "Ai^ ovv tl<; /jlijt^ dvodavelv fii'jTe 
^)]v OfXcov i^ diravTO's dX)C co? dv SihcoTai, 
TTpoaepxrjTai avTw, tl kco\v€l /jlt) SeSoiKOTa 

5 rrpoaep-)(ea6aL avTov ; — OvSev. — " Kv rt? ovv kol 
7r/309 TrjV KTrjCTLv ct)crauT&)<? e-)(r) KaOdirep ovto^; 
TT/oo? TO awfia, kol tt/jo? Ta TeKva Kal ttjv 
yvva^Ka Kal avrXw? vtto tivo<^ fjiavla<^ Kal diro- 
voia<^ ovTco<; rj BiaKeL/jL€vo<;, coctt iv /i7;Sert 
iTOielaOaL to e^eiv TavTa rj yu,>; €)(€iv, aW' co? 
6aTpaKL0L<; Ta irathia irai^ovTa irepl /jl€V t^9 
TratSm? hiai^epeTai, tcdv oaTpaKiwv 5' ov 7re(Pp6v- 
TLKEv, ovT(o<^ he Kal ovTO<; Td<; fxev v\a<^ irap 
ovhev y TreTTOcrjfjievo's, Tyv TratSidv Be ttjv irepl 
avTd<: Kal di'aaTpo(f)y]V dcnrd^tiTar rrolo<; 6TI 
TOVTcp Tvpavvo^ (f)0^epo<; rj ttolol Sopv(p6poc rj 
TTolai iidy^aipaL avTCJV ; 

BOOK IV. VII. 1-5 


Of freedom fi-om J ear 

What makes the tyrant an object of fear? — His 
guards, someone says, and their swords, and the 
chamberlain, and those who exclude persons who 
would enter.— Win', then,'is it that, if you bring a child 
into the presence of the tyrant while he is with his 
guards, the child is not afraid ? Is it because the 
child does not really feel the presence of the guards ? 
If, then, a man really feels their ])resence, and that 
they have swords, but has come for that very 
purpose, for the reason that he wishes to die because 
of some misfortune, and he seeks to do so easily at 
the hand of another, he does not fear the guards, 
does he ? — No, for what makes them terrible is just 
what he wants. — If, then, a man who has set his 
will neither upon dying nor upon living at any cost, 
but only as it is given him to live, comes into the 
])resence of the tyrant, what is there to prevent such 
a man from coming into his presence without fear } 
— Nothing. — If, then, a man feel also about his 
property just as this other person feels about his 
body, and so about his children, and his wife, and if, 
in brief, he be in such a frame of mind, due to some 
madness or desj)air, that he cares not one whit al)out 
having, or not having, these things ; but, as children 
playing with potsherds strive with one ariother about 
the game, but take no thought about the potsherds 
themselves, so this man also has reckoned the 
material things of life as nothing, but is glad to 
pla}' with them and handle them — what kind of 
tyrant, or guards, or swords in the hands of guards 
can any more ins))ire fear in the breast of such a man ? 



6 Elra VTTO fiavia^ fiev hvvarai ri^; outco? 
hiareOrjvai 7rpo<; ravra koX vtto e6ov<; ol Ta\c- 
Xaior VTTO Xoyov Be fcal airohei^ew^ ovheU 
hvvarai ixaOelv, on 6 ^eo? iravra TreTrolijKev ra 
€v Tw Koa^jia) KoX avTov rov koct/jlov 6\ov /lev 
aKO}\vTOv xai avToreXi), ra ev fxepei 8' avTOu 

7 7rpo9 XP^^^^ '^^'^ o\(jov ; to, /jL€v ovv aWa rravra 
aTTi'-jWaKTai rov BvvaaOai TrapaKokovOelv rfj 
BioiKjjaei, avTov' rb Be \oyiKov ^(pov a(f)op/xa<; 
e^et TTyDo? dvaXoyiapov tovtcov airdi'TCov, on re 
/jL€po<; earl koI irolov n p,epo<; koX on ra pLeprj 

8 Tot? oXo49 e'UeLV e;^et KaXox;. rrpo^ rovroL<; Be 
cpvaei yevvalov Kal ixeyaXo^v^ov Kal eXevOepov 
yevojievov opa, Bion rcov irepl avro ra p,ev uKcoXvra 
e^ei Kal eV avrw, ra Be KcoXvra Kal eV aXXoi,<;' 
aKOiXvra /lev ra irpoaipenKa, KwXvra Be ra 

9 diTpoaipera. Kal Bid rovro, edv pev ev rovroL^ 
p6voi<^ r)y7]<j7jraL ro dyaOov ro avrou Kal av/i- 
<f)€pov, Tot9 dKO)Xvroi<; Kal e<^' eavrw, eXevdepov 
earai, evpovv, euBaip^ov, tt/3Xa/5e9, p.eyaX6(f>pov, 
eucre/Se?, X^P^^ ^X^^ virep irdvrwv rw dew, 
p.tjBap.ov pep.(f)6pevov p'f]Bevl rwv yevopevcov, 

lu pifBevl^ eyKaXovv dv 8' ev to?? eKro<; Kal 
dTTpoaiperoLf;, dvdyK-q KcoXveaOai avro, ep.iroBi- 
^eaOat, BovXevecv rot? eKeivwv exovaiv e^ovalaVy 

^ Schweighauser : ixrjSev S. 

1 Obviously referring to the Christians, as the Scholiast 
saw. Cf. also II. 9, 19^-21 and note, and Introd. p. xsvi f. 



Therefore, if madness can produce this attitude of 
mind toward the tilings which have just been 
mentioned, and also habit, as with the Galilaeans,^ 
cannot reason and demonstration teach a man 
that God has made all things in the universe, 
and the whole universe itself, to be free from 
hindrance, and to contain its end in itself, and the 
parts of it to serve the needs of the whole ? Now 
all other animals have been excluded from the 
capacity to understand the governance of God, but 
the rational animal, man, possesses faculties that 
enable him to consider all these things, both that he 
is a part of them, and what kind of part of them he 
is, and that it is well for the parts to yield to the 
whole. And furthermore, being by nature noble, 
and high-minded, and free, the rational animal, man, 
sees that he has some of the things which are about 
him free from hindrance and under his control, but 
that others are subject to hindrance and under the 
control of others. Free from hindrance are those 
things which lie in the sphere of the moral purpose, 
and subject to hindrance are those which lie outside 
the sphere of the moral purpose. And so, if he 
regards his own good and advantage as residing in 
these things alone, in those, namely, which are free 
from hindrance and under his control, he will be 
free, serene, happy, unharmed, high-minded, 
reverent, giving thanks for all things to God, under 
no circumstances finding fault with anything that 
has happened, nor blaming anything ; if, however, he 
regards his good and advantage as residing in 
externals and things outside the sphere of his moral 
purpose, he must needs be hindered and restrained, 
be a slave to those who have control over these things 



11 a reOavfiaKev Kal (f)o/3eiTaL, dvciyKij 5' acre/Je? 
eh'at are (SXairrecrOai olofjievov viro rod Oeov 
Kal aviaov, del avrfo rod TrXetoro? TrepLironj- 
TiKov, dvayKt] he Kal Taireivov eivai Kal 

12 Tavra rl KcoXuet, SiaXa^ovra ^>]v kov<^w<^ Kal 
€W]Vio)<;, irdvra ra^ ov/x/Saivetv hwdfieva irpao)'^ 
eKBe)(6/j.ei'0P, rd 8' yBrj avpL^e/SrjKora (pepovra ; 

13 " Oekei^ ireviav ; " (f)epe Kal yi'Marj, rl earl Trevia 
Tvxovaa KaXov inroKpnov. '* Bekei^ dp'^d<; ; " 
(fiipe. Oe\€i<^ dvap')(^Lav ; (pepe. dWd irovov^ 

14 OeXeL^;"^ ^epe Kal irovovi. '' dX)C e^opiafjuov ;^' 
OTTov dp direXOo), €K€L /jlol Ka\w<; earar Kal 
yap evOdhe ov Sid rov toitov rjv /lot, A:aXw?, dWd 
Sid rd Soyfxara, a fieWco fxer e/iavrov drro- 
(^epeiv. ovSe ydp SvvaTai ri<s d^eXeaQai avrd, 
dXXd ravra jxova e/Lid eari Kal dvac^aipsTa Kal 
dpKeZ /uLOi Tzapovra, ottov dv w Kal 6 n dv ttoio). 

15 " dXX' 7]Sr) Kaipo<; diroOavelvy ri Xeyei^ diro- 
Oavelv ; /xy rpayoiSei to Trpdy/ia, dXX^ elire &)? 
e';^fc'i " i'jSi] Kaip6<; r-qv vXijv, ef mv avv)]XOev, 66? 
eKelva irdXiv diroKaTaarrjvai.'' Kal tl Sslvov ; 
TL /xeXXei diroXXvaOai tmv ev rw Koafxw, ri 

16 yeveaOai Kaivov, rrapdXoyov ; rourcov eveKa 4)0- 
/Sepo*^ eariv 6 rvpai>vo<; ; Sid ravra ol Sopv(f)upoi 
/jL6ydXa<; Sokovglv €)(^eLV rd<; /j.a')(aLpa<; Kal 

^ Toi supplied by Sb. 

^ These last seven words (with the change of ex^is before 
ayapxiaf to OfKfis, by Schenkl) in the scholia a little below 
tlii.s j)oint were seen by Lindsa}' to belong here. 

* yee Enchciridion, 17, and frag. 11 for parallels. 

BOOK IV. VII. 10-16 

which he has admired and fears ; he must needs be 
irreverent, forasmuch as he tliinks that God is 
injuring him, and be unfair, always trying to secure 
for himself more tlian his share, and must needs be 
of an abject and mean spirit. 

When a man has once grasped all this, what 
is there to prevent him from living with a light 
heart and an obedient disposition ; with a gentle 
spirit awaiting anything that may yet befall, and 
enduring that which has already befallen ? '^ \Vould 
you have me bear poverty?" Bring it on and you 
shall see what poverty is when it finds a good actor 
to play the part.^ "^ Would you have me hold 
office? " Bring it on. " Would you have me suffer 
deprivation of office ? " Bring it on. " Well, and 
would you have me bear troubles ? " Bring them on 
too. " Well, and exile ? " Wherever I go it will be 
well with me, for here where I am it was well with 
me, not because of my location, but because of my 
judgements, and these I shall carry away with me; 
nor, indeed, can any man take these away from me, 
but they are the only things that are mine, and they 
cannot be taken away, and with the possession of 
them I am content, wherever I be and whatever I do. 
"But it is now time to die." Why say "die"? 
Make no tragic parade of the matter, but speak of it 
as it is : " It is now time for the material of which 
you are constituted to be restored to those elements 
from which it came." And what is there terrible 
about that ? What one of the things that make up 
the universe will be lost, what novel or unreason- 
able thing will have taken place ? Is it for this 
that the tyrant inspires fear? Is it because of 
this that his guards seem to have long and sharj) 



6^eia<i ; aX\oL<; ravra' efxol 5' eaKCTTTai irepl 

17 TrdvTcov, €i<; i/ie 01)861? e^ovaiav e^^ei. yXenOepo)- 
fiat vTTo Tov deov, eyvcoKa avrov Ta<; ivroXd*;, 
ovKen ouSei? SovXaycoyijaai /jl€ Bvvarai, Kap- 

18 7ri(TT7]v 6^0) olov Set, SiKacTTdf; o'lov<s Sel. " ou^l 
TOV aco/jLar6<; aov^ Kvpi6<; elfii;^^^ ri ovv irpo^ 
ifie ; " o^X}' '^^^ Kryjathiov ; " rt ovv 7rpo<; e/ie ; 
" ov)(l (t>vyj]<; T) Sea-ficov;'' itoXlv tovtcov iravroiv 
KoX TOV (TcofiaTiov 6\ov aoi avTOV i^lcTTa/xaL, 
OTav deXy^. Treipaaai /jlol crov t?}? ^PXV'^ " i^ciX 
yvcoaji, fJi^XP^ TtVo? avTrjv e;^et?. 

19 Tlva ovv 6T1 (f)o(37]0i]vaL Svvafiai ; tov^; iwl 
TOV fcoiTcovo^ ; fir] TL TTOL^acoatv ,' (iTroKXeiacoai 
fie ; dv fxe evpaxiL OeXovTa elaeXdelv, diro- 
KXeiaaTwaav. — Tt ovv epxu i^rl dvpa^ ; — ^'Ort 
KaOjffceiv ifiavTw Bokm jxevovarj^ t^9 7raiSid<; 

20 avfiTTai^eLV. — IIco? ovv ovk diroKXeirj ; — 'Otl dv 
fXTj Tt? /X6 5e;^T;Tai, ov OeXco elaeXdelv, dW da, 
fxdXXov €/c€Lvo deXw to yivofievov. fcpeiTTOV yap 
rjyovfiaL o 6 06o<; OeXei rj iyd). 7rpoaK€Lao/jiaL 

hldKOVO^ KoX UKoXovOo^ €K€lv(p, aVVOpfjiO), CTVVO- 

peyofiai,^ aTrXw? avvdeXco. diTOKXeL(jfJiO<; e/iol 

21 ov yiveTai, dXXd TOi? /3ia^ofjL€VOL<;. Sid tL ovv 
ov ^id^o/iai ; ol8a ydp, otl €crco dyadov ovBev 
StaSiBoTai T0t9 elaeXOovGLV. dXX* otuv uKovao) 

^ Schweigliauser (after Wolf) : fiou and eZ S. 

^ s and Schenkl, who adds fiol: irapdao/xai aov rr)v 
apx-hv S. 

^ Wolf (after Schegk) : opiyonai S. 

BOOK IV. VII. 16-21 

swords ? Let others see to that ; 1 Jiave considered 
all this, no one has authority over nie. 1 have been 
set free by God, 1 know His commands, no one has 
power any longer to make a slave of me, I have the 
right kind of emancipator, and the right kind of 
judges. '^^ Am I not master of your body r " Very 
well, what is that to me ? '' Am I not master of your 
paltry property?" Very well, what is that to me? 
"Am I not master of exile or bonds?" Again I 
yield up to you all these things and my whole 
paltry body itself, whenever you will. Do make 
trial of your power, and you will find out how far it 

Who is there, then, that I can any longer be afraid 
of? Shall I be afraid of the chamberlains? For 
fear they do what ? Lock the door in my face ? If 
they find me wanting to enter, let them lock the 
door in my face I — Why, then, do you go to the gate 
of the palace ? — Because I think it fitting for me to 
join in the game while the game lasts. — How, 
then, is it that you are not locked out ? ^ — Because, 
if anyone will not receive me, I do not care to go 
in, but always I wish rather the thing which takes 
place. For I regard God's will as better than my 
will. I shall attach myself to Him as a servant and 
follower, my choice is one with His, my desire one 
with His, in a word, my will is one with His will. 
No door is locked in my face, but rather in the face 
of those who would force themselves in. Why, then, 
do I not force myself in ? Why, because I know that 
within nothing good is distributed among those who 
have entered. But when I hear someone called blessed, 

^ That is, it cannot properly be said of a man tliat he is 
"locked out" if he does not " wish" to enter. 



TLva /j,aKapL^6/j.€V0Vy on Ti/iarai vvo tov Kat- 
aapo<;, Xeyw " ri avrfp av/jb/Saivei ; fiyj rt ovv 
Kal Soy/xa, olov Set eirap-^ia ; ^ /jLjJ tl ovv koI 
TO '^pyjaOai iirLTpoirfj ; rt eVt hiwOovp^ai ; la'^a- 

22 EoKupvci Ti? SiappiTTTel'" ra TraiSia aprrd^ei Kal 
aWifX.oi'; Siapd)(eTai' oi civBpe^ ovy^i, jiLKpov 
yap avro yjyovvTai. av 3' oarpuKia ^LapptTTTrj 

23 Tt?, ovSe rd iraihia dpird^et,. eirapx^iaL SiaBi- 
BovTaC 6\jr€TaL rd irathia. dpyvpiov oyjreTac 
rd iraihia. arpaTtjyca, virareia' Siapira^ero) 
rd TTaiBia' eKKXeieaOco, JvirreaOcOy KaTa(f)LXeLrco 

24 Trt? y^€2pa<; tov BlS6i'to<;, tCov hovXwv' ifMol 3' 
layahoKdpvov ecrriv.' ri ovv, dv ^ diro rvyTi^ 
pLirrovvro^ avrov eKurj 6t<? rov koKttov ca^a<; ; 
dpa<; Karecjyayov'^ f^^XP^ roaovrov ydp eari Kal 
laxd^cL rLfiTjaat. iva Be Kvyjrco ^ Kal dWov 
dvarpeyjrco ?) utt' dWov dvarpaTrco Kal KoXaKevau) 
rov^ €Lcnevra<s,^ ovk d^ia ovr ia'y^d<^ ovr dWo n 
r6)v OVK dyadcov, d fie dvaireiTeiKacnv ol (piXo- 
ao(f>OL fxi] SoKelv dyaOd ecvai. 

25 AeUvve pot rd<; fxaxaipa^ roiv Sopv(f)6p(ov. 
" ISov, rjXiKai €ial Kal ttco? o^etaL' ri ovv 
TTOiovaiv al p^eydXai avrai p,d-)(^aLpai Kal o^elai ; 

20 ^^ aTroKrivvvovaiv.^' rrvpero'^ he ri iroLel ; '' dXXo 
ovhev,^^ Kepapl<i he ri iroiel ; ^^ dXXo ovhev.^^ 

1 Schenkl : iwapxiav S. The passage is extremely condensed 
if not actually lacunose. Tliis comparatively simple change 
enables one to secure the general sense required, whether 
or not it was originally expressed in this form. 

2 Bentleyand Schenkl^ : SiapplirTrj S. But cf. Trans. Amer. 
FhilnL Assoc. 52 (W2\) b\. 

^ 6.V added by Sc. * KaTd(p(iye s and Schenkl. 

'• Wolf: Kpv\i/w S. 

*■' Elter : fl(ri6uTas (" those who enter the palace ") S. 

BOOK IV. Ml. 21-26 

because he is being honoured by Caesar, 1 say, 
" What is his portion ? Does he, then, get also a 
judgement such as he ought to liave for governing 
a province ? Does he, then, get also the ability to 
administer a procuratorship ? Why should I any 
longer push my way in? Somebody is scattering 
dried figs and nuts ; the children snatch them up 
and fight with one another, the men do not, for they 
count this a small matter. But if somebody throws 
potsherds around, not even the children snatch them 
up. Governorships are being passed around. The 
children shall see ^ to that. Money. The children 
shall see to that. A praetorship, a consulship. Let 
the children snatch them up ; let the children 
have the door locked in their faces, take a beating, 
kiss the hands of the giver, and the hands of his slaves. 
As for me, it's a mere scattering of dried figs and 
nuts." But what, then, if, when the man is throwing 
them about, a dried fig chances to fall into my lap ? 
I take it up and eat it. For I may properly value 
even a dried fig as much as that. But neither a 
dried fig, nor any other of the things not good, 
which the philosophers have persuaded me not to 
think good, is of sufl^cient value to warrant my 
grovelling and upsetting someone else, or being 
upset by him, or flattering those who have flung the 
dried figs among us. 

Show me the swords of the guards. " See how- 
large and how sharp they are ! " What, then, do 
these large and sharp swords do? "They kill." 
And what does fever do? "Nothing else." And 
what does a tile do? "Nothing else." Do you 

^ See note on IV. G, 23. 



OeXei^ (Wi- irdvTa ravra Oaufi(i^a) fcal irpoaKWU) 
Kai Buv\o<^ iravTwv irepLepy^wfiai ; firj yevoiTo' 

27 aXV dira^ fiaOcov, on to yevofxevov Kal cpOapi^vat 
Bel. 'ipa 6 Koa/jbo^; fir) Xa-TrjTai jjit^h^ ifjLTroSL^yjrai, 
ovKen Biacfiepo/jLaL, Trorepov Trupero? avTo ttolj']- 
aei r) K€pa/j.l<i y crr/jaT^ cl)t>;9, a\V el Sec avy- 
Kplvai, olS" on dirovuyrepov avro Kal Ta)(yT€pov 

28 aTpaTLcoT7]<; nroii^creL. orav ovv pn^re (j^o/Scj/jiaL 
n (Lv hiadelvai fie hvvaraL firjr eVf^u/xco nv6<i 
wv irapaaxelv, ri en dav/nd^o) avrov, tl en 
reOrjira ; ri (po/Bov/jiai tol/? hopv<^6pov<; ; ri 
^aipo), civ /jLol (f)i\avdpoo7r(o<; XaXi^arj koX drco- 
he^^Tai fxe, Kal dWot,<i BiTjyou/j-aL, ttw? /xot 

29 eXdXiiaev ; firj yap ^(OKpdTy]<; eariv, fiii yap 
Aioyevrj^iy 'Iv 6 eiraLvc^ avrov diroheL^L^; rj irepl 

30 ejJLOv ; fit) yap to i]0o(; i^tjXwKa avrov ; dWa 
rrjv nraihidv crw^oyv ep^ofiai tt/oo? avrov ^ Kal 
vTTtjpera), fie^pt'^ civ orov /.trjhev d/3e\repov KeXevrj 
fjL}]S' dppvdfjLOv. dv Se /loi Xeyrj " direXOe errl 
Aeovra rov ^aXafiiiLov'' Xeyco avrco " f'Jret 

31 dXXov' eyco yap ovKen Trat^o)." " diraye avrov.'' 
uKoXovdo) ev iraihia. " aXX' dcfyaipelrai, aov o 
rpd)(^r]Xo<i-^^ eKeivov K avrov del empLevei, v/jLCJV 
Be rcov 7Tei0o/ji6VQ)v ; " aXV dra(^o<^ picpyjay. 
el iyd) el/xc 6 veKpo^, pL(f)}jaojiiai' el 3' dXXo<; 

^ S : ifxavTou S. 

1 See note on IV. 1, 160. 

- As was sometimes done as a last insult to the dead. 
Epictetus may also have had in mind the celebrated remark of 
Diogenes before his death, who, when his friends protested 
against his request that he be thrown out unburied (Diogenes 

BOOK IV. VII. 26-31 

want nw, then, to respect and du obeisance to all 
these thino^s, and to go about as the slave of them 
all ? Far from it ! But if once I have learned that 
what is born must also perish^ so that the world may 
not stand still, nor be hampered, it makes no differ- 
ence to me whether a fever shall bring that consumma- 
tion, or a tile, or a soldier ; but, if 1 must make a 
comparison, I know that the soldier will bring it 
about with less trouble and more speed. Seeing, 
therefore, that I neither fear anything of all that the 
tyrant is able to do with me, nor greatly desire any- 
thing of all that he is able to provide, why do I any 
longer admire him, why any longer stand in awe of 
him .'' Why am I afraid of his guards ? Why do I 
rejoice if he speaks kindly to me and welcomes me, 
and why do I tell others how he spoke to me? He 
is not Socrates, is he, or Diogenes, so that his praise 
should be a proof of what I am ? I have not been 
ambitious to imitate his character, have I ? Nay, 
but acting as one who keeps the game going, I come 
to him and serve him so long as he commands me 
to do nothing foolish or unseemly. If, however, he 
says, " Go and bring Leon of Salamis," ^ I reply, 
" Try to get someone else, for I am not playing any 
longer." "Take him oft" to prison," says the tyrant 
about me. " I follow, because that is part of the game." 
'^ But your head will be taken oft*." And does the 
tyrant's head always stay in its place, and the heads 
of you who obey him ? " But you will be thrown out 
unburied." - If the corpse is I, then 1 shall be 
thrown out; but if I am something different from 

Laertius, 6, 79), ironically suggested that his staff be laid by 
his side to keep away the dogs and carrion birds. Cicero, 
Tusc. Disj). 1, 104 ; Ps.-Diog. ^^/is^. 25. 


t<'/i,t Tov i'6fcpou, KOfxylrorepov Xeye, w? e^^et to 
.'52 Trpajfia, kol /jlt} €K(p6/3€L fie. to?? TratStof? ravra 
(ho^epcL ecTTfc koX rol^ dvoy]TOt,<;. el Se ti<; eh 
^iXoao^ov aXoXy]!' arra^ elaeXOcov ovk olSev, ri 
iarlv avr6<;, d^io^ ean (^o^elaOai kol KoXa/ceveiv 
ovairep rrporepov^ eKoXciKevev el /inJTTco /J.6/X(i6}]fcev. 
OTL OVK ecTTL (jCLp^ ovK ocTTCi ovhe vevpa, ciXXa 
rb TOVTOL^ xpco/jLevov, to ^ Kal Slolkovu kol irapa- 
KoXovOovv Tat? (f)avTaaiai^. 

33 Nar dXX^ ol Xoyoi ovtoc KaTa(f)pov7]Td<; 
TTOLOvaL TCt)V vo/icov. — Kat TTOLOL fiaXXov XoyoL 
7rei.6o/jL€POV<i irapey^ovai Tol<i vofioif; TOV<y XP^~ 

34 fxivov; ;<; 3' ov/c eaTi to. eirl /JLcopo). Kal 
6/j.o)<i opa, TTW? Kal 77/90? TovTov<; ct)? Sel e^oPTa^; 
TrapaaKevd^ouaiv, ol ye SiSdaKOvatv iirjhevo^ 
dvTLiTOLelaOai rrpo'^ avTOV's, ev ol<; dv ri/j,d<; 

3") vLK-fjaai SvpcovTai.^ irepl to crco/jidTiov BiSdcrKov- 
(JLV i^LCTTacrOai, irepl ti^v kt/'jctlv e^taTaaOaiy 
TTepl Ta T€KPa, yoveh, dBeX(f>ov<;, irdvTwv irapa- 
Xwpelv, irdvra d(f)tevar /jLova Ta SoyfiaTa vne- 
^aipovvTai, a Kal 6 Zei;? e^aipeTa eKacTTOV 

36 elvai i)6eXyiaev. irota ivddhe irapavopia, woia 
d^eXTepla ; ottov Kpe'iTTcov el Kal la'xypoTepo';, 
eKel aoL e^io-Ta/iar ottov irdXiv eyd> KpeiTTcov, 

37 av irapaxoopeL fioi. epol yap fie/jLeXi]Kev, aol 8' 
ov. aol fieXei, ttco? ev 6p6o(TTpioTOL<^ OLKfj^, eTi^ 
TTW? 7ral8e<i aoi Kal ttiXXutol SiaKOVcoaiv, ttw? 

* ovairfp Capps (Schweighauser ova), 'jrp6Tfpov Old father 
(in part after Page) : f> {jo-Tcpou (sic) S. Capps would prefer 
OJCTTTip vvv KoXaKevets. 

- Schcnkl : 5' uncertain. 

' Schweighauser: hvyavrai S. 

* Schenkl : olxvo'^'rai S. 


HOOK I\. VII. 31-37 

tlie corpse, speak witli more (liseriniiii.ition, as the 
fact is, and do not try to terrify me. These tilings 
are terrifying to tlie children and the fools. But if 
a man who has once entered a philosopher's lecture 
does not know what he himself is, he deserves to be 
in a state of fear, and also to flatter those whom he 
used to flatter before;^ if he has not yet learned 
that he is not flesh, nor bones, nor sinews, but that 
which employs these, that which both governs the 
impressions of the senses and understands them. 

Oh yes, but statements like these make men 
despise the laws. — Quite the contrary, what state- 
ments other than these make the men who follow 
them more ready to obey the laws ? Law is not simply 
anything that is in the power of a fool. And yet 
see how these statements make us behave properly 
even toward these fools, because they teach us to 
claim against such persons nothing in which they 
can surpass us. They teach us to give way when it 
comes to our })altry body, to give way when it comes 
to our projjcrty, to our children, parents, brothers, to 
retire from everything, let ever}'thing go ; they 
except only our judgements, and it was the will of 
Zeus also that these should be each man's special 
possession. What do you mean by speaking of law- 
lessness and stupidity here ? Where you are superior 
and stronger, there I give way to you ; and again, 
where I am superior, you retire in favour of me. For 
I have made these matters my concern, and you 
have not. It is your concern how to live in marble 
halls,2 and further, how slaves and freedmen are to 

^ That is, before he began to attend lectures in philosophy. 
But the text is highly uncertain. 

2 Strictly speaking, walls covered witli a veneer of varie- 
gated marble. 



ecrOfjTa irepi^Xeirrov ^op]]<i, tw? Kvmjyov'i ttoX- 

38 \ov^ ^XV^' 7r&)9 KtOap(i)8ov<;, rpaycpBov'^. /lyj ri 
dvriTTOLov/xaL ; /jl/} tl ovv Soyfidrcov <jol fiefie- 
\r)K€ ; /J,7] TL rov \6yov rov aeavrov ; ^rj rt 
olBa<;, €K Tivoiv fxopiwv avveaTijKev, ttco? avvd- 
yerai, tl<; t) BidpOpcoai^; avrov, riva<i e^(€i 

39 Sij'dfi€L<i Kol TTOta? rtvd<^ ; rl ovv dyavaKjel^, 
€L dWo<; ii> TOVTOL<; aou irXeov ey^ei 6 fj^fieXe- 
TrjKco^; ; — 'AWa ravr earl rd fieyLara. — Kat 
Tt? ae KcoXvet irepl ravr dvaar pe(^ea6 ai koX 
TOVTcov iTTLfieXetadac ; rt? ^e jnei^ova e^ei ira- 
paaK€U7]v ^t^Xlcov, €va')(o\ia^, ra)v aycfyeXtjaoprcou; 

40 fiovov dirovevaov iroTS eirl ravra, diToveLfiov kuv 
oXiyov %/902^oz/ to) aavrov rjye/jLOviKM' crKe^\raL ri 
TTOT 6')(ei^ Tovro KOI iTodev €Xy]Xv66^, ro irdaiv 
TOL<; dXXoi<; ^pcojjievov, Trdvra rdXXa Bokl/jlu^ov, 

41 eKXeyo/ievov, aTreKXeyofievov. f^^XP^ ^' ^^ ^^ 
iT6p\ rd i/CTb<i dvacTTpecprj, eKslva e^€i.<i ola ovScl^;, 
TOVTO S' olov aVTU 6^6LV 6eX€L<i, pvTTapov fcal 

T]'. IT/30? Tot's- Ta^ea)9 eirl to a-\^rjfxa tojv 
(piXoa6(f)(ov eiTL7n]BoiVTa^. 

1 y[7)BeiT07 diro ro}v kolvmv rivd fjn'^r eiraL- 
vearjre U7)T€ ^e'^-qre ixrjre Te)(^vr]v ripd rj are;^- 

^ Those who sang to their own accompaniment on the harp. 
« See IV. 4, 44. 


BOOK IV. VII. 37-viii. I 

serve you, liow you are to wear conspicuous clothing, 
how to have many hunting dogs, citharoedes,^ and 
tragedians. I do not lay claim to any of these, do 
I ? You, then, have never concerned yourself with 
judgements, have you ? Or with your own reason, 
have you ? You do not know, do you, what are its 
constituent parts, how it is composed, what its 
arrangement is, what faculties it has, and what their 
nature is ? Why, then, are you disturbed if someone 
else, the man, namely, who has concerned himself 
with these matters, has the advantage of you therein ? 
— But these are the most important things that there 
are. — And who is there to prevent you from concern- 
ing yourself with these matters, and devoting your 
attention to them ? And who is better provided 
with books, leisure, and persons to help you ? Only 
begin some time to turn your mind to these matters ; 
devote a little time, if no more, to your own govern- 
ing principle ; consider what this thing is which you 
possess, and where it has come from, the thing which 
utilizes everything else, submits everything else to 
the test, selects, and rejects. But so long as you 
concern yourself with externals, you will possess 
them in a way that no one else can match, but you 
will have this governing faculty in the state in which 
you want to have it, that is, dirty and neglected. 


To those ii'ho hastily assume the guise of the 

Never bestow either praise or blame upon a man 
for the things which may be either good or bad,^ nor 



vlav 7rpoa/jLapTvp7]ar]r€' koI ci/xa fjuev TTpoirereia^s 

2 €avTOV<; diraWd^eTe, dfxa 3e KaKor)9eia^. " ovto<; 
ray^6(o<; XoveraL.'' KaK(b<; ovv rroiel ; ov Trdi'Tct)'^. 

3 u\\d TL ; Taxew<i Xoverai. — Xldvra ovv KoXoi^ 
jLverat ; — Oi'Sa/xw?" dWd rd fiev diro Soy/xd- 
T(ov opdoyv Kd\(h<^, rd S' utto p,o)(6i]pwv M'^X' 
Orjpoi'^. (TV Se /ji6)^pi^ dv Karapiddr]'^ to hoyfia, d(p' 
ov Tf? TTOLel cKaara, jjli'jt enalvei to epyov iiy^re 

4 y\re<ye. Boyfia 8' ifc rcov e/CTO? ov paSlco^ KpiveTai. 
" ouTO? reKTcov eariv.^^ Sid tl ; " \prjTaL cjKe- 
irdpvw.^^ TL ovv TOVTO ; " ovTO<; fiovaiKO^;' aSet 
ydpy KOi TL TOVTO ,' " OUTO? (pi'XoGOcjio';.^^ hid. 

5 TL ; " Tpi^wva yap ex^L Kal Kopui^vT oi 8' 
dyvpTai TL exovaiv ; Sid tovto, dv da^Vf^o- 
vovvrd Tt? lSt) TLvd avTcov, eu^j)? Xeyei " ISov 
6 (jiiXoaocpOf; rP ttoiel.'' eSei 8' a^' wv V<^XV~ 
fiovei fidWov Xeyeiv avrov firj elvai (fyiXocrocpor. 

6 el fiev ydp avTrj iarlv i) tov (^i\o<j6<^ov irpo- 
\7]yfrL<; Kal iirayyeXia, €X€iv Tpl/Saiva Kal KofjLTjV, 
KaXoi^ dv ekeyov el S' eKelvr] fidWov, dra/ndp- 
TTfTov elvai, Sid tL ovx} Sid to /llt) irXypovv ttjv 
eirayyeXiav dcfyaipovvrai, avrov tt}? irpoar^yopia'^ ; 

7 ovrco<; ydp Kal fVt rwv dWoyv rex^^i^- orav 
I'Srj Tt? KaK(Jt)<^ rreXeKcovra, ov Xeyei " tl bcfyeXo^ 

T€KTOVLKr}<; ; ISoV Oi T€KT0Ve^ ola ITOLOVai KaKCl, 

dXXd 7rdv Tovvavrlov Xeyei " ovto<; ovk kan 
^ tI added by Reiske. 

^ That is, no conclusion about richt or wrong can be drawn 
from an action, in itself indifF'.rent, the moral purpose of 
which one does not know. 


BOOK IV. Mil. 1-7 

credit him witli either skill or want of .skill ; and by 
so doing you will escape from both rashness and 
malice. ''This man is hasty about bathing." Does 
he, therefore, do wrong? Not at all. But what 
is he doing ? He is hasty about bathing. — Is all 
well, then ? — That by no means follows ; ^ but 
only the act which proceeds from correct judge- 
ments is well done, and that which proceeds 
from bad judgements is badly done. Yet until you 
learn the judgement from which a man j)erforms 
each sej)arate act, neither praise his action nor blame 
it. But a judgement is not readily determined by 
externals. "This man is a carpenter." Why? 
"He uses an adze." What, then, has that to do 
with the case ? " This man is a musician, for he 
sings." And what has that to do with the case ? 
"This man is a philosopher." Why ? " Because he 
wears a rough cloak and long hair." And what do 
hedge-priests wear ? That is why, when a man sees 
some one of them misbehaving, he immediately says, 
" See what the philosopher is doing." But he ought 
rather to have said, judging from the misbehaviour, 
that the person in question was not a philosopher. 
For if the prime conception and profession of the 
])hilosopher is to wear a rough cloak and long hair, 
their statement would be correct ; but if it is rather 
this, to be free from error, why do they not take 
away from him the designation of pliilosopher, 
because he does not fulfil the profession of one ? For 
that is the way men do in the case of the other arts. 
When someone sees a fellow hewing clumsily with 
an axe, he does not say, " What's the use of car- 
pentry ? See the bad work the carpenters do I " but 
quite the contrary, he says, "Ihis fellow is no 



8 reKTcoVy ireXeKa 'yap KaKa)<;.'' ufioLW<; kclv ahovr6<; 
rivo<^ uKOvarj fcaKM<;, ov Xeyet " Ihov ttio^ 
ahovaiv ol /lovaiKoiJ' dWa fiaWov otl^ " outo? 

1) ovK eari fiovaiKo^;.'' eirl (j)i\oao(f)ia^ Be [x6vri<; 
Tovro Trdcr^ovatv orav tlvo, thwdi irapa ro 
eirdyyekfia rb rov (pi\oa6(pov iroLOvvTa, ov)(l 
Tr}<? 'TTpoar}<yopia<^ d^aipovvraL avrov, aXXci 
Oevre's elvai (piXvaocpoVy elr avr' avrov rov 
<yii'0/j.evov Xa/3oi^Te9, on d(T)(^y]fjLOveL, indyovac 
fiTjBev 6<p€Xo(; elvai rov cfuXocrocpeJv. 

10 Tt ovi' TO atTLOv ; on ttjv p.ev rov T€Krovo<; 
irpoXriy^iv irpea^evofxev Kal T7-jv tov fiovcnKov 
KoX ci)crai/Ta>9 tcoi/ dXkcov Tey^viTOiv, rrjv tov 
<piXoa6<pov S' ov, dXX' cits avyK6')(vii€V7]p Kal 

11 d6idp6pu>TOV diro tcov €kto<^ fiovov Kpivoiiev. Kal 
irola dXXrj Te^yri diro o-)(^yj /xaTOf; dvaXafi^dveTaL 
Kal KopLri<^, ov^i he Kal decopi'^paTa e^^L Kal vXrjv 

12 Kal T6A.0? ; t/<? ovv vXtj tov (i}LXoa6(pov ; firj 
Tpl/Scov ; ov, dXXd 6 X6yo<;. t'l tcXo^ ; yu,?; ti, 
(popelv Tpi^wva ; ov, dXXd to 6p9ov €)(^€lv tov 
Xoyov. iTola Oecop7]/.iaTa ; fiyj tc tcl Trepl tov 
TfOi^i ircoywv /j,eya<; ylveTau rj KOfir) ^aOela ; 
dXXd fiaXXov a Zy'jvcov Xeyei, yvoivai tcl tov 
Xoyov aT0L')(ela, ttolov tl CKaaTOv avTOiV eaTi 
Kal 7ra)9 dppoTTeTai irpo^ dXXrjXa Kal oaa 

13 T0VT0L<i dKoXovdd eaTLv. ov OeXei<; ovv IBelv 
irpooTOV, el TrXrjpol ti-jv ewayyeXiav daxvf^ovcov, 



^ The technical terminology of syllogistic reasoning is eni- 
jjloj'ed. Men " assume " or " lay down " {d^yrfs) the general 
principle in the major premiss; "take'' {\a^6yT(s) from 


BOOK IV. VIII. 7-13 

carpenter, for lie hews clumsily with the axe." And^ 
similarly, if a man hears somebody singing badly, he 
does not say, " See how the musicians sing ! " but 
rather, "This fellow is no musician." But it is only 
in the case of philosophy that men behave like this ; 
when they see somebody acting contrary to the pro- 
fession of the philosopher, they do not take away 
from him the designation of philosopher, but, assuming 
that he is a philosopher, and then taking ^ from what 
goes on that he is misbehaving, they conclude that 
there is no good in being a philosopher. 

What, then, is the reason for this ? It is because 
we respect the prime conception of the carpenter, 
and the musician, and so also of all the other artisans 
and artists, while we do not respect that of the 
philosopher, but as if it were confused and inarticulate 
in our minds we judge of it only from externals. And 
what other art is there that is acquired by guise and 
hair-dress, and does not have also principles, and 
subject-matter, and end ? What, then, is subject- 
matter for the philosopher ? It is not a rough 
cloak, is it? No, but reason. Wliat is end for the 
philosopher } It is not to wear a rough cloak, is it ? 
No, but to keep his reason right. What is the 
nature of his principles ? They do not have to do 
with the question how to grow a long beard, or a 
thick head of hair, do they ? Nay, rather, as Zeno 
says, to understand the elements of reason, what the 
nature of each one is, and how they are fitted one 
to another, and all the consequences of these facts. 
Will you not, therefore, observe first of all whether 
the philosopher fulfils his profession by misbehaving, 

observation or experience a fact as a minor premiss ; and 
then " induce " or " conclude " {iirayovai). 



Kol ovTOi<; T(p €7rLr7]S6VfiaTL iyKaXelv ; vvv 3', 
ai^To? orav act)(f)poi'f]<;, i^ cov rrotelv aoi SoKel 
KaKco<;, \e7et9 '' opa top (f)L\6(TO(j)ov^^ (&)? ^ irpe- 
TToz^TO? Xiyeiv top to, rotavTa'^ iroioupra ^iXo- 
ao(f)Ov) Kal ttoXlv " toOto <f)LX6ao(f)6<i iariv;'*^ 
" opa^^ Be "' Tov rercrnva^' ov \ey€L<=;, orav fioc- 
^t-uoi^ra TLva 71^03? rj Xi^vevovra iSr]<;, ovBe 

14 " opa TOP fxovGiKOPr ouTCt)? eVt ttoctop^ alaOdpT] 
Kal auTo? tT;? eTrayyeXia^ tov (j)iXoa6(f)Ov, aivo- 
Xiaddp€L<s Se fcal avy)(er} inro d/xeXeTijala^;. 

15 ^AXXd Koi avTol 01 /caXovfiepoc (piXoaocjiOL drro 
T(tiv KOLPoiP TO 7rpdy/xa fieTiaaLP' evdix; dpa- 
Xa^oPTe^y TpL^copa kol ircoycopa KaOePTe^ (paalp 

16 " iyo) (f)cX6ao(p6<; el/jLL.^^ ovSel^ 8' epel " iyu> 
fiovaiKOf; elfJLi,^^ av irXrjicTpop koi KiOdpap dyo- 
pdcrr), ovS^ " eyco %a\«:6U9 elfii,^^ ap ttlXlop koi 
Trepi^wjjLa TrepiOfjTat, dXX' dp/jLo^eTUL /xep to 
a)(^P]/xa TTpo^ Tijp T6)(^P7]p, aTTO T?}? T€-)(^pr}<i Be TO 
opo/xa, ov/c aTTO tov ctxv/^clto^ dpaXa/jL^dpouatp. 

17 Bia TOVTO A:a\ft)? \Lv^ pdTii<i eXeyep otl " eVt 
TToXv €7r€ip(i)/jLr]p XapOdpeiP (f^LXoaocpcjp Kal rjp 
fioi,^' (fyyjaiP, " tovto wcjieXipiOP. nrpayTOP /jL6p yap 
rjBeiP, oaa KaXa)<; iTroiovp^ otl ov Blcl tov<; 0eaTa<i 
eiroiovp, dXXd Bl i/xavTop' yaOiop epavTut 
KaX(o<i, KaTe(TTaX/jL€POP el^op to ^Xefifia, top 

* ov after ws deleted by Sb. 

~ Toiavra added by Schenkl (after Wolf). 

3 Elter's puuctuation. 


BOOK IV. VIII. 13-17 

and then, if that be the case, blame his way of acting.^ 
Jiut as it is, wiien you yourself are behaving decently, 
you say, on the basis of the evil that he seems to you 
to be doing, "Look at the philosopher," just as 
though it were proper to call a man who acts like 
that a philosopher ; and again, " Is that what a 
philosopher is .'^ " But you do not say, "Look at 
the carpenter," when you know that a man is an 
adulterer, or see a man eating greedily, nor do you 
say, under similar circumstances, " Look at the 
musician." Thus to a certain degree you too realize 
what the philosopher's profession is, but you back- 
slide and get confused through carelessness. 

But even those who are styled philosophers pursue 
their calling with means which are sometimes good and 
sometimes bad. For example, when they have taken 
a rough cloak and let their beards grow, they say, 
"I am a philoso})her." But nobody will say, " I am 
a musician," if he buys a plectrum and a cithara ; 
nor, " I am a smith," if he puts on a felt cap and an 
apron ; but the guise is fitted to the art, and they 
get their name from the art, but not from the guise. 
That is why Euphrates ^ was right when he used to 
say : " For a long time I tried not to let people 
know that I was a philosopher, and this," he says, 
"was useful to me. For, in the first place, I knew 
that whatever I did well, I did so, not on account of 
the spectators, but on my own account ; it was for my 
own sake that 1 ate well, and kept my countenance 

^ See on III. 15, 8, and compare for the uncertainty in 
men's minds how to classif}' Euphrates, Apollonius of Tyana, 
Epistles, 1. 

•* Uptou : Tr6<Tov S. 



18 TrepiTrarov iravTa €/j.avTM kol 6e(i). elra oxrirep 
/lovo's rjycoviXo/J^rji', ovtci)<; fiovo'^ Koi iicLvhvvevov' 
ovhev ifxoX hpdcravTi ro alcr^pov j) avrpeTre? to 
tt}? ^ <piXoao(j)La<; eKLvSvvevero, ovS' e^Xanrrov 

19 Tov^ TToWov'; &)? (f)i\6cro(j>o<; afjbaprdvwv. hia tovto 
01 fxr) elhore^ fiov ti]V iin^oXijv iOav/bia^ov, ttw^ 
irdai ^L\oao(^OL<; ')(pcoijL€i'0<i Kat ov^cov avrb^; 

20 ovK icbiXocrocpovv. kul ri kolkov, ev oU iirolovv 
iTTcyLyvcocTKeaOat rov (pcXoaocpov, ev he tol<; 
au/jL^oXoLt; fxr) ; ' 

dvexofjLaL, ttw? dirkxoixai, ttco? avvep-ycoy tto)^ ope- 
^€c '^pM/xai, 77-60? eKKXiaei, ttco? T)]p(b ra? crX^crei^; 
rd^ (j)vcrLKd<; y) im6eT0V<i davyy^vTO)'; kuX dirapa- 

21 7roBiaTa)<;' eKeWev /le Kplve, el Svvacrar el 5' 
OL/TO)? Kco(po^ el KoX TV(f)\6<;, Lva fxrjSe rov 
"l{(paiaTOv vTToXafi^dvrj^ kuXov ')(^a\.Kea, av fX7) 
TO TTiXiov thr)<; irepl rrjv Ke<f)a\7]v irepiKeiixevov, 
ri KaKov v(f)' ovrco<; i^XlOIov Kptrov dyvoeladai ; 

22 OvTO)^ ekdvOave ^ irapd tol<; irXelaroi'^ Sco- 
Kpdrri'^ Kol ')]p)(^ovTo Trpo? avrov d^iovvTe<; (piXo- 

23 a6(f)0i<; avaraOfjvai. /iij tl ovv r^yavdKTSL 6l><=; 
7)fjL€L<; Kal eXeyev, " iyco he ooi ov ^aivofiai 
(^lX6(To<^o<^ ;'^ dXX" dTT?]yev Kal avvlara evl 
dpKOVfj,evo<i Tw elvaL <^LX6ao(^o<^, y^aipwv he kol 
OTi /XT) hoKCOv OVK ihdKveTO' ifj,6/uLV7)ro yap rov 

24 Ihiov epyov. ri epyov kuXov kol ay a6 ov ; fia- 

^ t7]s supplied b}' Reiske. 
^ Sb in margin : iKduda S. 

^ See note on III. 23, 21. 

BOOK IV. vm 17-24 

and gait composed ; it was all for myself and for God. 
And, secondly, as the contest was mine alone, so 
also I alone ran the risks ; in no respect through 
me, if I did what was disgraceful or unseemly, 
did the cause of philosophy come into danger, nor 
did I do harm to the multitude by going wrong 
as a philosopher. For that reason those who were 
ignorant of my purpose wondered how it was that, 
although I was familiar with all the philosophers and 
lived with them, I was myself not acting in the role 
of a philosopher. And what harm was there in 
having the philosopher that I was, recognized by 
what I did, rather than by the outward signs ? '' 

See how I eat, how drink, how sleep, how endure, 
how refrain, how help, how employ desire and how 
aversion, how I observe my relationships, whether 
they be natural or acquired, without confusion and 
without hindrance ; judge me on the basis of all this, 
if you know how. But if you are so deaf and blind 
as not to regard even Hephaestus as a good smith 
unless you see the felt cap resting on his head, what 
harm can come from passing unrecognized by a judge 
so foolish ? 

In this way the great majority of men failed to 
recognize Socrates, and so they used to come to him 
and ask to be introduced to philosophers ! ^ Was 
he, then, irritated as we are, and would he say, 
" And don't / look like a philosopher to you } " 
No, but he used to take them and introduce them, 
and was satisfied with one thing, that is, being a 
philosopher, and glad that he was not annoyed at 
not being taken for one ; for he habitually bore in 
mind his own proper function. What is the function 
of a good and excellent man ? To have many 



0>]Ta(; iroWov^ ex^i'V ', ov8afiM<^. osjrovTaL oi 
irepl TOVTO €cr7rou8aK6T€<;. aXXa Oewpt'if-iara 
BvafcoXa dKpil3ovi' ; oylrovrac Kal irepl tovtmv 

25 aWot. TTOv ovv avTo<; koX yv ri<; Kal elvac 
yOeXev ; ottou ^\d/3r] Kal w^t'Xeta. " et fjce 
Tt?," 0r;crtV, " /SXdyjrai Bvvarai, e'^ct) ovSev iroioy 
el aXkov Trept/jLevcD, tva pue w^eX/Jo-/;, eyw ovhev 
elpit. OeXo) rt, Kal ov yiverai' eyco aru;)^;;? et'/if." 

26 e/? ToaovTO aKup^p^a TrpoeKaXelro irdvTa ovtl- 
vaovv Kal ovk av pLOi> SokcI eKajrjvaL ovhevi — 
Ti SoK6tT6 ; KarayyeWcov Kal \iywv " eyco tolov- 
T09 elp,i " ; pLT] yevoiTO, dWa wv tolovto<^. 

27 irdXtv yap tovto pLwpov Kal dXa^6vo<; " iyco 
diradrj^; elfiL Kal drdpaxo^' p^rj dyvoeire, o) 
avOpcoTTOL, on vpuodv KVKwpievayv^ Kal Oopv^ov- 
pievwv irepl rd p,r}S€vo<i d^La puovo^i iyo) dirifk- 

28 Xaypai 7rd(T7]<i rapa-^i]'^.^^ ovrco^ ovk dpKel aoi 
TO p,7]hev dXyetv, av p,r) KTipv(j(jr)<^ " auveXOere 
7rdvT€<; 01 7roSaypMVT€<;, at K€(f)aXaXyovi're<;, oi 
TTupeaaovre^, ol ')(^coXoi, ol rv(f)XoL, Kal I'Sere fie 

29 aTTO 7ravT0<; irdOov^; vyid '* ; rovro k€vov Kal 

(^OpTLKOV, el pbTj Tt &)? ^ A.a kXt^TT L0<^ €vOv<; VTTO- 

hel^ai hvvaaat, iTOi<s OepairevovTe'^ avOi<; ^ eaovrat 
dvoaoL KaKelvoL, Kal el<^ tovto (pepei^; irapd- 
Beiyp^a ttjv vyieiav T)]v aeauTov. 

30 ToiOUTO? ydp Tt9 eaTLV 6 KvVIKO^ TOV GKl]lTTpOV 

Kal StaSr]p,aTO^ 'i)^iwp,evoi; irapd tov Azo? Kal 
^ Reiske : tcoiixoofxiyuv S. " Reiske : evdvs S. 

1 See note on IV. 6, 23. 

2 Strictly speakitig, the loosened and smoothed earth on 

BOOK IV. Mil. 24-30 

pupils ? Not at all. Those who have set their 
hearts on it shall see to that.^ Well, is it to set 
forth dillicult principles with great precision ? Other 
naen shall see to these things also. In what field 
was he, then, somebody, and wished so to be ? In 
the field where there was hurt and help. " If," 
says he, " a man can hurt me, what I am engaged 
in amounts to nothing ; if I wait for somebody else 
to help me, I am myself nothing. If I want some- 
thing and it does not happen, it follows that I am 
miserable." This was the mighty ring ^ to which 
he challenged every man whomsoever, and therein 
he w^ould not, I believe, have given way before any- 
one in — what do you suppose ? — in proclaiming and 
asserting '" I am such and such a man " ? Far from 
it ! but in being such and such a man. For, again, 
it is the part of a fool and blowhard to say, " I am 
tranquil and serene ; be not ignorant, O men, that 
while you are tossed about and are in turmoil over 
worthless things, I alone am free from every per- 
turbation." So is it not enough for you yourself to 
feel no pain without proclaiming, " Come together, 
all you who are suffering from gout, headaches, and 
fever, the halt, and the blind, and see how sound 
I am, and free from every disorder"? That is a 
vain and vulgar thing to say, unless, like Asclepius, 
you are able at once to show by what treatment 
those others will also become well again, and for this 
end are producing your own good health as an 

Such is the way of the Cynic who is deemed 
worthy of the sceptre and diadem of Zeus, and 

which wrestling matches were held, the ancient equivalent 
of our ring. 



Xfc'YO)!^ " iV i8rjT€y 0) av6pco7roi, on ti]v evhai- 
ixoviav Kai arapa^lav ou^^ ottou icrrl t^TjTelre, 

31 aXX' OTTov jii] ear IV, Ihoi) iyo) vfilv irapdSeLy/Jia 
VTTO rod Oeov airearoKfJiaL yu?;Te KTrjaiv e^(^odv 
fnjre oIkov /Jirire yvvacKa pLi'-jTe T€Kva^ aWa /x?;3' 
v7r6aTpo)/jLa p7]Se X'^roiva pr^he aKevo<;' Kal 'iSere, 
TTW? vytaivo)' TreipdOTjre fiov kclv l6)]T6 drdpay^ov, 
dfcovaare ra (j)dpp,aKa Kal vcp^ a)v eOepaTrevdy^v. 

32 TOVTO yap 7]8)] /cal (^iKdvOpwirov Kal yevvalov, 
dXhS opare, rivo^; epyov iariv rod Aio? ^ ov 
av eK€tvo(; d^iov Kpivrj ravT')]'; tt}? v7rripeaLa<;, 
Iva pn-jhajjiov p.7)oev TrapayvpbvocKjr] 7rp6<; tou? 
7roWov<;, Sl ov rr]v pbaprvpiav rijv auTov, i)v 
rfj dperf] pbaprvpel Kal roiv €kto<=; Karap^aprvpel, 
avTO^ aKvpov iroirjar)' 

OUT a^XpycavTa ^ X/3oa KuWipLOV ovre irapeioiv 
SdKpv^ 6p,op^dp,€vov. 

33 Ka ov povov ravra, dW* ovSk iroOovvrd ri rj 
eVi lijTovpra, avOpcoirov rj tottov i) hiaywyi^v, w? 
ra Tiaihia rov Tpvyijrov rj ra? dpyla<;, alhol 
TTOi raxov KeKoap,rjp,epov, o)? ol dXXot TOLXot<i 
Kai 6upaL<; Kal OvpcopoL<;. 

34 J^vif 6' avro p,6vov KLvi-jOevTe^i irpo'^ (ptXoao(f)Lav, 

CO? ol KaKOGTOpLaXpL 77 p6^ Tl /SpCOp^UTlOV, pLeTCL 

piLKpov aLKXCi'lveLv pieWovaLV, ev6v^ eirl to gkyjit- 
Tpov, errl rip ^aaikeiav. KaOuKS ti-jv Koptjv, 
dveL\y](b€ rpl/Scova, yvpLVOP heiKvvei rov wpbov, 
pd^^rai TOW aTravTcbaLV kclv iv (j)aiv6\T) nvd 

^ Beutley : x''>pV'^a'^"''°- S. 

1 Homer, Odyssey, XI. 529 f . 

BOOK IV. VIII. 30-34 

says, "That you may see yourselves, O men, to 
be lookinsr for liappiness and serenity, not where 
it is, but where it is not, behold, God has sent me 
to you as an example ; I have neither property, nor 
house, nor wife, nor children, no, not even so much 
as a bed, or a shirt, or a piece ot furniture, and yet 
you see how healthy I am. Make trial of me, and if 
you see that I am free from turmoil, hear my remedies 
and the treatment which cured me." For this, at 
length, is an attitude both humane and noble. But 
see whose work it is ; the work of Zeus, or of him 
whom Zeus deems worthy of this service, to the 
end that he shall never lay bare to the multitudes 
anything whereby he shall himself invalidate the 
testimony which it is his to give in behalf of virtue, 
and against externals. 

" Never there fell o'er his beauteous features a 
pallor, nor ever 
Wiped he the tears from his cheeks." ^ 

And not merely that, but he must neither yearn 
for anything, nor seek after it — be it human being, 
or place, or manner of life — like children seeking 
after the season of vintage, or holidays ; he must be 
adorned on every side with self-respect, as all other 
men are with walls, and doors, and keepers of doors. 
But, as it is, being merely moved towards 
philosophy, like dyspeptics who are moved to some 
paltry foods, which they are bound in a short 
while to loathe, immediately these men are off to the 
sceptre, to the kingdom. One of them lets his hair 
grow long, he takes up a rough cloak, he shows his 
bare shoulder, he quarrels with the people he meets, 
and if he sees somebody in an overcoat he quarrels 



35 iBrj, fid-)(^eTaL avrw. avOpanre, ')(^€Liiida/c)]aov 
TTpSiTOV lBov aov rrjv op/jLt]v, /ij] KaKoarofJidj^ov 
r) KLO-a(t)ay]f; jvvaiKO^; €(Ttlv. dyvoelaOai fieXery]- 

36 aov irpMTOVy rt? el* aavrw (piXocrocfiriaov oXiyov 
')(p6i'0V. ovTcof; KapiTo<^ yLverat' KaropvyfjvaL Set 
€l<;^ ')(p6vov TO aTrepp^a, KpvcpdPjvai, /card pbifcpov 
av^rjOrjvai, 'iva TeXecKpopijaj]. dv he irpo rov 
yovv (pvaat rov ard-xyv i^eveyKy, dreke^i eariv, 

37 eK K7]7rov ^ABcovtaKOv. tolovtov el Kal av (f)VTd- 
pLov Odrrov rov B€ovto<; 't]vOr]Ka<i, uTroKavaei ae 

38 6 ^€ip,ci)v. IBov, tL XeyovdLV ol yecopyol Trepl rcov 
airepp^drcov, orav irpo a)pa<i OeppLaaiai yevwvrai ; 
dywvLMCTLV, pbTj i^v/Bplar} rd aireppara, elra avrd 
irdyo^ eh Xa^cov i^^Xey^y. opa Kal av, dvOpwire' 

39 e^v^piKa^, €7n7T€7r7]SriKa<; So^apiay irpo copa^i' 
BoKeh Ti9 elvai, pcopb^ irapd fifvpoh' drroTrayi^ar), 
fjLoXXov S' aTTOTreTnjya^ rjhri iv rrj pi^jj Karco, rd 
8' dvci) aov p,LKpov €Ti dvdel koI hid rovro SoKec's 

40 ere ^yjv Kal OdXXeiv. a^e? ^//za? ye Kard (puaiv 
7re7Tavdi]vai. tl t)p(i<; dirohvei^;, ri ^id^rj ; ovirw 
Svvd/jLeda eveyKelv rov depa. eaaov ri-jv pi^av 

^ ils added by Schenkl. 

^ Suggesting a very serious eflfort. See note on I. 2, 32. 

2 Early spring house-gardens in honour of Adonis, where 
seeds were thickly planted in porous earthenware, sponges, 
and the like, sprouting luxuriantly, and of course quickly 
fading (cf. the reference to them in Isaiah, 1. 29 : "Ye shall 
be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen." ) The 
expression became proverbial for incompleteness and early 

' This metaphor is so preposterous, for it is always the 
extremities of plants which are the first to be frostbitten, and 
not the protected roots, that one is inclined to ask if the text 


BOOK 1\'. viii. 34-40 

with him. Man, take a winter's training first ; ^ look 
at your own choice, for fear it is like that of a 
dyspe})tic, or a woman with the strange cravings of 
pregnancy. Practise first not to let men know who 
you are; keep your philosophy to yourself a little 
while. That is the w ay fruit is produced : the seed has 
to be buried and hidden for a season, and be grown 
by slow degrees, in order that it may come to per- 
fection. But if it heads out before it produces the 
jointed stock, it never matures, it is from a garden 
of Adonis. 2 That is the kind of plant you are too ; 
you have blossomed prematurely, and the winter 
will blight you utterly. See what the farmers say 
about their seeds, when the hot weather comes 
before its proper time. They are in utmost anxiety 
lest the seeds should grow insolently lush, and then 
but a single frost should lay hold of them and 
expose their weakness. Man, do you also beware ; 
you have grown insolently lush, you have leaped 
forward to occupy some petty reputation before its 
due time; you think yourself somebody, fool that 
you are among fools ; you will be bitten by the 
frost, or rather, you have already been bitten by 
the frost, down at the root, while your upper part 
still blooms a little, and for that reason you seem 
to be still alive and flourishing.^ Allow us at least 
to ripen as nature wishes. Why do you expose 
us to the elements, why force us ? We are not yet 
able to stand the open air. Let the root grow, next 

be sound. Clearly it is, since a whole series of corrections 
would have to be made in order to avoid the difficulty. 
Epictetus, a city dweller, probably knew little directly about 
the eff"ects of frost on garden plants. The words "flower," 
"tree," and "herb" do not occur in his conversations at all. 
and even "plant" but rarely. — See note on IV. 11, 1. 



av^7]0f]vai, elra yovv Xa/Selv to irpcoTov, elra ro 
SevTepov, elra rb rpLTOV elO^ ovt(o<; 6 Kapiro'^ 
eK^tdaerai rrjv (pvcriv, kolv iyo) fir) OeXw. 

41 Tt? yap iyKviJLWv yevo/juevo^; koI 7rXi]prj<; ttjXl- 
KOVToyv Boyfidrcov ou;^! alaOdveral re rrj<; avrov 

42 7rapaaK€V7]^ koI iirl ra KardWrfka epya op/xa ; 
dXkd Tavpo<; fiev ovk dyvoel rrjv avrov (f)vaiv Kal 
7rapaa/c€V7]V, orav i7rL(l)avfj ri d'qpiov, ovB' dva- 
fievet rov 7rporpe-\lr6/jL€VOV, ovBe kvcov, orav tBrj 

43 n rcov dypiwv ^cocov iyoj S' av tcrx^ '^V^ ^^Bpo^; 
dyadox) iTapaaKevi]v, ifcSe^o/JLat, Itva /xe crv irapa- 
(jK6vd(Tr)<; eVl ra oiKela epya ; vvv 5' ovttco e;^«, 
TTLarevaov /xot. ri ovv fjue irpo copals d'iT0^i]pavai 
OeXeLf;, oo? avr6<; i^rjpdvOrj^; ; 

d'. Upo^ rov €69 dvaLcrx^^'TicLV fiera^XyOevra, 

1 ''Orav dXXov t'S?;? dp')(^ovra, dvrL6e<;, ort, av 
e%6t9 TO fJLT] helddai dp')(rj<;' orav dXXov rrXov- 

2 rovvra, IBov ri dvrl rovrov e^j^et?. el /mev yap 
/jLTjBev €%€£? dvr avrov, dOXio^ el- el 5' e^et? 
TO fJLTi ')(^peiav e^eLv irXovrov, yiyvoaaicey ore irXelov 

3 e;^€t9 Kal iroXXco 7rXeiovo<; d^iov. dXXo<; yvvacKa 
ev/uiop(pov, av rb fjurj €7ri6v/j,€lv ev/xopcpov yvvaiK6<i. 
fjLLKpd aoL 8oK€c ravra ; Kal iroaov av ri/xrj- 
aaivro ovroL avrol ol irXovrovvre's Kal dp'^ovre'^ 
Kal fier evfxopc^wv Siairdy/jbevoL hvvaaOai rrXovrov 
Kara(j>povelv Kal dp^cov teal avrcov rovraw rcov 


BOOK IV. vni. 40-ix. 3 

let it acquire the first joint, and then the second, and 
then the third ; and so finally the fruit will forcibly 
put forth its true nature, even an;ainst my will. 

For who that has conceived and is big with such 
great judgements is not aware of his own equip- 
ment, and does not hasten to act in accordance with 
them ? Why, a bull is not ignorant of his own 
nature and equipment, when some wild beast 
appears, nor does he hang back for someone to 
encourage him ; neither does a dog, when he sees 
some wild animal ; and shall I, if I have the equip- 
ment of a good man, hang back, so that you may 
encourage me to do what is my own proper w^ork ? 
But as yet I do not have the equipment, believe me. 
Why, then, do you wish to have me wither away 
before my time, as you yourself have withered ? 


To the mail who had become shameless 

Whenever you see another person holding office, 
set over against this the fact that you possess the 
ability to get along without office ; whenever you 
see another person wealthy, see what you have 
instead. For if you have nothing instead, you are 
wretched ; but if you are capable of feeling no need 
of wealth, know that you are better off, and have some- 
thing worth far more than wealth. Another has a 
comely wife, you the ability not to yearn for a comely 
wife. Is all this small in your eyes ? Yet how much 
would these men give, who are rich and hold office, and 
live with beautiful women, to be able to despise wealth 
and offices, and these very same women whom they 



4 yvvaLKWv, mv ipojaiv Koi oiv Tvy)(^dvovaiv ; ciyvoeU 
olov ri eari hiy\ro<; irvpeaaovro^ ; ovhev 6/jLolov 
e)(€i TW Tou vyLaivovTO<^. eKelvo^ itlcov aTToire- 
rravraL' o ^e iTpo<^ oXiyov r;cr^6t9 ^ vavria, -^oXy-jV 
avTo TToiet dvTL vSaTO<;, ifiel, arpocpovTaL, Si'^fj 

5 a(j)o8p6r€pov. roLOVTOv iari fier emOvfjiia^ irXov- 
reip, fi€T iTnOv/iLa^; dp-)(eLV, fxer eindviiia^; KaXfj 
avy/caOevBeiv ^TjXorvTTia Trpoaeo-rw, (^6^0^ rov 
arepTjOPjvai, alaxpol XoyoL, aLcr)(pd ivOvfirjixara, 
epya ciax^'ll^ova. 

6 Kal Tt, (j)7]crLV, diroXXvco ; — "AvOpcoire, virrjp^e^; 
alBT]fi(i}v fcal vvv ovtckri eV ovSev uTroXcoXe/caf; ; 
dvTL \pvaL7r7rov /cal 7ii'}vwvo<; WpiaT6LS)]v dva- 
yLyv(i)aK€i<; koI Kvijvov ^ ovSev (XTroXcoXe/ca? ; 
dvrl '^(OKpdrov^; koi Aioy6vov<; leOavfiaKa^ tov 
TrXeto-ra? Biac^Oelpai koi dvairelaat Bwdfievov. 

7 KaXb^ elvai 6eXeL<; /cal TrXdaaei'^ aeaurov fir) wv 
ical eaOPjTa iirLOeiKvyeLV 6eXeL<^ ariXiTv/jv, Iva Td<i 
yvpaLKa<s eVfCTT/aec/)?;?, kuv ttov fivpa(j)LOu cttl- 

8 TV')(r)<^, /j.aKdpio<; elvai 8ok€l<;. Trporepov h' ovSe^ 
iveOvjjLov Tt TOVTCov, dXXd ttov €vcrxv/^o)V X070?, 
dvrjp d^LoXoyo'^y ivO v pirj fia yevvalov. Totyapovv 
ifcdO€vSe<; co? dvy]p, irporjei^ cb? dvripi iaOrjTa 
icf)6pei<; dvhpLKrjv, \6yov<; eXaXet? 7rpeiT0VTa<^ di Spl 

^ Reiske : i^ad^To S. " See explanatory note. 

^ Wendland (and perhaps S originally) : ou84u Sc. 

^ Typical erotic writers, the former the author of tlie 
celebrated Milesian Talcs, the latter of an erotic work 
admired by Menander. Yet compare, on the Evenus of this 
passage, von Wilamowitz, Hermes, 11 (1876), 800, who con- 
jectures Eubius (EuyStoi'), whom Ovid, I'ristia, 2. 416, calls 


BOOK IV. IX. 3-8 

passionately love and win ? Do you not know what 
kind of thing the thirst of a man in fever is ? It 
is quite unlike that of a man in health. The latter 
drinks and his thirst is gone, but the other gets a 
momentary satisfaction, and then becomes nauseated, 
turns the water into bile, throws up, has a pain in 
his bowels, and suffers more violent thirst than 
before. A similar thing it is to be rich and have 
strong desire, to hold ollice and have strong desire, 
to sleep by the side of a beautiful woman and iiave 
strong desire ; jealousy is added to one's lot, fear 
of loss, disgraceful words, disgraceful thoughts, 
unseemly deeds. 

And what do I lose? says somebody. — Man, 
you used to be modest, and are no longer so ; 
have you lost nothing ? Instead of Chrysippus and 
Zeno you now read Aristeides and Evenus ; ^ have 
you lost nothing? Instead of Socrates and Diogenes 
you have come to admire the man who is able to 
corrupt and seduce the largest number of women. 
You wish to be handsome and make yourself up, 
though you are not handsome, and you wish to 
make a show of gay attire, so as to attract the 
women, and you think yourself blessed if perchance 
you light upon some trivial perfume. But formerly 
you used never even to think of any of these 
things, but only where you might find decent 
speech, a worthy man, a noble thought. Therefore 
you used to sleep as a man, to go forth as a man, to 
wear the clothes of a man, to utter the discourse that 
was suitable for a good man ; and after all that do 

impurae conditur historiae, and mentions together with 
Aristeides, as here. On the question see Crusius, Eeal- 
Encyclupddit^, 6, 850-51. 



dyaOfo' elrci fxoL Xeyei<; " ovVev dvcoXeaa " ; 

9 ouTtw? ovSev aWo rj Kepfia uTroWvovaiv ai>- 

Opcoiroi ; alSo)^ ovk dTToWvTaL, evaxv/^oavvi] 

ovfc diToWvTai ; r) ovk eari ^)]iJLio)6fjvaL ravra 

10 dTToXeaavra ; aol jxev ovv SoKel ra-^a tovtcov 
ovt)ev ovKert elvai ^}]/j,La' rjv he nrore y^povo^^ ore 
ixovifv avTi-jV vTreXoyi^ov koX ^y-jfiiav Koi ^\.d^r)v, 
6t€ r)ycovLa<;, /n) rt? i/caeiar] ae rovrcov tcov Xoycov 
fcal epycov. 

11 ^\hov, i/caeaeiaaL vii dXXov fi€V ovSevo^;, viro 
aavTOV oe. fiax^cOyTi aavro), dc^eXov cravrov 

12 et? eva)(^y]/jLoavvT]v, et? alho), et? eXevdepiav. el 
aoi Ti<; TTOV eXeyev irepl efiov ravra, on fie ri^ 
/jLOLX^veLV dvayKUi^eL, on eaOrjra (popelv roiavrrjv, 
ore [jLVpL^eaOat,, ovk dv direXOayv avrox^i-p iyevov 
rovrov rov dv9 payrrov rov ovra)<; fiot irapaypw- 

13 fievov ; vvv ovv ov 6eXeL<; aavrw fioydijaat ; Kal 
rroaw pdwv avrr) i) /SoijOeia ; ovk d-rroKrelvai 
nva Set, ov SPjaai, ov)( v^puaai, ovk et? dyopdv 
rrpoeXOelVy dXX' avrov avrcp XaXrjaai, rw fjidXiara 
TreLaOrjdo/jLevw, tt/jo? ov ouSet? earl crov TrtOavco- 

14 repo<i. Kal rrpwrov /J,ev KardyvwOc roiv yiyvo- 
/jLevcov, elra Karayvov<^ fiy] diroyvax; aeavrov /x>;5e 
TrdOrj'; TO rcbv dyevvMV dvOpconfov, o'l dira^ ev- 
S6vre<i eladirav eireSMKav eavrov<i Kal &)? viro 

15 pevfxaro<; irapeavprjcraVy dXXd /xdOe ro rcov rraLOo- 

rpi^oiv. ireirrcoKe ro TraiBiOV " dvaardf;,'^ (fytjaiv, 
IG "rrdXiv irdXate, /JLeypL<i dv l(TX^po7ron]6y<^'' roLov- 
rov n Kal av rrdOe' lcfOi 7«/3» on ovSev ianv 

BOOK IV. IX. 8-16 

you still say, " I have lost nothing- " ? And is it 
nothing but small change that men lose in this way ? 
Is not self-respect lost, is not decency lost ? Or is it 
impossible that the loss of these things counts for 
anything ? To you, indeed, the loss of none of these 
things, perhaps, seems any longer serious ; but 
there once was a time when you thought it the 
only serious loss and harm, when you were in great 
anxiety lest anyone should dislodge you from these 
good words and deeds. 

Behold, you have been dislodged, though by no one 
else but yourself. Fight against yourself, vindicate 
yourself for decency, for respect, for freedom. If 
anyone ever told you about me that someone was 
forcing me to commit adultery, to wear clothes like 
yours, or to perfume myself, would you not have 
gone and murdered the man who was so maltreatintj 
me ? And now, therefore, are you not willing to 
come to your own rescue ? Yet how much easier 
is the work of rescue in the latter case ! It is not 
necessary to kill somebody, put him in bonds, or 
assault him ; you do not have to come out into the 
market-place, but only to talk to yourself, the man 
most likely to be persuaded, to whom no one is 
more persuasive than yourself. And first of all 
condemn what you are doing ; then, when you have 
passed your condemnation, do not despair of your- 
self, nor act like the spiritless people who, when 
once they have given in, surrender themselves 
completely, and are swept off by the current, as it 
were, but learn how the gymnastic trainer of boys 
acts. The boy he is training is thrown ; " get up," 
he says, " and wrestle again, till you get strong." 
React in some such way yourself, for I would have 



evayw^oTepov avO pai'KLVi)<; yjrvx^i^' OeXrjaaL 5 ? 
Koi yiyovev, SLcopOcorar &>? ttoXlv diropvaid'Jai, 
Ka\ uTToXcoXev. eawOev yap iart Koi dircoXeia 

17 Kal ^ (3oi]6eLa. — Etra tl jiol dyadov ; — Kat ri 
^r)T€L<; TovTov fielt^ov ; ef dvaLa-)(^uvTov alSij/jLcov 
ear}, i^ aKoafiov Koa/JLLO^;, i^ (iTriaTOv ttlctto^, i^ 

18 aKoXdcFTOV aco(j)p(ov. el Tiva ciXXa tovtoov fxeii^ova 
^7/Tet9, iToieL a 7roi6i?* ovhe Oecou ai rt? en acoaac 

I , Tlvcop Set /caracppovetv Kal 7rpo<i riva 

Sia(f)€peaOaL ; 

1 Wiropia rrda-a iv ^ rol^ dvOpco7roL<; irepl rd 
eKTo^ yiverai, dp^rj-^avia irepl rd eVro?. " tl 
TTon/ao) ; TTw? yeurjrai ; ttw? dirojBfi ; p,r) roSe 

2 dirauryjar), p,r) roSe.^' irdaai avrac at (fxoval 
irepl rd dirpoaipera arpecfyop^evoyv elaiv' ri'^ ydp 
Xeyet *' ttw? p,r} crvy/caraTiOcop^aL rw yjrevSeL ; 

3 TTW? p,T] dirovevaco diro rov dX')]6ou<i ; " ; edv ovtco<; 
y ev<^vrj^y Mare irepl rovrwv dycovLav,]ow 
avTov on "re dywvia^; ; iirl aoi eanv da(f)aXi]<; 
'laOr p7] rrpo rov eirdyetv rov (pvaiKOv Kavova 
irpoTDjBa ev rw avyKarariOeaOair 

^ Schegk, and Upton's "codex" : f) S, 
* Schenkl : -nuaav (apparently) S. 


BOOK IV. IX. i6-x. 3 

you know that there is nothing more easily pre- 
vailed upon than a human soul. You have but to 
will a thing and it has happened, the reform has 
been made ; as, on the other hand, you have but to 
drop into a doze and all is lost. For it is within 
you that both destruction and deliverance lie. — But 
what good do I get after all that? — And what 
greater good than this are you looking for? Instead 
of shameless, you will be self-respecting; instead of 
faithless, faithful ; instead of dissolute, self-con- 
trolled. If you are looking for anything else greater 
than these things, go ahead and do what you are 
doing ; not even a god can any longer save you. 


fl'hat oughl we to despise and on what place a high 
value ? 

Men find all their difficulties in externals, their 
per])lexities in externals. " What shall I do ? 
How is it to take place ? How is it to turn 
out ? I am afraid that this will befall me^ or 
that." All these are the expressions of men who 
concern themselves with the things that lie outside 
the sphere of the moral purpose. For who says, 
" How am I to avoid giving assent to the false ? 
How am 1 to refuse to swerve aside from the 
true ? " ? If a man is so gifted by nature as to be 
in great anxiety about these things, I shall remind 
him, " Why are you in great anxiety ? It is under 
your own control ; rest secure. Do not be in a 
hurry to give your assent before applying the rule of 



4 TidXtv av rrepl 6pe^€co<; a<ycovLa} fii] areX^? 

5 yevrjTac Koi uTroTevKTLKrj, irepi €Kfc\iaeo)<;, /jltj 

TTepiTTTWTiKl], TTpOiTOV /JLei' UVTOV K aT a(f) lXt) (T OJ , 

on a^et? irepX a ol aWoL eTrrorjPTat, koX tov<; 
eKeivdiv (f)6^ov<; irepl tmv Ihicov epyoiv ire^pov- 
G TIK6V, OTTov auTO? IcTTLV cItu ipo) avTW ** el fjur) 
Oe\7)<i opeyeaOai aTrorevKTCKM^ /jlt^S' eKKXiveiv 
TrepLTTTCOTiKw^;, firjBevo<; opeyov twv dWorpLcov, 

fX')]8€V 6ICk\.LI'6 Tcbv flT) fVl (JoL el Se p^Yj, KOi 

7 0,1707 v^^elv fcal TrepLireaelv dvdyKr)^ iroia evOdh^ 
d-TTopia ; ttov tottov e-)(eL ** ttw? yevrjTat ; " koI 

" TTOO? dlTO^y ; " KOL " pirj dlT UVT I'^d T} ToSe r) 

Tobe ; 

8 NOi' ^^X} "^^ €K/3^]cr6pevov drrpoaipeTov ; — Nat. 
— 'H 8' ovdia rod dyaOov Kal kukov earlv ev 
Tot? TrpoaiperiKol'i ; — Nat. — "E^eariv ovv aoi 
TTavrl TO) aTTo/SdvTi XPV^^^^ Kara (j)vaiv ; p.rj Tt9 

9 ae KcoXvaai, Bvvarai, ; — Ov8ei<;. — M.r]KeTi ovv pot 
Xeye *' ttw? yevrjrai, ; " otto)? yap av yevTjrat, av 
avro 67Ja-€i<; KaX(o<; zeal earai aoi rb diro^dv 

10 evTV')(ripLa. r) rt? av yv 6 'llpaKXrj<i Xeycov " ttw? 
piOL p,r) pLeya<i Xecov eiTK^avfi prjSe pLeya<i o-u? p,r)Be 
drjpioiheL^ dvOpcoTTOL ; " ; Kal rl aoi p,eXec ; av 
peya<; av<; eTrKpavfj, pLel^ov dOXov dOXijaeii;' av 
KaKol dvOpcoTTOL, KaKOiv dnaXXd^eLi; tyjv olkov- 

^ /uLT) before this word was deleted by Meibom. 


Again, if a man is in great anxiety al)out desire, for 
fear lest it become incomplete and miss its mark, or 
about aversion, for fear lest it fall into what it would 
avoid, I shall first give him a kiss of congratulation, 
because he has got rid of what the rest of mankind 
are excited about, and their fears, and has turned 
his serious thought to his own true business in the 
realm where he himself is. And after that I shall 
say to him, "If you do not wish to desire without 
failing to get, or to avoid without falling into the 
object of your aversion, desire none of those things 
which are not your own, and avoid none of those 
things which are not under your control. If not, 
you are of necessity bound to fail in achieving your 
desires, and to fall into what you would avoid." 
Where is there any difficulty in that case ? What 
room is there to ask, " How^ is it to take place?" 
and " How is it to turn out ? " and to say, " I am 
afraid that this will befall me, or that" } 

Is not the future outside the sphere of the 
moral 'purpose now ? — Yes. — And is not the true 
nature of the good and evil inside the sphere of the 
moral purpose } — Yes. — Are you permitted, then, to 
make a natural use of every outcome? No one can 
prevent you, can he? — No one. — Therefore, say no 
longer to me, " How is it to take place ? '' Because, 
whatever takes place, you will turn it to good purpose, 
and the outcome will be a blessing for you. Or 
what would Heracles have been had he said " How 
am I to prevent a great lion from appearing, or a 
great boar, or savage men ? " ? And what do you 
care for that ? If a great boar appears, the struggle 
in which you are to engage will be greater ; if evil 
men appear, you will clear the world of evil men. — 



11 /xevyjv. — ''Av ovv out(o<; diroddvco ; — 'AyaOcx; u)v 
dTToOauTJ, <yevvaiav Trpd^iv €7nT6\o)v. eVet jdp 
Set TTrtt'Tft)? dirodavelv, avdyKif ri irore iroiovvTa 
eupeOrjvai, rj yecopyovvra rj (TKairrovTa rj ifjuiro- 
pevofievov fj virarevovra rj direirrovvTa rj Biap- 

12 poL^ofxevov. TL ovv OeXei^; ttoiCov eupeOfjvac vtto 
rov OavaTOV ; iyoo fxev to e/xbv /Lt€po<; epyov tl 
TTore dvdpwTTiKoVy evepyeTLKov, /cou'(o(f3€\6<;, yev- 

13 valov. el Se /nr) Suva/jiaL ra rrjXi/cavra ttoimv 
evpeOrjvai, eKelvo ye to aKcaXvTov, to hihofievov, 
ifiavTov eiravopOoiv, e^epya^6fi>evo<^ Tr)v Bvva/JLLV 
TT]v ')(^py]aTiKr}v tcov (^avTaaiMV, dirdOeLav eKiro- 
vo)v, TaL<; aykaeGi to, oLKela aTroSt^oi/?*^ el ovtco<; 
evTVXV^ el/jit, Kal tov TpiTov toitov TrapaTTTop^vo^, 
Tov irepl Tr]v tmv Kpt/xaTcov da(f)d\eLav. 

14 *Az^ //-era TOVTayu fie 6 6dvaT0<; KaToXd^rj, 
dpKel fjbOL av hvvwfjbai irpo^; tov Oeov dvaTelvat 
TO? x^Lpa<;, elirelv otl ** a? eXa/Sov d(l>op/jLa<; irapa 
(TOV TTyOo? TO aldOeadai aov t^? SioiK7]a€co<; Kal 
d/coXovOrjaac avTrj, tovtcov ovk -qp^eXriaa' ov 

15 KaTr]aynjvd ae to ip,ov p,epo<^. IBov, ttco? Ke)(^prj- 
fjuai Tat? aladtjaeaiv, ISov, ttw? Tat? TrpoXyj^jreaLV. 
p.7] TTOTe ae €fMe/jLyjrdp,7]v, pr) tl twv yivopukvwv tiv\ 
hvaripkaTtiaa rj d.XX(o<; yevecrOat r)deX'i]<ja, pn] tl 

^ Reiske : a-no^ihovv S. 

1 See III. 2, 1, and note. 

2 These imaginary last words of Epictetus have given much 
offence to Elizabetli Carter (author of the most famous 
of the English translations), and no doubt others, who find 
them ostentatious and lacking in humility. They represent, 
however, an ideal and not an actual condition, and as such are 
entirely innocent. Epictetus, who was in fact the most humble 


BOOK IV. X. 10-15 

But if I die in so doing ? — You will die as a good 
man, bringing to fulfilment a noble action. Why, 
since you have to die in any event, you must be 
found doing something or other — farming, or dig- 
ging, or engaged in commerce, or holding a consul- 
ship, or suffering with dyspepsia or dysentery. What 
is it, then, you wish to be doing when death finds 
you ? I for my part should wish it to be some work 
that befits a man, something beneficent, that pro- 
motes the common welfare, or is noble. But if I 
cannot be found doing such great things as these, I 
should like at least to be engaged upon that which 
is free from hindrance, that which is given me to 
to do, and that is, correcting myself, as I strive to 
perfect the faculty which deals with the external 
impressions, labouring to achieve calm, while yet 
giving to each of my human relationships its due ; 
and, if I am so fortunate, striving to attain to the 
third field of study ,^ that which has to do with 
security in the formation of judgements. 

If death finds me occupied with these matters, 
it is enough for me if I can lift up my hands unto 
God, and say,^ " The faculties which I received from 
Thee to enable me to understand Thy governance 
and to follow it, these I have not neglected ; I have 
not dishonoured Thee as far as in me lay. Behold 
how I have dealt with my senses, behold how I 
have dealt with my preconceptions. Have I ever 
blamed Thee ? Have I been discontented with 
any of these things which happen, or wished it to 
have been otherwise ? Have I at all violated my 

of men (see Vol. I. pp. xviii-xx), does not say, "It is enough 
for me because I can lift up my hands unto God, and say," but, 
**i/"Ican," which is a very dififerent matter. 



ii'yevvi^aa^, X^'^P^^ ^X*^' ^^ eh(iiKa<;' e</)' oaov exPV 
adfiT]v TOi? croL<;, apKel fioi. irdXiv avra iiTroXa^e 
fcal Kardra^ov et? y]v 6^eXet9 x^P^^' ^^ J^P V^ 

17 TTcivTa, (TV fioL avra SeSw/^a?." ov/c dpKel ovto)<; 
exopra i^ekOelv ; kol rt? ^iwv KpeiTTWv rj evaxV' 
p.oi>€(Trepo<; rod ovr(o<; €Xopto<;, iroia he Kaia- 
aTpo(pT) evhaLjjLovecFTepa ; 

18 ''\va Be ravra yevy]Tat, ov fiLKpa he^aaOai 
ouSe fiLKpMv dirorvxelv. ov hvvaaai Koi vira- 
revaac deXeiv fcal ravra Kal dypov<; ex^^v eairov- 
haicevaL Kal ravra Kal ra)v hovXapicov (f)povrL^eLV 

19 Kal aeavrov. aXk' av n rwv dWorplcop OeXrj^;, 
rd ad drrcoXero. avrrj rod 7rpdy/jLaro<; r) (f)vai<;' 

20 TTpoLKa ovBev ylverai. Kal ri Oav/maarov ; dv 
virarevaat OeX7j<;, ay pvirvrja at ae Set, TrepiSpa/ielv, 
rd<; ^j^etpa? Kara^LXrjaai, 7rpo<i rat*; dXXorpiai<; 
OvpaL<; KaraaaTTrjvai, iroXXd /xev elTrelv.rroXXd Se 
TTpd^ac dveXevdepa, Scopa Tre/jiyjrai 7roXXoL<;, ^evia 
KaO^ rjfiepav ivioL<i' Kal ri ro yivofievov eariv ; 

21 Sd)BeKa Seafjd pd/3B(i)p Kal rpU rj rerpdKi<; eirl 
/Srj/xa KaOiaai Kal KipKi]cna Sovpat Kal aiTvpLa-ip 
BeLTTPiaai.^ y Sei^drco /jlol t^?, ri earl irapd 

22 ravra. virep d7ra6eia<; ovp, virep drapa^ia^, 
vrrep rov Kadevhovra KaOevSeiP, iyptjyopora 
eyprjyopepai, fir) (jiO^elaOai /irjhep, jjl^] dycovLUP 

^ Schweighiiuser : Trape^ripat ,S. 
2 xdoiv ^x««' liere added by Reiske. 
^ Reiske : Sei-nvricrui S. 

^ The consular fasces. 

^ The sportulae which were distributed at Rome by a 
patron among his clients. 


BOOK IV. X. 15-22 

relationships with others ? For that Tliou didst beget 
me I am grateful ; for what Thou hast given I am 
grateful also. The length of time for which I have 
had the use of Thy gifts is enough for me. Take 
them back again and assign them to what ])lace 
Thou wilt, for they were all Thine, and Thou 
gavest them me." Is it not enough for a man to 
take his departure from the world in this state of 
mind .'* And what among all the kinds of life is 
superior to this, or more seemly than his who is 
so minded, and what kind of end is more for- 
tunate } 

But that this may take place a man must accept no 
small troubles, and must miss no small things. You 
cannot wish for a consulship and at the same time 
wish for this ; you cannot have set your heart upon 
having lands and this too ; you cannot at the same 
time be solicitous for your paltry slaves and yourself 
too. But if you wish for any one of the things 
that are not your own, what is your own is lost. 
This is the nature of the matter : Nothing is done 
except for a price. And why be surprised ? If you 
wish to be consul you must keep vigils, run around, 
kiss men's hands, rot away at other men's doors, say 
and do many slavish things, send presents to many 
persons, and guest-gifts to some people every day. 
And what is the outcome of it all .'' Twelve bundles 
of rods,^ and the privilege of sitting three or four 
times on the tribune, and giving games in the Circus, 
and lunches in little baskets.^ Or else let someone 
show me what there is in it beyond this. For 
calm, then, for peace of mind, for sleeping when 
you are asleep, and being awake when you are 
awake, for fearing nothing, for being in great 



vnep /jlt]8€u6<; ovSev di'a\o)aai OeXei^;, ovSev 

23 TTOvrjaat ; a)OC av ri airoXi^rai gov irepl ravra 
<yivofjL€VOV Tj avaXcoQfi fcaK(b<; rj dWo'^ '^^XV ^^ 
eSei ae tv')(€lu, 6vOv<; ^ 8j])^0i]arj eirl rw yeuo/jL€i'(p ; 

24 ovic dvTL6}j(T6L<;, TL clutI TtVo? \afifidv€L<; , TToaov 
dvTL TTOGOv ,* oKXa irpoiKa 06X€l<; tcl rrfKiKavra 
Xa^elv ; KaX ttco? Svvacrai ; epyov €pycp. 

25 Ov Svvaaat /cat rd e/cro^ ^x^^v iirLfJieXeiaf; 
T6TvxVf<^^Ta Kal TO aavrou r)y6/jLovi,K6v. el h' 
eKelva ^eXet?, rovro a^e?* el he /x?;, ovre tovto 
6^€i<; OUT eKelva, 7TepLa7r(Ofievo<; eir d/KpoTcpa. 

26 el TOVTO OeXet^, eKelva ae d<pelvaL Sel. eK^e- 
OrjaeTai to eXaiov, diroXecTaL tu aKevapia, aW' 
eyoci diraOr)^ eao/iai. €fjL7rpr](7fio<; ecrrat e/xov /irj 
7rap6vTO<; Kal d-rroXelTai Ta ^L^Xia, dXX^ iyco 
XP^crofxai Tal<i (f)avTa(TiaL<; KaTa (f)vaiv. dXX^ 

27 ovx efo) (payelv. el ovt(o<; TdXa<; elfiiy Xl/jltjv to 
diroOavelv. ovto^ 3' eaTLV 6 XifMrjv irdvTwv, 6 
OdvaTO<i, avTi] i) KaTa(f)vyr]. hid tovto ovSevTMV 
ev To5 jSiw ^aXfTroi^ ecJTiv. OTav OeXrji;, e^rjXOe^ 

28 Kal ov KaiTvl^rj. tI ovv dycovia^;, tl dypV7rvec<; ; 
OVX} ^^ €v0v(; dvaXoyLadfxevo^, ttov aov to dyadov 
ecTTL Kal TO KaKoVy Xeyei<^ otl ** eV ifiol dfMcf)6Tepa' 
ovT€ TOVTOV 71,9 d^sXecrdai fie BvvaTai ovt eKeivcp 

29 uKOVTa irepL^aXelv. tl ovv ov peyx^^ fiaXcjv ; 

^ firi after evdvs is deleted in S. 

^ Supply: "has no partnership." See IV. 6, 30, where 
the proverb is given in full. 

'■* The reference is to suicide. Cf. I. 25, 18 and 20. 

BOOK IV. X 22-29 

anxiety about nothing, are you unwilling to spend 
anything, to make any exertion ? I5ut if something 
that belongs to you be lost while you are engaged 
in these affairs, or be spent to no purpose, or 
someone else get what you ought to have got, are 
you going to be vexed immediately at what has 
happened ? Will you not balance off what you are 
getting in return for what, how much in return for 
how much ? Nay, do you wish to get such valuable 
things for nothing ? And how can you ? '' One 
serious business with another."^ 

You cannot be continually giving attention to both 
externals and your own governing principle. But 
if you want the former, let the latter go ; otherwise 
you will have neither the latter nor the former, being 
drawn in both directions. If you want the latter, 
you must let the former go. The oil will be 
spilled, my paltry furniture will perish, but I shall 
be calm. There will be a fire when I am not 
at home, and my books will perish, yet I shall 
deal with my external impressions according to 
nature. But I shall have nothing to eat. If I am 
so badly off as all that, death is my harbour. And 
this is the harbour of all men, even death, and this 
their refuge. That is why no one of the things that 
befall us in our life is difficult. Whenever you 
wish, you walk out of the house, and are no longer 
bothered by the smoke. ^ Why, then, are you con- 
sumed with anxiety ? Why do you keep vigils } 
And why do you not forthwith reckon up where 
your good and your evil lie, and say, " They are 
both under my control ; no man can either rob me 
of the one, or plunge me in the other against my 
will ? Why, then, do I not throw myself down and 



TCi ifia acrcpaXo)^ ^X^^' '^^ dWorpia oyjreraL aura 
0? av (p^prj, CO? av StScoTat irapa rod €)(^ovto<; 

30 e^ovaiav. Tt? eliM 6 SeXoyv avra ovt(o<; e^eiv r] 
ovT(Jd<; ; fJLT] <ydp /jlol SeSorac eKXoyi] avrcov ; fiii 
yap ifii ri^ avrcop Siolk^jttjv TreTToiriKev ; dpKel 
fioi (t)v 6X<w i^ovaiav. ravrd jxe Sec KaWidTa 
irapaaKevdaai, ra S' ciWa co? av 6e\r} 6 eKeivwv 

31 Tavrd ri<; ex^^^ ^rpo 6(f>0a\/jba)v dypvirvel, koI 
arpec^eraL €v6a koX €v6a ; ri OeXwv t) tl ttoOcov ; 
UdrpoKXov rj WvtlXoxov t) UpcoreaiXaov ; ^ irore 
yap rjyjjaaro dddvarov TLva rcov ^iXwv ; irore 
yap ovK elx^P irpo ocpOaXfiwv, on avpiov r) et? 

32 rpLTrjv Set rj avrov diroOavelv rj ifcelvov ; " vai^ 
<f)7](TLV, " dXX' oifirjv, OTL €K€Lvo<; iTTi/Sicoaerab /xoi 
Ka\ av^7ja€L jjlov tov viov.^^ pbwpo^ yap 979 Ka\ ra 
dhr)Xa wov. tl ovv ovk eyKaXel^i creavrcp, dXXd 

33 KXaioDV KdOrjcraL &)? ra Kopdaia ; " aXX' eK€lv6<^ 
fjLOC (payelv TraperiOei..^^ e^rj yap, fxcopi' vvv 3' ov 
Bvvarai. dXX^ Avro/xeScov (Tol irapaOtjaei' dv he 

34 Kal AvTOfieScop diroddvrj, dXXov evpi](Tei^. dv 8' 

^ Oldfather : Mev€\aov S. See explanatorj' note. 

^ Homer, Uiad, XXIV. 5, referring to Achilles on his bed 
when mourning for Patroclus. 

2 Patroclus and Antilochus were well-known friends of 
Achilles, but " Menelaus" (the reading of S) must be wrong, 
partly because he was not in any way a special friend, and 
particularly because he was not killed, as the context re- 
quires. Some other friend of the hero, who was killed, must 
be supplied, and that can hardly be anyone but Protesilaus, 
who was one of his playmates under the tutelage of Cheiron. 
Philostratus, Her. 176 K. Achilles leaped on shore im- 


BOOK IV. X. 29-34 

snore ? What is mine is sate. What is not mine 
shall be the concern of whoever gets it, according 
to the terms upon vvliich it may be given by Him 
who has authority over it. Wlio am I to wish that 
what is not mine should be either thus or so ? For 
it has not been given me to make a choice among 
these tilings, has it ? For no one has made me an 
administrator of them, has he ? I am satisfied with 
the things over which I have authority. These I 
ought to treat so that they may become as beautiful 
as possible, but everything else as their master may 

Does any man who has all this before his eyes 
keep vigils, and does he "toss hither and thither "P^ 
What does he wish, or what does he yearn for.'' 
For Patroclus, or Antilochus, or Protesilaus ? ^ W'hy, 
when did he regard any of his friends as immortal ? 
Yes, and when did he not have before his eyes the 
fact that on the morrow or the day after either 
he or his friend must die ? ^ " Yes," he says, "but 
1 had thought he was going to survive me, and 
bring up my son." No doubt, but then you were 
a fool, and were thinking of things that were un- 
certainties. Why, then, do you not blame your- 
self, instead of sitting and crying like little girls? 
"Nay, but he used to set my food before me." 
Yes, fool, for then he was alive ; and now he cannot. 
But Automedon * will set your food before you, and 
if Automedon too die, you will find somebody else. 

mediately after Protesilaus and avenged his death. See 
Escher in the Real-Ennjdopddie~, I. 229, 9 ft'. 

3 A kind of proverbial expression. Compare Marcus 
Aurelius, 4. 47. 

* Conuade and charioteer of both Patroclus and Achilles. 



V Xi^T/Da, ev rj ?)-v^eTo croi ro Kpea<i, Karayf/, \l/jLw 
ae Set a-noOavelv, otl fjir) exei? rrji' avmjOi] 
-y^yrpav ; ov Tre'/aTret? kol aWrjV Kaivifv dyo- 
pci^eif; ; 

35 ov fxlv jdp Tt, 

KUKoozepov ciXXo irdOoifjLi. 

rovTO yap aoL KaKov eanv ; elr d<p6i<i rovro 
i^6\6Li> alrid rrju pDj-epa, ore aoi ov Trpoelirev, 'iv 
ohvvoop.evo'i ef eKelvov SiaTcXfj^ ; 

36 Tt SoKelre ; fir] eVtrTySe? ravra avvOelvai '^O/jltj- 
pov, Xv tScofjiev, ort, ol evyeveararoi, ol ^ la')(yp6Ta- 
TOL, ol TrXovaLcoraTOL, oi^ ev/jiopcjyoTaTOL, oiav 
ola Sec Boy/jLara fir] €)(^o)aiv, ovSev KcoXvovrai 
dOXidiraroL elvat kol Svarvx^crTCLTOi ; 

la . YVepX Ka6aptoTr]ro^. 

1 ^AfjL(f)La/3y]T0V(Tl TLve<;, el ev rf/ (pvaei rov 
dvO pdiiTov 7TepLe)(^eraL ro KOivwviKov oino<^ K 
avTOL ovTOL ovK dv fJLOL SoKovaiv dp.cj^KTfS'iJTtjaai,, 
OTL TO 76 ^ KaOdpLov TTai/Tft)? Trepiey^traL Kal el 

2 TLvi dXXo) Kal TOVTO) Twv ^axou y^wpil^erai. orav 
ovv dXXo Tc ^a)Ov iSayfiev diroKaOalpov eavro, 
eiTLXeyebv elcoOa/iep Oav/xd^ovre^ on " 009 dvdpco- 

^ ol added by s. ^ t6 ye Wolf : irore S. 

1 Homer, Iliad, XIX. 321. 

* The generalization is somewhat hasty. Many animals, 
like cats (and the felidae in general), moles, most birds, 
snakes, etc., are distinctly more cleanly than any but tlie 


BOOK IV. X. 34-xi. 2 

If the pot in which your meat used to be boiled gets 
broken, do you have to die of hunger because you 
do not have your accustomed pot? Won't you 
send out and buy a new one to take its place ? He 

111 no greater than this could befall me.^ 

Why, is this what you call an ill ? And then, for- 
bearing to get rid of it, do you blame your mother, 
because she did not foretell it to you, so that you 
might continue to lament from that time forth ? 

What do you men think ? Did not Homer com- 
pose this in order for us to see that there is nothing 
to prevent the persons of highest birth, of greatest 
strength, of most handsome appearance, from being 
most miserable and wretched, when they do not hold 
the right kind of judgements ? 


Of cleanliness 

Some people raise the question whether the social 
instinct is a necessary element in the nature of man ; 
nevertheless, even these people, as it seems to me, 
would not question that the instinct of cleanliness 
is most assuredly a necessary element, and that man 
is distinguished from the animals by this quality 
if by anything.^ When, therefore, we see some 
other animal cleaning itself, we are in the habit 
of saying in surprise that it is acting '' like a human 

most civilized men. Epictetus was clearly not strong in 
natural history. Cf. notes on II. 24, 16 ; IV. 8, 39 ; IV. 11, 
32, and Ench. 33, 16. 



TTO?." Kai irakLv civ tl^ eyKaXrj rtvl fww, €iiOu<; 
euoOafiev coairep aTroXoyovfiei'Ot Xeyeii' otl " ov 

3 Br]7rou civOpwiro^ earLvT outco? i^aiperov ri 
Trepl TOP avOpcoiTOV eivai olofieda airo rwv Oeojv 
avTo irpcoTov \a/ji^dvovTe<;. iirel yap eKelvoL 
(pvaet KaOapol kol aKrjparoi, e(/)' oaov r^yyiKaaiv 
avTOL<; ol avOpcoiTOL Kara top \6yov, iirl roaovrov 
Kal Tov KaOapov Koi rov KaOapiov elalv dvdeKTi- 

4 KoL eVel 5' dpL7']')(avov T'qv ovaiav avrwv irav- 
TCLTraaLV elvai /caOapdv €k T0tavT7]<; v\rj<^ KSKpa- 
/i6U7]v, 6 X0709 TrapaXTjcpOeU et? to evtexop-^vov 
ravT7]v KaOdpiov diroTeXelv iretparai. 

5 'H ^ irpcoTTj ovv KoX dvcordrco KaOaporri^; 1) ev 
yjrvxy yevofievTj Kal 6/jL0L(o<; aKaOapaia. '^v^V'^ 
3' &)? ad)fiaTo^ jjbev UKaOapalav ovk av evpoL<;,^ &)<? 
'v/rf^;'}9 3e TL av dWo evpoL<; y) to 7rap€)(ov avTi)v 

6 pvirapdv 7rp6<; rd epya rd avT7]<; ; epya he yjrvxv^ 
op/xdv, d(f)op/JLdv, opeyeadaLy i/CKXlvetv, irapa- 
aKevd^eaOaL, iin^dXXeaOat,, (TvyKarariOeaOai. 

7 Tt iTOT ovv earl to iv tovtol^ tol<; epyot<; punapdv 
irapi^ov avTtjv Kal aKdOapTOv ; ovhev dXXo if Td 

8 /J.o\0y]pd KpifiaTa avT?}<;. waTe "^vxv^ P-^v aKa- 
Oapaia hoy/jiaTa irovifpd, Kd6apai<; 8' ip7roLy)ai<; 
olcdv Set Soy/jLUTCOv. KaOapd 8' ?; e^ovcra ola Bet 
Soy/xuTa' fJiovrj yap avTTj ev rot? €pyoL<; toU 
avTt']<; dcyvyy^vT0<; Kal d/jL6XvvT0<;. 

9 Aet Se Ti eoLKo<; tovtw Kal eirl a(opaT0<; (piXo- 

^ 7} added by Upton. * Upton's " codex " : fvprjis S. 

^ Our idiom requires us to use both "clean " and "pure," 
and their derivatives, for what in the Greek is expressed 
by a single word. 


BOOK IV. XI. 2-9 

being." And again, if one finds fault witii some 
beast, we are in tlie liabit of saying immediately, 
as tlioiigh in apology, *' Well, of course it isn't a 
human being." So true it is that we consider clean- 
liness to be a special characteristic of man, deriving 
it in the first instance from the gods. For since 
they are by nature pure ^ and undefiled, in so far 
as men have approached them by virtue of reason, 
just so far are they attached to purity and cleanli- 
ness. But since it is impossible for the nature of 
men to be altogether pure, seeing that it is com- 
posed of such material as it is, the reason which 
they have received from the gods endeavours to 
render this material clean as far as is possible. 

Therefore, the prime and highest purity is that 
which appears in the soul, and the same is true of 
impuritj'. But you would not find the same im- 
purity in a soul as you would in a body, and as 
being soul, what else would you find impure about 
it than that which makes it dirty for the per- 
formance of its own functions? And the functions 
of a soul are the exercise of choice, of refusal, of 
desire, of aversion, of preparation, of purpose, and 
of assent. What, then, can that be which makes 
the soul dirty and unclean in these functions ? 
Nothing but its erroneous decisions. It follows, 
therefore, that impurity of a soul consists of bad 
judgements, and purification consists in creating 
within it the proper kind of judgements ; and a 
pure soul is the one which has the proper kind of 
judgements, for this is the only soul which is 
secure against confusion and pollution in its own 

Now one ought to be eager to achieve, as far 




T€Xi^€LV Kma TO ivSexo/jLCvov. a/uLjJxavop rjv 
liv\a<; jiyj pelv rod avOpooiTov rocovrov e^oi'TO? to 
avyfcpafia- 8ia tovto ^.^Ipas eiroi-i-jaev i) cpvai'^ 
Koi avTa<; ra? plva^ co? crw\rjva<^ tt/^o? to eV8t- 
Sovat ra vypd. av ovv dvappofpfj ri^ avrd^^, Xe7(y 

10 on ov TTOiel epyov dvdpwiTiKov. <:i/Lt?;^ai'oi/ i]v fxrj 
7n]\ovadaL rov^ 7r6da<; /xj]he oXa)9 poXuveaOat Sid 
TOLOvTcov rtvoiv iTopevopievov^' hid rovro vSfop 

11 irapecTKevaaev, Sid rovro x^lpa^i. d/jLij^civop i]V 
diTO rod rpooyeiv fii] pvirapov re irpoa/iepeiv roi<; 
oSovai' Sid rovro " irXvvov" ^i^aiv, '* tol/? 
bS6vra<i.'' Sid ri ; Xv dvOpwiro^ r]? Ka\ fiyj Oiipiov 

12 pb7)Se aviSiov. dpLi]XCf-vov pL7) diro rov iSpci)ro<; kul 
T^9 Kara rrjv iadPjra avvo^V'^ vTroXeiireaOai ri 
irepl TO Gcofia pvirapov /cat Seofievov diroKaddp- 
o'€Ct)9* Sid rovro vScop, eXaiop, ^etpe?, oOovlov, 
^varpa, virpov, ead^ 66^ t) dWrj Ttdaa irapaaKevi] 

13 TTyoo? TO Kadrjpai avro. ov' dW^ 6 pev '^a/V/ceL'? -•■ 
€^icoa€L ro criSijpiov Ka\ opyava rrpo^ rovro e^et 
KareaKevaarp^eva, Kal ro mvdKLOv avro^ av ttAu- 
V€L<!;, orav pie}CKr)<^ iadleiv, idv prj ^? 7ravr6Xa)<; 
d/cdOapro^; Kal pv7rap6<;' ro acopbdnov 5' ov 
rrXvvel^'^ ovSe KaOapov Tronjaet^i ; — Am rl ; 

14 (f)'}]aiv. — TLdXcv ipo) aor irpcorov p.ev n>a ra 
dvOpdiTTov 7roLrj<;, elra 7va p,i] dvLa<i rov^ ev- 

^ The words cL-y x«^«fi^s following this word in S have 
been deleted in the MS. 
^ C. Schenkl : irK-uveis S. 

^ A sort of scraper, generally of metal, much used by 

2 The excesses, probably Oriental in origin, to which 
Christian aseetism soon went in regard to despising clean- 


BOOK IV. XI. 9-14 

as may be, sometliing- similar to this in the case of 
the body also. It was impossible that there should 
be no discharge of mucus from the nose, since man's 
body has been composed as it is ; for that reason 
nature made hands, and the nostrils like tubes to 
discharge the humours. If, therefore, a man snuffs 
back these discharges of mucus, I say that he 
is not acting as a human being should. It was 
impossible that the feet should not get muddy, nor 
dirty at all, when they pass through certain such sub- 
stances ; for that reason nature has provided water, 
for that hands. It was impossible that some impurity 
from eating should not remain on the teeth ; for 
that reason nature says, "^^ Wash your teeth." Why? 
In order that you may be a human being, and 
not a beast or a pig. It was impossible that some- 
thing dirty and needing to be cleaned off should 
not be left on the person from our sweat and the 
pressure of our clothes ; for that reason we have 
water, oil, hands, a towel, a strigil/ nitre, and, on 
occasion, every other kind of equij)nient to cleanse 
the body. Not so you.- But the smith will remove 
the rust from his iron tool, and will have implements 
made for this purpose, and you yourself will wash 
your plate when you are going to eat, unless you are 
utterly unclean and dirty ; but will you not wash 
nor make clean your poor body ? — Why ? says some- 
one. — Again I will tell you : First, so as to do what 
befits a man ; and second, so as not to offend those 

liness, seem to have begun to manifest themselves already 
in the early second century among enthusiastic young 
Stoics and would-be Cynics. It is interesting to see how 
Epictetus, simple and austere as lie was, vigorously main- 
tained the validity of okler (ireek and Roman feeling in 
this regard. 



15 Tvyx^i^ovra^;. tolovtov ti koI evOd^e iroiel^ fcal 
ouK alaOdvr). aavrov d^Lov rjyy rou o^eiv earw, 
i<t6l d^LO^. /i)j Ti Kal TOi)? irapaKaOii^ovja^, fii] 
ri Kal TOv<; avy KaraKKivo ixevov<i , fiij n Kal tov<; 

16 Kara(f)c\ovvTa<; ; ea ^ direkO' eh ipijfuav irov 
TTore, 779 af f09 el, Kal fi6vo<; Blaye KaTo^cov aeavrov, 
hiKaiov yap eari tt}? cr?)? ciKaOapcrla'^ ae fiovov 
cLTToXaveLv. ev iroXeL S' ovra oi/to)? d7T€pLaKe7n(i)<; 
Kal dyi'CL)/i6vo)<; dvaarpec^eaOai tivo<^ aoi ^aiverai ; 

17 el 3' 'iiriTOv aoL TreTnarevKeL t] (pvat<;, Trepiecopa^; 
avTOV Kal dT7]/ie\'>]T0v ; Kal vvv olov aov to 
crw/JLa ci)? XiTiTov eyKexeLpiaOai' ttXuvov avro, 
aTroa/jLTj^op, Troirjaov, iva ae p,rihel^ d7ToaTpe(py]Tat, 

18 firjSel^ eKrpeTTTjTaL. t/? 8' ovk eKrpeireTai pvira- 
pop dpOpcoirov, o^opra, KaKoxpovp fidWop 7) top 
K€K07rp(o/jLepop ; eVetw; 7; oapir^ e^coOep iaTip 
errideTO^f y) 6' e^ dOepairevaia^i eacoOep Kal oiopel 

19 ^ AWd %o)KpdT->]<; 6\iydKL<; eXoveTo. — 'AXXa 
ecTTiX^ep ^ auTOv to aay/ia, dXX' rjp ovtw^ 
€7rl)(apL Kal r)Su, mgt ypcop avTOv ol oopaLOTaTOi 
Kal evyepecTTaTOL Kal eiredvpiovp iKeiPO) irapa- 
KaTaKXipeadai fidXXop rj toU €v/j,op(j)OTdTOL<;. 
e^i)p eKeip(t) /x^JTe XoveaOai fx^JTe TrXvpeadai, el 

1 Schenkl : ^ S. 

BOOK IV. XI. 14 19 

whom you meet. You are doing sometliing of the 
sort even here, and do not realize it. You think 
that you are worthy of the smell. ^ Very well, be 
worthy of it. Do you tliink, though, that those who 
sit by your side, those who recline beside you, those 
who kiss you, are worthy of it too .'' ^ Bah, go away 
into a wilderness somewhere or other, a place worthy 
of you, and live alone, smelling of yourself! For it 
is only right that you should enjoy your uncleanliness 
all by yourself But since you are living in a city, 
what kind of character do you fancy you are exhibit- 
ing, to behave so thoughtlessly and inconsiderately.' 
If nature had committed to your care a horse, would 
you have utterly neglected it ? And now I would 
have you think that your body has been entrusted 
to you like a horse ; wash it, rub it down, make it 
so that nobody will turn his back on you or move 
aside. But who does not avoid a dirty fellow that 
smells and has an unsightly skin, even more than a 
man bespattered with dung ? In this latter case 
the smell is external and acquired, in the other it 
comes from slovenliness that is internal, and is 
characteristic of one who has grown rotten through 
and through. 

But Socrates bathed infrequently,*^ says someone. — 
Why, his body was radiant ; why, it was so attractive 
and sweet that the handsomest and most high-born 
were in love with him, and yearned to sit by his 
side rather than beside those who had the prettiest 

^ That is, so good that his smell makes no real difference. 
2 That is, bad enough to deserve such treatment (6.^ios 
meaning both "good enough " and "bad enough "). 
^ Plato, Stnnposium, 174 A. 

2 Sb in margin : fan ^tV S. 



yjOeXev Kairoi Kal to 6\iydKL<i la-')(^vi' ely^ev. 

20 'AXXa \eyei ^ApiaTO<f)dvr]<; 

TO 1)9 (l))(pia)i>Ta<;, rov^ dvu7roS/jTov<^ \ey(D. — 

Aeyei, yap kol depofBarelv avrov real ck t?}? 

21 7raXaiarpa<; KXeirTeiv rci i/jLUTLa. ineL tol Trdvre^; 
ol j6ypa(puTe<; irepl Sco/c/jarof? irdvra rdvavTia 
avT(p irpoa/jLapTvpovaip, on r)8v^ ov fiovov uKOvaai, 
dWd Kal ISelv r)i'. irdXiv irepl ^Loyevov<i ravTo, 

22 ypd(^ovaL. hel yap /njBe Kara ti^v diro rov 
cra)/xaT09 epi(^aaLV diro (f)L\oao(f)La^ diroGo^elv 
Tou? TToWov^, aX-A,' Mairep ra ciWa evOvfiov Kal 
drdpa^op eiTLheiKvveiv avrov oi/tco? Kal diro rov 

23 ad)/jLaT0<;. " tSere, m dvOpwiroi, on ovSev e;^&>, 
ovBevofi Biofiar IScTe ttw? ololko^ ojv Kal diroXi^; 
Kal (f)vyd^, av ovtco^ '^^XV> '^^^ avicmo^ iravroDv 
Tcov €V7rarpiB(ov Kal irXovaioiv drapa'y^coTepov 
Sidyo) Kal eiipovarepov. dWd Kal to acofidTiov ^ 
6paT€ OTL ov KaKOvrai viro ttj'^ avarjjpd^; 8iaLTr}<;;." 

24 av Be fioi TavTa Xeyy Tt? dvOpcoirov a)(^f)fj.a 
KaTaSiKov e)(^cov Kal irpoawirov, rt? pie ireiaei Oecov 
TTpoaeXOelv ^iXo(TO(j)ia, ei ye^ tolovtov<; Tcotel ; 
pLT) yevoLTO' oi'O , el ao(f)6<; e/xeXXov elvau, r^OeXov. 

^ The wonls kUv 0ep,u^ [xrj de\r)s, ^vxpr, here, I have trans- 
ferred to § 32, where, as Schweighauser saw, they clearly 

- \^'olf : Ifxarioy S. 

^ et ye Reiske, after Schegk : Scare S. 

1 Ibid., 217-18. 

2 \ovea6ai is properly of "bathing," as in the public 
baths, especially, in this })assage, the warm baths of Roman 
times, which are clearly in mind ; irAvfta-Oai is properly of 
cleaning clothes, as in a laundry, which was generally done 


BOOK I\'. XI. 19-2.1 

forms and features.^ He might have neither bathed 
nor washed/ had he so desired; yet even his infrequent 
bathings were effective. — But Aristophanes says, 

The palhd men I mean, wlio shoeless go.^ — 

Oh, yes, but tlien he says also that Socrates " trod the 
air," and stole people's clothes from the wrestling 
school.'* And yet all who have written about Socrates 
unite in bearing testimony to the precise opposite 
of this ; that he was not merely pleasant to hear, but 
also to see. Again, men write the same thing about 
Diogenes. For a man ought not to drive away the 
multitude from philosophy, even by the appearance 
of his body, but as in everything else, so also on the 
side of the body, he ought to show himself cheerful 
and free from perturbation. " See, O men, that 1 
have nothing, and 7ieed nothing. See how, although 
I am without a house, and without a city, and an 
exile, if it so chance, and without a hearth, I still 
live a life more tranquil and serene than that of all 
the noble and the rich. Yes, and you see that even 
my paltry body is not disfigured by my hard way of 
living." But if I am told this by a person who has 
the bearing and face of a condemned man, what one 
of all the gods shall persuade me to aj)proach 
philosophy, if she makes people like that ? Far be 
it from me I I shouldn't be willing to do so, not 
even if it would make me a wise man. 

in ancient Greece, as in modern, and in the Orient, with cold 
water. All that is meant, as far as Socrates is concerned, 
is that he generally washed at home in cold water, and v^ery 
seldom used public baths or hot baths. 

8 Clouds, 103, slightly modified. 

* Ibid., 179 and 225. The argument is that the evidence 
of Aristophanes is worthless anyway, because he also made 
these two preposterously false statements about Socrates. 


25 'E761) yUef V7] TOI/9 06OV<s 70V VeOV TOP TrpCWTft)? 

KLvovfievov OiXco /ndWov ekOelv 7rp6<; jxe TrerrXaa- 
/M€Vov rrjv KOfxrjv rj^ KaT€(f)d(,vi]K6Ta koX pvnrapov. 
/SXcTreraL yap tl<; ev eKeiixp rov koKov (pavraala, 
e(/)ecrt? Se rod ev(j')(^})[xovo<;. onov 5' avro elvau 

26 (f)avTd^€TaL, i/cel kuI (^i\oT€)(yel. Xolttov vito- 
Bel^aL fiovov avrut Bel kol elnetv " veaviaKe, to 
KoXov ^r]T€L<; Koi ev Trotet?. cadL ovv, ore cKel 
(f)V€Tai, OTTOV rov Xoyov e^e^?* ckcI avro ^rjrei, 
OTTOV Ta<; 6piJLa<; Kal ra? d(f)opfid<i, ottov ra^; 

'21 6p€^€i^, TO.? eKfcXiaeif;. rovro yap e^et^ ev 
aeavTw e^aiperov, to awpLiiTLov he (f)vaeL ttt^Xo? 
eaTLv. TL Trov€L<; elKrj irepl avro ; el p.^)hev 

28 eTepov, tm %poi'« yvoiarj, otl ovSev eaTLV.'* av he 
fjLOL eXOrj KeK07rpa)/jLevo<;, pv7rap6<;, fivaTaKa e^^v 
P'6xpi' TOW yovuTcov, TL avTw elirelv e^o), drro 
7roLa<i avTov o/jbotOTrjTO^; iirayayelv ; irepl tL yap 

29 ecnrovhaicev op^oiov tw KaXw, Xv avrov fieTaOo) 
Kal ecTTCo " ovK eartv evOdhe to KaXov, ciXX' 
evOdhe " ; 6eXei<^ avrco Xe^o) " ovk eaTLv ev tw 
KeKoirpcoaOaL to kuXov, aXV ev Tcp Xoya) " ; 
€(f)ieTat yap tov KaXov ; ep^aaLV ydp Tiva avTov 
eY^t ; direXOe Kal ')(oip(p hiaXeyou, lv ev (Bop^opw 

30 pi] KvXirjTaL. hid tovto kol Y\oXep.oyvo<; rjy\ravTO 
ol XoyoL ol RevoKpdTovf; &)? (^lXokoXov veaviaKov 
elarjXOev ydp exoyv evava para tT;? irepl to KaXov 
(J7rovhr](;, dXXa)(^ou 8' avTo ^tjrcov. 

^ ^ added by Schenkl, 

^ vSee III. 1, 14, and note. 

* Much as Suetonius so admirably says of Nero (c. 55) : 
Erat nil aeternilatia perpetuaequc faviae cupido, sed iriconsulta. 


BOOK IV. XI. 25-30 

As for me, by the gods, 1 should ratlier have the 
young man who was experiencing the first stirrings 
towards philosophy come to me with his hair care- 
fully dressed, than with it in a state of desperate 
neglect and dirty. For the first case shows that 
there exists in the young man a sort of imaging 
of beauty, and an aiming at comeliness, and where 
he fancies it to be, there also he devotes his efforts. 
With that as a starting-point, all that it is necessary 
to do is to show him the way, and say, " Young man, 
you are seeking the beautiful, and you do well. 
Know, then, that it arises in that part of you where 
you have your reason ; seek it there where you have 
your choices and your refusals, where you have your 
desires and your aversions. For this part is some- 
thing of a special kind which you have within you, but 
your paltry body is by nature only clay. Why do you 
toil for it to no purpose ? If you learn nothing else, 
time at least will teach you that it is nothing." But 
if he comes to me bespattered with dung, dirty, his 
moustache reaching down to his knees, what have I 
to say to him, from what point of resemblance can I 
start so as to prevail upon him ? For what is there 
to which he is devoted, that bears any resemblance to 
the beautiful, so that I may turn him about and say, 
" Beauty is not there, but here " ? Do you want me 
to say to him, ^'Beauty does not consist in being 
bespattered A^ith dung, but in reason " ? For is he 
aiming at beauty? Has he any manifestation of it.'* 
Go and talk to a pig, that he may wallow no more in 
mud ! That is why the words of Xenocrates laid 
hold even of a Polemo,^ because he was a young man 
who loved beauty. For he came to Xenocrates with 
glimmerings of a zeal for the beautiful, but was 
looking for it in the wrong place.^ 



31 'ETret roi ovSe ra ^(pa ra drOpcoTroL^ (TvvTpo(f)a 
pvirapa iTrohjaev ij (f)vai<;. pn] ti 'iinTO<; Kv\i€TaL 
iv /Sop^opw., py n Kvwv 'yevvaLO<; ; aW' o u? Ka\ 
ra GaiTpa %7;i't8fa ^ KaX (7Ka)Xr]K€<; Kal apdxvcLi, 
ra pLaKpordrco rr)? dv6p(oirivrj<; avvavaarpo^i)<^ 

32 direkifKacrpLera. av ovv avOpooiro^ cop ovSk twov 
elvai 6e\ei<; roiv dvdpooiroL^; avvrpocpcov, dWa 
aKcoXi]^ pidWop ?} dpd-)(inov ; ov Xovar) ttov ttots 
o)? OeXei^, ovK diroirXwel'^ aeavTov, kuv OeppLO) 
purj 6eXyj<;, -xlrv^^pfo' ^ ov^ V^€l<; Ka6ap6<i, iW aoL 
yaipodaiv ol avvovre^; ; dXXd kol et? ra lepd 
i)puv avrepxj] tolovto<^, ottov Trrvaat ov vevo- 
pLioTat ovS' diTopiv^aadai, oXo^ wv irruapa Kal 
piu^a ; 

33 Tl ovp ; KaXXcoTTL^eaOai tl<; d^iol ; purf yevoLTO, 
el pirj eKelvo o ire^vKapev, rov Xoyov, rd Soyptara, 
Trt? evepyeia^, to Se aw pa p-^XP'' "^^^ KaOaplov, 

34 P'^xp^ '^^^ f^V 'TTpoaKoineiv. dXX* dv dKovcrrj^, 
on ov Eel (f)opeLV KOKKiva, direXOcov KOTrpcoaov 
aov TOP Tpl/Scopa rj Kardppii^op. — ' AXXd iroOep 
€X(0 KaXop Tpi^copa ; — "KpOpcoire, vScop e;^ei?, 

35 rrXvPi-P avrop. l8ov peo<; d^i6paaro<;, ISov irpea- 
^vTTp; d^io<; Tov epdp Kal dprepdadai, m rt? viop 
avTOv 7TapaSa)a€L it aihevO r](j6 pepop ,^ co dvyaT€p€<;, 

1 Sd : vviSia S. 

2 These last five words, which appear in § 19, actually 
belong liere, as Schweighiluser saw. 

3 ?rap:'5w(r6t Kronenberg ; TraiOivdrjiTOfxcyov iSchvnkl : -napa- 

^ Of course a spider is not ordinarily a dirty animal in its 
personal habits ; the most that can be said is that it is 
frequently found in quiet and hence dusty spots. Of. note 
on § 1. 

BOOK IV. xr. 31-35 

Why, look you, nature has not made dirty even 
tlie animals which associate Avitli man. A horse 
doesn't roll around in the mud, does he 'f or a highly 
bred dog ? No, but the hog, and the miserable rotten 
geese, and worms, and spiders, the creatures farthest 
removed from association with human beings. Do 
you, then, who are a buman being, wish to be not 
even an animal of the kind that associates with men, 
but rather a worm, or a spider ? ^ Will you not take 
a bath somewhere, some time, in any form you 
please ? Will you not wash yourself ? If you 
don't care to bathe in hot water, then use cold. 
Will you not come to us clean, that your companions 
may be glad ? What, and do you in such a state go 
with us even into the temples, where it is forbidden 
by custom to spit or blow the nose, yourself being 
nothing but a mass of spit and drivel ? 

Well, what then? Is anyone demanding that you 
beautify yourself ? Heaven forbid ! except you 
beautify that which is our true nature ^ — the reason, 
its judgements, its activities ; but your body only so 
far as to keep it cleanly, only so ftir as to avoid giving 
offence. But if you hear that one ought not to wear 
scarlet, go bespatter your rough cloak with dung — or 
tear it to pieces ! ^ Yet where am I to get a rough 
cloak that looks well ? — Man, you have water, wash it ! 
See, here is a lovable young man, here an elderly 
man worthy to love and to be loved in return, to 
whom a person will entrust the education of his son, 
to whom daughters and young men will come, if it 

2 i.e. a man really is not bod}^ which he has in common 
with other animals, but mind, reason, or moral purpose. 
Cf. such passages as I. 1, 23 ; III. 1, 25-6 ; 13, 17 ; IV. 5, 12 
and 23 ; 7, 31 f. ; and § 27 above. 

' That is, the young man carries the precept to extremes, 
the command being ironical. 



(L veoL TrpoaeKevaovrai, av ourw<; TV'\rj, Iva iv 
36 KonpcbuL Xeyj) Ta<; a)(^oXd<;. /x/; yevocro. Tracra 
eKTpoirrj airo tivo<; avOpdyrTiKOV <yLi>€Tac, avrr] 
iyiyv^ iaTL TW /jL7] avdpwTTLKr] elvai. 

t/8'. llepi 7rpoao-)(7]<i. 

1 "Orav d<pfj<;'^ 7rpo<; oXiyov ti]v irpoaoy^ijv, fir] 
TOVTO (^avrd^ov, on, oTrorav ^eXr;?, dva\i')y\rr) 
avT7]V, aXX' eKelvo 7rp6')(^€ipop earw aoi, otl irapd 
TO arjfxepov djjiapTqOev eh raWa yelpov dvdyKrj 

2 aoi id Trpdy/jLara e')(€LV. irpcorov /-L€u yap rb irdv- 
Tcov ')(aXe7rcoTaTov 66o<^ rod fii] irpo(je)(^etv eyylve- 
rai, elra eOo^ rov dva^dWeaO at ty)v 'Trpoaox^]v' 
del 5' et9 dWov kol dXXoi^ y^povov el'coda^; vireprl- 
Oeadai, ^ to evpoelv, to 6va)(^7]/j,oi'6LV, to kutu 

3 (j)V(Tiv €X€LP fcal hie^dyeiv. el p-kv ouv XvaLTeXy]^ 
7) VTrepOeai^ eaTiv, rj Trai^reXr;? diroaTaaif; auTPj<; 
icTTl XvaLTeXecTTepa' el 3' ov XvaiTeXec, tl ov\l 
hniveKYj T7]v irpoaoyr^v (f)vXdcr(7ei<; ; " a/jfxepoi' 

4 Tral^aL OeXo)." tl ovv KwXvei^ irpoaeyovTa ; 
" aaai." tl ovv KcoXvet 7rpoae)(OVTa ; fxr] yap 
e^aipelTal tl fiepof; tov ^lov, ec/)' o ov hiaTeiveL 
TO irpo(Te')(eLv ; 'Xjelpov yap avTo irpoaex'^v iron']- 
aei^, ^eXTLov he /jltj 7rpoae)(coi/ ; kol tl dXXo tcov 

5 eV TO) /Slco Kpelcraov vtto tcov firj TrpoaexdvTcov 
yLveTUL ; o TeKTcov /xr; iTpoae)(^u}v TeicTaiveL 

^ Kronenberg (after Sb and s) : <pT](Ti S. 

* Schenkl : r*a'0j (or 'l*(feas)'os S. 

^ KuKvfi added by C. Schenkl. 

BOOK IV. XI. 35-xii. 5 

so chance — all fur the purpose of having him deli\er 
his lectures sitting on a dunghill r Good Lord, no ! 
Every eccentricity arises from some human trait, but 
tiiis trait comes close to beincr non-human. 


Of aite?iiion 

When you relax your attention for a little while, 
do not imagine that whenever you choose you will 
recover it, but bear this in mind, that because of 
the mistake which you have made to-day, your 
condition nmst necessarily be worse as regards every- 
thing else. For, to begin with — and this is the 
worst of all — a habit of not paying attention is 
developed ; and after that a habit of deferring 
attention ; and always you grow accustomed to 
putting off from one time to another tranquil and 
appropriate living, the life in accordance with nature, 
and persistence in that life. Now if the postpone- 
ment of such matters is profitable, it is still more 
profitable to abandon them altogether ; but if it is 
not profitable, why do you not maintain your atten- 
tion continuously.^ "To-day I want to play." What 
is to prevent your playing, then, — but with attention ? 
" I want to sing." What is to prevent your singing, 
then, — but with attention? There is no part of the 
activities of your life excepted, to which attention does 
not extend, is there ? What, will you do it worse by 
attention, and better by inattention ? And yet what 
other thing, of all that go to make up our life, is 
done better by those who are inattentive? Does 
the inattentive carpenter do his work more accur- 



UKpL/Searepov ; 6 Kv/SepinjTTjc; /jlij irpoaex^ov ^ 
Ku/Sepi'd aa(f)a\iaT€pov ; dWo Se Tt rcov fxi/cpo- 

6 repcov epycov viro cnrpoae^La'^ iiTLTeXelraL Kpela- 
aoif ; ovK alaOavrj, on, iTreiSav d(j)7)(; rrjv yvco/njv, 
ovK en eVl aoi eanv avafcaXecraadai avTtjv, ovk 
iiTL TO €V(T)('>]/jlov, OVK iirl TO alhrjpiov, ovk inl to 
KarearaXfievov ; aWci irav to inreXOop 7roie2<;, 
Tat? irpoOv/iLat^; eiraKoXovOel's. 

7 Tlcnv ovv hel /xe irpoaexeip ; — Upayrov /I'ev 
iK€Lvoi<; TOt? Ka6oXiKol<; kol eKslva 7rpo)(^€ipa 
ex^i'V KOL x'^P''^ eKeivcov fjtr} KaOevheiv, fj.7] dvia- 
TaaOaL, fir] TTiveiv, /it] iadleiv, /i7j av/ijBdXXeLV 
dvOpco7roL<;- on irpoaipe(J€0)<i dXXorpLa^ Kvpio<; 
ovh€L<;, ev ravrr) Be fiovrj rdyaOop kol KaKov. 

8 ouSet? ovv KvpLO^ ovt dyaOov /jlol TrepiTToiijaai 
ovT€ KUKw fie TTepifiaXelv, dXX' iyoD avro^ cfiavrov 

9 Kara ravra e^ovaiav e^^ fi6vo<^. orav ovv 
ravra dac^aXrf fioL y, tL ex^o irepl ra cVto? 
rapdaaecrOaL ; Troto? rvpavvo^ (po^6p6<;, iroia 
v6ao<;, TToia irevia, irolov irpoaKpovafia ; — 'AXA, 

10 OVK i]pe<Ta TO) helvi. — M?) ovv €K61vo<; efioi' eanv 
epyov, fxr] n efiov Kpifia ; — O'v. — Tt ovv en fioi 
fxeXei ; — 'AA-Xa SoKel n<; elvai. — "Oy\reTaL avr6<i 

11 Kal oU SoKel, eyo) 8^ e;^w> t^'^'^ Ate Bel dpeaKeiv, 
TLVL vTroreruxOai,, tlvl ireideaSar to) Bew Kal 

12 fi€T eK€ivov ifioi.'^ e/xe eKelvo^ avveari^aev ifiavTcp 
Kal Tr]v efii)v rrpoalpeaiv virera^ev ifiol fiovcp Bou<; 
Kav6va<; eh XPW^^ avTi)^; ry-jv opOi'-jv, oh orav 

^ These last six words are added, to fill an obvious lacuna, 
in Upton's "codex." Sometliing like them is certaiidy 

* i/jo'i supplied by Diela. 


BOOK IV. XII. 5-12 

ately ? The inattentive helmsman steer more safely ? 
And is there any other of the lesser functions of life 
which is done better by inattention ? Do you not 
realize that when once you let your mind go 
wanderiiiir, it is no longer within your power to 
recall it, to bring it to bear upon either seemliness, 
or self-respect, or moderation ? But you do any- 
thing that comes into your head, you follow your 

What are the things, then, to which I ought to 
pay attention ? — First, these general principles, and 
you ought to have them at your command, and 
without them neither go to sleep, nor rise up, nor 
drink, nor eat, nor mingle with men ; 1 mean the 
following : No man is master of another's moral 
purpose ; and : In its sphere alone are to be found 
one's good and evil. It follows, therefore, that no 
one has power either to procure me good, or to 
involve me in evil, but I myself alone have authority 
over myself in these matters. Accordingly, when 
these things are secure for me, what excuse have I 
for being disturbed about things external ? What 
kind of tyrant inspires fear, what kind of disease, or 
poverty, or obstacle ? — But I have not pleased So- 
and-so. — He is not my function, is he? He is not 
my judgement, is he .^ — No. — Why, then, do I care 
any longer? — But he has the reputation of being 
somebody. — He and those who think so highly of 
him will have to see to that, but I have one whom 
I must please, to whom I must submit, whom I 
must obey, that is, God, and after Him, myself. 
God has commended me to myself, and He has 
subjected to me alone my moral purpose, giving me 
standards for the C(n-rect use of it ; and when I follow 



KaTaKo\ov6i]aw, iv avWo'^/iafiol^ ovk eiriCTpe- 
(f)0/jLai ov8€v6<i TOiv aWo ri Xeyovroov, ev fieraTrLir- 

13 Tovaiv ov (ppovri^o) ovhevof;. Bta ri ovv iv rot's 
fiei^oaiv dpiaxTi fie ol yjreyoPTe^; ; tl to dtriov 
TavTT)<; tT;? Tapa'X_y]<; ; ouSev dWo r) on iv rov- 

14 Tcp T(p TOTTM dyv/jLvacTTO'^ elfjLL. eirei rot, iraaa 
eTTiaT 1)1X1] KaTa<^povriTiKi] iari tt}? ayvoua^ kuI 
roiv dyvoovvTCdv koX ov fjbovov al eincni'^iiaL, dXXa 
KOL al re-)(yaL. (pipe op ^eXet? aKvrea xal tcjp 
TToWcop KarayeXd irepi ro avrov epyop' (pipe ov 
Oe\€L<; reKTova. 

15 Y\po)TOP fiep ovv ravra e')(eLv 7rpo')(^eipa Kai 
/jurjBep ^ix^ TovTMP ttoiclp, dWd rerdcrdai, tt)P 
-yjrvxrjp iirl tovtop top aKOirov, iirjhev rwp €^o) 
StcoKeiv, fir^hev rcov dWorpicov, dXV co? Biira^ev 
6 hwdfievo^iy ra TrpoaLperiKa i^ a7ravT0<;, ra 5' 

16 aWa &)? av SiBcorai. eVl tovtol^ he /jue/jLvPjaOaL, 
TtVe? icrfiev koI tl r)/jLtp oio/xa, kuI Trpo? ra<; 
8vpdiJ,€t<; T(iiv ax^aecop ireipdaOai to. KaO^jKopra 

17 direvOvpeiP' rt? Kaipo'^ ft 3?}?, t69 Katpo'^ Traihid^;} 
TLVcov TrapovTcov TL ecTTaL diTo Tov 7rpdy/jLaT0<;' 
fir] TC KaTa(f)povr]0-Q)aip rj/xcjp ol^ avp6pTe<;, fii] tl 
jJ/Liet? avTtov TTore dfccoyjraL kol TLva<; iroTe Kara- 
yeXdaaL Kal iirl tlvl ttotc aufiTrepiepexOfjvaL kul 
TLPL, KOL XoLTTOP ip TTj av [XTTepicpopa iTO)'^ TTjpijaaL 
to avTOv. OTTOV h' dp dTroP€vcrrj<; diro tlio<^ tov- 

18 Twp, ev6v<^ t^^iiJLLa, ovk e^wOep iroOep, dXX! cf 
avTf]<; Tf)<; evepyela^. 

^ Upton's "codex " and Wolf : iraiTiflas S. 
2 oi supplied by Sb. 

^ See note on I. 7, 


BOOK IV. xii. 12-18 

these standards^ I pay heed to none of those who say 
anything else, I give not a tliought to anyone in argu- 
ments with equivocal premisses.^ Why, then, in the 
more important matters am I annoyed by those who 
censure me ? What is the reason for this perturba- 
tion of spirit ? Nothing but the fact that in this 
field I lack training. For, look you, every science 
is entitled to despise ignorance and ignorant people, 
and not merely the sciences, but also the arts. Take 
any cobbler you please, and he laughs the multitude 
to scorn when it comes to his own work ; take any 
carpenter you please. 

First, therefore, we ought to have these principles 
at command, and to do nothing apart from them, 
but keep the soul intent upon this mark ; we must 
pursue none of the things external, none of the 
things which are not our own, but as He that is 
mighty has ordained ; pursuing without any hesita- 
tion the things that lie within the sphere of the 
moral purpose, and all other things as they have 
been given us. And next we must remember who 
we are, and what is our designation, and must en- 
deavour to direct our actions, in the performance of 
our duties, to meet the possibilities of our social 
relations. We must remember what is the proper 
time for song, the proper time for play, and in 
whose presence ; also what will be out of place ; 
lest our companions despise us, and we despise our- 
selves ; when to jest, and whom to laugh at, and to 
what end to engage in social intercourse, and with 
whom ; and, finally, how to maintain one's proper 
character in such social intercourse. But whenever 
you deviate from any one of these principles, imme- 
diately you suffer loss, and that not from anywhere 
outside, but from the very nature of the activity. 



19 Tl ovv ; hwarov dva/JLaprrjTov i'-jhrj elvai ; 
d/iij'X^avov, dX)C eKelvo Svvarov irpo^ to /jltj d/juap- 
rdveiv rerdaOai hir^veKw^;. dyaTryrov ydp, el 
f-u-jheTTOT dvievre^ Tauri)v rifv 'Trpoao)(i]V oXiycov 

20 ye d/JLaprrj/jLaTCOP €kto<; iaofieOa. vvv S' orav 
eiVT}^ " diravpLOv vpocre^a)," laOc otl tovto Xeyef? 
" atj/iepov eao/jLat- dvalaxvj'TO^, aKaipo^, Taneivo^' 
iir dX\oL<; ear at to Xvirelv fie' opyi(j6i]aopiai 

21 cn^jiepov^ (j^Oopyjaco." /SXeTre oaa KUKa aeavTw 
eViTpeVet?. dW' et' aoi ^ avpiov fca\(x)<; G)(eL^ 
iToaw KpeLTTOV (j)]f.iepov ; eu avpiop av/j,cf)€p€i, 
TToXv fidXXov ai'ifxepov, iva koI avpiov SuP7]0fj(; 
Kal py] irdXiv dvajSdXr) et? TpLTi-jV. 

ly . ri/oo? Tov^ €Vfc6Xa)(; eK^epovTa<^ Ta avTcov. 

1 "OTav Ti? 7)f.uv dirXco^i So^rj hLetXe')(6ai rrepl to)v 
kavTov TTpaypuToop, ttco? ^ ttotc i^ay6p,e9a Kal 
avTol 7rpo<; to eK^epetv 7r/)09 avTOv Ta eavTcov 
diropprjTa Kal tovto drrXovv olopeOa elvar 

2 irpoiTOV pL€v OTL dvtaov elvai Sokel avTov p.€i> 
dKyjKoevai Ta tov ttXtjctloi', p^ij pbevTOi pieTahihovai 
KdKeivM ev tCo p^epei TOiv r]pLeT6p(ov. eW otl 
olopieOa ovx d'lrXwv dvOpcoircov nrape^eiv avToU 

3 (pai'Taaidv aKoircjvTe^ Ta idia. dpeXet 7roXXdKi<; 
el(£)6a(TLv Xeyecv ^' iyco aot irdvTa TupavTOv el'pyjKa, 

^ .Schenkl : etV ,S. ^ Trincavelli : Tris S. 


BOOK IV. XII. 19-X111. 3 

What then ? Is it possible to be free from i'ault 
altogether ? No, that cannot be achieved, but it 
is possible ever to be intent upon avoiding faults. 
For we must be satisfied, if we succeed in escaping at 
least a few faults by never relaxing our attention. 
But now, when you say, ^^ To-morrow I will pay 
attention," I would have you know that this is what 
you are saying : '' To-day I will be shameless, tact- 
less, abject; it will be in the power of other men to 
grieve me ; I will get angry to-day, I will give way 
to envy." Just see all the evils that you are allow- 
ing yourself! But if it is good for you to pay 
attention to-morrow, how much better is it to-day I 
If it is to your interest to-morrow, it is much more 
so to-day, that you may be able to do the same 
to-morrow also, and not put it off again, this time to 
the day after to-morrow. 


To those Tvho lightly talk about their own affairs 

When someone gives us the impression of having 
talked to us frankly about his personal affairs, some- 
how or other we are likewise led to tell him our 
own secrets, and to think that is frankness ! The 
first reason for this is because it seems unfair for a 
man to have heard his neighbour's affairs, and yet 
not to let him too have, in his turn, a share in 
ours. Another reason, after that, is because we 
feel that we shall not give the impression to these 
men of being frank, if we keep our own private 
affairs concealed. Indeed, men are frequentlv in 
the habit of saying, '' I have told you everytiiing 



GV fjiOi ovhev Toav ctmv etTrelv d€\€i<; ; ttou yLveTat 
'I rovro ; " irpoaeaTi ^ Be koX to ol'eaOat acr(/)aXcu? 
TTiareveLV ray yBi] ra avrov TreiTLarevKOTi' virepxe- 
rai yap 7;/xa9, otl ovk dv TTore ovro<; e^eLiroL ra 
7)fi€r€p(i evXa^ovpevo^;, (.LrjiroTe Kal 7;^ei9 e^eiirw- 

5 p.ei' ra eKeivov, ovrco^ Kal viro tmv arpaTLcoTCJV 
ev 'V(t)/jLrj ol 7r/907reT6t? Xafx^avovjai. irapafceKa- 
diKe aot aTparL(t)T7]<; ev cr^VfJiaTL IhiwriKw Kal 
dp^dfjL€VO<; KaKch<^ Xeyet rov Kataapa, elra av 
wcnrep eve)(ypov irap avrov Xa^iov r^? TrtcTeco? 
TO avTov T?}? \oLhopia<; Kajr^py^Oai Xeyet? Kal avTO<; 

6 oaa <^povel<^, elra heOel^i dirayij. tolovtov tl Kal ev 
T(w KaOoXov 7Tda')(o/i€V. ov yap ^ 009 efiol eKelvo<; 
dacpaXco^ ireiriaTevKev rd eavrov, ovrco<; Kdyco 

7 TM eTTLTVxovTi' dX}C eyo) fiev dKOvaa<s (TL(a)t:(x}, av 
ye 0} TOiovTO<;, 6 3' i^eXOcDV eKcftepet Trpo? irdvra'^ 
elr dv yvw to yevojxevov^ dv fxev w Kai avTo<; 
€K€LVcp 6p.0L0^, dp^vvaaOai, 6e\wv €K(f)ep(o rd 

8 eKeivov Kal (pvpco Kal (pvpo/jbat. dv oe ixvi-jpiovevw, 
on dWo^ dXXov ov /SXaTrrei, dWd rd avrov 
epya eKaarov Kal ^Xdnret, Kal dxpeXel, rovrov 
fiev Kparo) rod /jLJ] 6/jLoiov rt iTOL?]aaL eKeivw, 
o/jLco^; S' vtto (f)XvapLa<; rrj^ e/jiavrov ireTrovOa 
a rrerrovda. 

9 Nat* ttXV dvicrov eariv dKOvaavra ra rov 

^ Wolf : irpo<T€Ti S. ^ ov yap Schenkl : avrdp S. 

1 It may possilily be, as Upton suggests, that this al)use 
led John the Baptist to warn soldiers specifically, " Neither 
accuse any falsely " (Luke iii. 14). 


HOOK IV. xm. 3-9 

about myself, aren't you willing: to tell me anything 
about yourself? Where do people act like that?" 
Furtliermore, there is also the thought that we can 
safely trust the man who has already entrusted 
knowledge of his own affairs ; for the idea occurs to 
us that this man would never spread abroad know- 
ledge of our affairs, because he would be careful to 
guard against our too spreading abroad knowledge 
of his afjairs. In this fashion the rash are ensnared 
by the soldiers in Rome. A soldier, dressed like a 
civilian, sits down by your side, and begins to speak 
ill of Caesar, and then you too, just as though you 
had received from him some guarantee of good faith 
in the fact that he began the abuse, tell likewise 
everything you think, and the next thing is — you are 
led off to prison in chains.^ We experience something 
of the same sort also in the general course of our 
life. For even though this particular man has safely 
entrusted knowledge of his own affairs to me, 1 do 
not myself in like manner tell my affairs to any 
chance comer ; no, I listen and keep still, if, to be 
sure, I happen to be that kind of a person, but he 
goes out and tells everybody. And then, when I 
find out what has happened, if I myself resemble the 
other person, because I want to get even with him I 
tell about his affairs, and confound him and am 
myself confounded. If, however, I remember that 
one person does not harm another, but that it is a 
man's own actions which both harm and help him, 
this much I achieve, namely, that I do not act like 
the other jicrson, but despite that 1 get into the 
state in wliich 1 am because of my own foolish 

Yes, but it isn't fair to hear your neigbour's 



7r\y](TL0i' (i7r6ppr]ra avrov ev rfo jdepei. /Jit]8€p6<; 

10 fierahLhovaL aiirw. — Mr^ 'yap ae irapeKaXovv, 
uvOpoiiTe ; fx-i-j yap eVt (TVv6i]KaL^ rialv i^/jv^jKa'i 
ra aavTOv, Xv aKovo-r]<; ev rw fiepei fcal ra i^d ; 

11 el (TV (f)\vapo<i el Kal irdvra^ tol/? uTravTijcravTa^ 
<pLXov<; elvai hoKel<^, 6e\eL<; Kal e/xe ojjlolov aoL 
yevkaOai ; ri h\ el crv Ka\co<; /xol ireTricFTevKa^ ra 
aavTOV, (Tol S' ovk eari /caXw? iTLarevaai, ueXeL^; 

12 fji6 TTpoTreaelv ; olov el iriOov ely^ov e^ft) /lev 
areyvov, av he rerpviri^fievov Kal eXdoiv rrapa- 
KareOov /not rov aavrov olvov, Xva ^aXoo et? rov 
ifiov ttlOov, elr' r}yaudKTei<; on firf Kciyoi croi 
Tnarevco rov ifiavTov olvov av yap rerpvTn)- 

13 fievov e-)(^eL^ rov ttlOov. ttw? ovv en taov yive- 
rai ; av Triarw irapaKareOov, av alBi]/jLOVi, rd*; 
eavTOv evepyeia^ pi6va<^ fiXajBepd^ 7)yovp,6V(p Kal 

14 oi3(beXip,ov<;, tmv 8' cKro^ ovBev iyco aol 6?e\6i? 
irapaKaTaOcofxai, dvOpcoircp ti)v eavrov irpoai- 
peaiv jjn/LiaKon, OeXovn Se Kepparlov rvy^^lv i) 
dpxv^ Ti'VO^; rj irpoaywyrj^i ev rfj avXfj, Kav p.eXXrj'^ 

15 ra T€Kva aov KaTaa(^d^eiv, &)? tj ^\r)heia ; ttov 
rovTO laov eariv ; dXXd Set^ov /loi aavrov 
TTiarov, alSij/MOva, ^efiaiov, hel^ov, on hoyiiara 
e%6i? (jiiXiKa, Sel^ov aov ro dyyetov on ov rerpTj- 
rat Kal oyfrei, ttw? ovk dva/ievo) ^ 7va fJLOt av 
marevar]^ ra aavrov, dXX^ avro<; eXucov ae 

16 jrapaKaXo) uKovaai roiv e/xcoi'. ri<=; yap ov OeXeu 
j^pi'jaa.aOai dyyeuo KaXfo, ri<i dnf-La^ei av/x^ovXov 
evvovv Kal iriarov, ri^; ovk dap,evo<i Se^rjrat rov 
coairep (fiopriov fjieraX7]yjro/.t€vov rcov avrov irepi- 

^ Elter, after Wolf : ai/a/x4yu) S. 

BOOK IW xiii. 9-16 

secrets and then ^ive him no share of your own in 
return. — Man, I did not invite your confidences, did 
I ? You did not tell about your affairs on certain 
conditions, that you were to hear about mine in 
return, did you? If you are a babbler, and think 
that every person you meet is a friend, do you also 
want me to be like yourself? And why, if you did 
well to entrust your affairs to me, but it is impossible 
for me to do well in trusting you, do you wish me to 
be rash ? It is just as though I had a jar that was 
sound, and you one with a hole in it, and you came 
to me and deposited your wine with me, for me to 
store it in my jar ; and then you complained because 
I do not entrust to you my wine also ; why, your jar 
has a hole in it ! How^, then, is equality any longer 
to be found ? You made your deposit with a faithful 
man, with a respectful man, with a man who 
regards only his own activities as either harmful or 
helpful, and nothing that is external. Do you wish 
me to make a deposit with you — a man who has 
dishonoured his own moral purpose, and wants to 
get paltry cash, or some office, or advancement at 
court, even if you are going to cut the throats ot 
your children, as Medea did ? Where is there 
equality in that ? Nay, show yourself to me as a 
faithful, respectful, dependable man ; show that 
your judgements are those of a friend, show that 
your vessel has no hole in it, and you shall see how 
I will not wait for you to entrust the knowledge of 
your affiiirs to me, but I will go of myself and ask you 
to hear about mine. For who does not wish to use a 
good vessel, who despises a friendly and faithful 
counsellor, who would not gladly accept the man 
who is ready to share his difficulties, as he would 



ardaeoiv Kal avrw Tovrro Kovc^iovvra avrov tw 
fieraKaiSelv ; 

17 Nar dX)C iyo) aol Triarevco, crv i/iol ov 
7n(TT€v€i<;. — Tlpayrov fiev ovhe av €/lloI iricrTevei';, 
dX\a (p\vapo<; el /cat Sid rovro ovEev Svvacrai 
Karaa^^elv. eirei roc el touto iariv, i/uLol jjlovw 

18 avrd TTLCTTevaov' vvv 5' ov dv evayoXovvra I'S?;?, 
irapaKaOlaa^; avTw \6y€i,<i " dSeXcfye, ovBeva aov 
€^(^0) evvovcnepov ovSe (piXrepov, irapaKakfti ae 
dKovaai rd ifid^^' Kal tovto tt/jo? tou? ovBe ri 

19 oXljov eyvo)a/j.epov(; iroLel^;. el he Kal 7nareveL<i 
ejjLoi, hrfkov otl co? iriara) Kal alSrjfiovi, ol'% otl 

20 aol rd e/iavrov e^ecTrov. d(fje<; ovv, Iva KdycD 
ravrd viroXd^o). Sel^ov jjloi, otl, dv tl<; rivl rd 
avTOv ^ e^eiTTT), eKelvo^ 7nar6<; eari Kal alSij/icov. 
el ydp tovto tjv, €7Ct> TrepiepxoiJLevo^ Trdaiv dvOpco- 
7rot9 Ta ifiavTov dv eXeyov, el tovtov eveKa 
efieXXov 7rio-T0<; Kal alS'q/jLcov eaeaOai. to S' 
ecTTlv ov TotovTov, dXXd hoyfJLaTwv hel ov')(^ wv 

21 ervx^ev. dv yovv Tivd thr)(; jrepl Ta dirpoaipeTa 
ecTTTOvSaKoTa Kal tovtoi<; v7roTeTa')^6Ta ttjv avTov 
irpoaipedLv, laOi otl 6 dv0pco7ro<; ovto<; /nvplovf; 
€')(€L Toj)? dvayKa^ovTa^;, tou? K(oXvovTa<;. ovk 

22 eaTLv avTw %/3eia iTiaa7}<; rj Tpo^ov TTyoo? to i^ei- 
irelv a olSev, dXXd iraiBiaKapiOV vevfiaTLOv, dv 
ovTO)<; TV'xr], eKaeiaei avTov, Kaicrapiavov (^lXo- 
(f)po(Tvm], a/3%^^9 eTnOvfiia, KXr}povo/jLLa<i, dXXa 

* 5 : avTui S. 

^ Means of torture among tlie ancients. See also IT. 
6, 18. 


BOOK I\'. xiii. 16-22 

sliare a burden with him, and to make them Hght 
for him by the very fact of his sliaring in them ? 

Yes, but I trust you, while you do not trust me. — 
First, you do not trust me,eitlier,but you are a babbler, 
and that is the reason why you cannot keep anything 
])ack. ^Vhy, look you, it" that statement of yours is 
true, entrust these matters to me alone ; but the 
fact is that whenever you see anybody at leisure 
you sit down beside him and say, " Brother, I have 
no one more kindly disposed or dearer to me than 
you, I ask you to listen to my affairs " ; and you act 
this way to people whom you have not known for 
even a short time. And even if you do trust me, 
it is clear you trust me as a faithful and respectful 
person, not because I have already told you 
about my affairs. Allow me also, then, to have the 
same thought about you. Show me that, if a man 
unbosoms himself to somebody about his own 
affairs, he is faithful and respectful. For if that 
were so, I should have gone about and told my 
own affairs to all men, that is, if that was going to 
make me faithful and respectful. But that is not 
the case ; to be faithful and respectful a man needs 
judgements of no casual sort. If, therefore, you see 
someone very much in earnest about the things that 
lie outside the province of his moral purpose, and 
subordinating his own moral purpose to them, rest 
assured that this man has tens of thousands of persons 
who subject him to compulsion and hinder him. He 
has no need of pitch or the wheel ^ to get him to 
speak out what he knows, but a little nod from 
a wench, if it so happen, will u})set him, a kindness 
from one of those who frequent Caesar's court, desire 
for office, or an inheritance, and thirty thousand 



23 TovToif; 6/xoia rpia/xvpLa. /xefivtjcrOaL ovp ev roU 
KaOoXov, OTL ol (iTTopprjTOL \6yoi TTiareco^ xpeiav 

24 exovai koX Boy/xdrcov tolovtcov ravra Be ttov 
vvv evpelv pahioi^; ; rj Bet^dro) jjlol rt? rov ovrox; 
exovra, ojare Xiyeiv " i/j,ol povwv fieXei tmv e/icov, 
royv aKcoXvrcov, tow (pvaec eXevOepwv. ravTi^v 
ovaiav 6)(^co rov dyaOov, ra Be dWa yii^eaOco &')? 
av BiBcorai,' ov Bia(f)€po/,^* 


BOOK IV. viir. 22-24 

other thinfi^s of tlie sort. Kenieiiiber, therefore, in 
general, that confidences require faithfulness and 
faithful judgements ; and where can one readily 
find these things nowadays?^ Or, let someone 
show me the man who is so minded that he can say, 
" I care only for what is my own, what is not sul)ject 
to hindrance, what is by nature free. This, which is 
the true nature of the good, I have ; but let every- 
thing else be as God has granted, lb makes no 
difference to me." 

* Cf. " When the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on 
the earth ? " (Luke xviii. 8). 



Introductory Note 

The genuine fragments of Epictetus are not very 
numerous, and since several of them are of unusual 
interest, it has seemed best to add them at this 
point. One fragment, No. 28 b, I have added to 
those listed by Schenkl, since its discovery was 
subsequent to his latest edition. 

Earlier editions have included a large number of 
aphorisms gathered from Stobaeus, and from a 
gnomology purporting to contain excerpts from 
Democritus, Isocrates, and Epictetus. The researches 
of a group of scholars, principally H. Schenkl, ^ R. 
Asmus,- and A. Elter,^ have thrown such doubt 
upon the authenticity of these aphorisms that it 
would scarcely serve any useful purpose to reproduce 
them in the present work. 

^ Die epiktetischen Fragmente, Sitzungsberichte der philos.- 
hi'it. Classe der K. Akad. der Whs., Wien, 115 (1888), 443- 
546. Also ed. maior 1916, Chapter III, pp xlviii-lii. 

2 Qiiaestiones EpicMeae, Freiburg i. B. , 1888. 

3 Epicteli et Moschionis Sententiae, Bonn, 1892. 



1 (175^). Stobaeus, Eclo(jae, II. 1, 31 

Appiavov 'Yj7nKT7]TeLOV 7r/309 TOP irepl ovaia<; 
TroXvTTpay/iorovvra '^ 

Tl pLOL p.e\ei, cf)r/ai, TTorepuv e^ aropiwv y e^ 
cipi€po)V rj eV iTvpo<; koI <yrj<; avpearrjKe ra ovra ; 
ov yap apK€L pLaOeiv t7^v ovaiav rod dyaOov Kal 
KaKov Kal ra puerpa rcov ope^ecov Kal eKKXiaecdv 
Kal en opjicov Kal ac^oppLOiv Kal rovroi^ Mairep 
KavoGi y^poap.evov SiOLKelv ra rov /Blov, ra 8' virep 
r,pLd<^ ravra 'X^alpeiv eav, a rv^^ov pL€v uKard- 
XrjTrrd ian rfj dvdpcoirlvr) yvoopLrj, el he Kal ra 
pLokcara deiii ^ ri<; elvai KaraXijirrd, d}jC ovv ri 
6(f)€\o<; KaraXi](f)devr(op ; ov^i Se SLaKevrj<i irpdy- 
piara e)(^€iv (f)areov rov<; ravra co? dvayKala rw 
rov (f)LXoa6<pov Xoyfo 7rpoai>epLOvra<^ ; M?; rL ovv 
Kal ro iv AeX(/)ot? irapciyyeX/xa irapekKOv iari, 
ro TvmOl aavrov ; — Yovro 8e pev ov, (pyjal. — 
Tl<; ovv 7] Svvap,L<; avrov ; el y(^opevrf) rL<; irap/jy- 
yeXXe ro yvMvai eavrov, ovkovv dv ^ rfj irpoa- 
rd^ei Trpoael^^e ray e7riarpa(j>r}vai Kal ra)v ovy- 
'^(ppevrwv Kal r?}? TTyOo? avrov<; avpLcfycovla^; ; — 
^rjaiv. — EaI Be vavrr/ ; ^ el he arparicorr) ; iro- 

^ Numbers in parenthesis refer toSchwei^hiiuser's edition, 
which was followed by Long in his transhition. 

2 The final word of the title added by Wachsmuth. 
^ Scliweigliauser : ^j; MlSiS. 




From Arrian the pupil of Epidelvs. To the man 
who ivas bothering himself about the problem of 

What do I care, says Epictetus, whether all exist- 
ing things are composed of atoms, or of indivisibles, or 
of fire and earth ? Is it not enough to learn the true 
nature of the good and the evil, and the limits of the 
desires and aversions, and also of the choices and 
refusals, and, by employing these as rules, to order 
the affairs of our life, and dismiss the things that are 
beyond us ? It may very well be that these latter 
are not to be comprehended by the human mind, and 
even if one assume that they are perfectly compre- 
hensible, well, what profit comes from comprehend- 
ing them ? And ought we not to say that those 
men trouble themselves in vain who assign all this as 
necessary to the philosopher's system of thought ? 
Is, therefore, also the precept at Delphi superfluous, 
'^ Know thyself"? — That, indeed, no, the man 
answers. — What, then, does it mean ? If one bade a 
singer in a chorus to ^^ know himself," would he not 
heed the order by paying attention both to his 
fellows in the chorus and to singing in harmony 
with them ? — Yes. — And so in the case of a sailor 1: 

* ovKovv Sv Schenkl {oHkow Wachsmuth) : ovk tiv tv M8.S. 
^ Canter and Wachsmuth : tUei' auT^(i/) MSS. 



repov ovv 6 avOpwiro^i avTO<; i(j)' ^ avrov TreiroLr}- 
aOai <TOi 8oK€L t,Coov i) 'TTpo<; KOivcoviav ; — IIpo? 
KOLVwviav." — "Tito t'lvo^; ; — 'Ttto tt}? <^ucre&)9. — 
ItVo? ovari<; /cal ttw? hioiKOvarji; to, o\a kol 
TTorepov ouay]<s y /x;;, ravra ovKeri dvajKalov 
TToXviT pa'y fxovelv. 

2 (135). Stobaeiis, IV. 44, 65 

WppiaVOV ^K7riKTr}T€L0V. 

'O roL^; irapovau kol hehofxevoL^; inro t?}? tv^t)(; 
6ucr)(€pau'(Ji)P ldL(t)Tr]<; iv ySto), o 3e ravra 'yevi^aiw^; 
<f>6p(ov Kal evXoycarcov 7rpo<; ra ^ air avroiv dvrjp 
dya06<; a^io'i ^ vofxi^eadai. 

3 (136). Stobaeus, IV. 44, 66 

Toi) avrov. 

Udvra viraKOvei too kogiiw Kal vrrriperel Kal 
yrj Kal ddXaaaa Kai y)\to<; Kal rd Xonrd darpa 
Kal rd y)]<; <pvrd Kal ^wa' vwaKOvei Se avro) Kal 
ro 7]p,6r€pov acofia Kal vocrovv Kal vyiacvov, orav 
eKCLVo^ OeXrj, Kal vea^ov Kal yrjpodv Kal rd<^ dWa<i 
Siep^op-^vov iJLera/3o\d<;. ovkovv evXoyov Kai, o 
€(j)' i)iilv eari, rovrean rrjv KpiaLv, fir) dvrLreiveiv 
fiovrjv 7r/309 avrov Kal yap la^vpof; ian Kal 
KpelcracDV Kal d/j,€ivov virep rj/icov ^effovXevrai 

1 Cobet : v<p' MSS. 
^ irphs KOtvuviav supplied bj" Heeren. 
^ Schenkl : fv\oyi(na> rd MSS. 
* Gesner : a^iws MSS. 



or a soldier ? Does it seem to you, tlien, that man 
has been made a creature to live all alone by himself, 
or for society r — For society. — By whom ? — By 
Nature. — What Nature is, and how she administers 
the universe, and whether she really exists or not, 
these are questions about which there is no need to 
go on to bother ourselves. 


From Arrian the pupil of Epidetus 

He who is dissatisfied with what he has and what 
has been given him by fortune is a layman in the art 
of living, but the man who bears all this in a noble 
spirit and makes a reasonable use of all that comes 
from it deserves to be considered a good man. 

From the same 

All things obey and serve the Cosmos,^ both earth, 
and sea, and sun, and the other stars, and the plants 
and animals of earth ; obedient to it also is our 
body, both in sickness and in health, when the 
Cosmos wishes, both in youth and in old age, and 
when passing through all the other changes. There- 
fore it is reasonable also that the one thing which is 
under our control, that is, the decision of our will, 
should not be the only thing to stand out against it. 
For the Cosmos is mighty and superior to us, and has 
taken better counsel for us than we can, by uniting 

^ A pantheistic form of expression for God, common 
enough in Stoicism in general, but rare in Epictetus. Cf. 
also frag. 4, where, however, the expression may really 
belong to Rufus. 




fxera t(ov oXmv koI ///xa? avvhioiKcov. tt/oo? 5e 
TovTOL<; Koi r) dinL7rpa^L<; fiera rou aXoyov xai, 
irXeov ovhev rroiovaa irXyv to SLaKevi)^ airaaOai 
KOI TrepiTTLTTretv 6hvvai<^ koi Xvirai'^ iroiel. 

4 (1G9). Stohaeus, ir. 8, 30. Musonius, frag. 
38 (H.) 

Tcxiv ourcov TCL fxev i(f)' i)iuv eOero 6 Oeo'i, ra 
8' ovK €(/>' rjfiiP. e(^' rj/jblv fxev to KaXXcaTOV koI 
(TTTovSaioTaTov , CO Sj] KOi avTO<; euSai/jLcov icTTL, 
TYjv ')(prjaiv Tcov (^avTacriodv. tovto yap 6p6S)<; 
yiyvofxevov eXevOepia iaTLV, evpoia, evOvfiia, 
evaTaOeia, tovto he koi Slkt) IcttI kol v6/j.o<; koI 
<ja)<f)po(Tvv7] Kal ^v/jL7Taaa apeTt], to, S' dXXa 
irdvTa OVK €(p' iifxlv iiroLrjaaTO. ovkovv koI i)/jLd<; 
avfjb'y^n'^^uv'; ^ph "^^ ^^^P y^viadai Kal TavTy 
hieXovTWi TCL irpdy/iUTa tcov fiev icf) 7)/x2v iravTa 
Tporrov dvTiiTOLelaOaL, tu Be fii] e^' yfxlu iTTLTpeyjrai, 
TM Koa/icp Kal, eiT€ tcov iraihwv heoLTO etre t% 
iraTpiho^ eiTe tov awfiaTo^i eiTe otovovv} dafxevov^^ 

5 (67). Stobaeus, III. 19, 13. Musonius, frag. 

39 (H.) 

'l-^oixpov eK TOV '\L7rtKT)'jTov vrepl <f>i,X[a'i. 

To he AvKOvpyov tov AaKeSaL/xoi'LOV rt? r]/bL(ov 
ov Oavfid^CL ; iry^pcoOeU yap vtto Tivo<i tcov 

1 Meineke : Sriovy MSS. 


us together with tlie universe under its governance. 
Besides, to act against it is to side with unreason, 
and while accom])hshing nothing but a vain struggle, 
it involves us in pains and sorrows. 


Rufus. FruJH the remarks of Epictclus on friendship'^ 

Of things that are, God has put some under our 
control, and others not under our control. Under 
our control He })ut the finest and most important 
matter, that, indeed, by virtue of which He Himself 
is happy, the power to make use of external impres- 
sions. For when this power has its perfect work, it 
is freedom, serenity, cheerfulness, steadfastness ; it 
is also justice, and law, and self-control, and the 
sum and substance of virtue. But all other things 
He has not put under our control. Therefore we 
also ought to become of one mind with God, and, 
dividing matters in this way, lay hold in every way 
we can upon the things that are under our control, 
but what is not under our control we ought to leave 
to the Cosmos, and gladly resign to it whatever it 
needs, be that our children, our country, our body, 
or anvthinu; whatsoever. 


Rufus. From Epicletus on fnemlship 

What man among us does not admire the saying 
of Lycurgus the Lacedaemonian ? For when he had 

The natural way to take this and the next few titles is 
to assume that Epictetus had quoted with approval a 
long passage from his revered teacher Musouius Rufus. 


TToXiTOiv TMV d(f)0a\f2cjv Tov cTepov /cal irapa- 
Xafioiv Tov veaviaKov rrapa tov hi^fiov, Xva 
Ti/uiO)pi)aaLTO, o'TT03<; av^ avro<^ /3ov\y]raL, rovrov 
^€v uTrea^^ero, iraiSevaa*; 8e avrov kol diTocprjva^ 
avhpa dyadov Trapijyayev eh to Oearpov. dav- 
fia^ovTwv he rdv AaKeBaifiovicov " tovtov fiei'TOi 
Xa/Scov," €(f>r), " Trap vficov v/Spiarrjv Kal ^iaiov 

dTToBiScO/JLl V/XLP eTTLeL/cf) Kal StJ/jLOTlKOP.'' 

6 (69). Stobaeus, III. 20, 60. Musonius, frag. 
40 (H.) 

'P0V(p0V €K TOV ^EjTTLKTijrOU TTepl (f)i\La<;. 

'AWa Traz^To? fxaXkov ry}<; fiev ^utreo)? eKelvo 
TO epyov avvhrjaai Kal avvapfxoaaL ttjv opfjurjv ttj^ 
TOV TTpoai]KovTO<^ Kul uxpeXifiov (pavTaaia.^ 

7 (70). Stobaeus, III. 20, 61. Musonius, frag. 
41 (H.) 
Tov avTov. 

To he otecyOai €VfcaTa(f)povr]TOV<i TOi<; dWoi<; 
ecrecOai, edv /jlt] toi)? TrpcuTou? ey^6pov<; TravTL 
TpoTTcp pXay^difiev, acpoSpa dyevvMV Kal dvoiJTCou 
dvOpoiiTwv. cpa/jLev yap tov evKaTa^pov^iTOV 
voelaOav /xev Kal KaTU to ciBvvaTOV elvau ^Xdyjrai' 
dXXd TToXv fidXXop voecTai KaTcu to dhvvaTOv 
eivai (ocji^Xelu. 

^ 6.V added by C. Schenkl. 


been blinded in one eye by one of his fellow-citizens, 
and the people had turned over the young man to 
him, to take whatever vengeance upon the culprit he 
might desire, this he refrained from doing, but 
brought him up and made a good man of him, and 
presented him in the theatre. And when the Lace- 
daemonians expressed their sur{)rise, he said, " This 
man when I received him at your hands was insolent 
and violent ; I am returning him to you a reasonable 
and public-spirited person." 


Rufus. From Epictetus on friendship 

But above all else this is the function of nature, to 
bind together and to harmonize our choice with the 
conception of what is fitting and helpful. 


The same 

To fancy that we shall be contemptible in the sight 
of other men, if we do not employ every means to 
hurt the first enemies we meet, is characteristic of 
extremely ignoble and thoughtless men. For it is 
a common saying among us that the contemptible 
man is recognized among other things by his 
incapacity to do harm ; but he is much better 
recognized by his incapacity to extend help. 

2 liiiclieler : ttjs . . . (pavracrias MSS. 



8 (134). Stobaeus. IV. 44, 60. Musonius, frag. 
42 (H.) 

'Pov(f)nv eK ro)i> ^EjTrt/cryJTOv irepl (f)i\ia^. 

'^Ori TOiavry] 77 tov Koa/juov (j)vcn(; koI r]v Kal 
ecTTi Kal earai Kal ovy olov re aXXcof; 'yiyveaOai 
ra ytyvofiei'a ?} co? vvv €^€1'' Kal on Tavrrj<; ttj^ 
Tpo7T7]<; Kal T?}? yLtera/SoX?)? ov /jlovov ol avOpwiroi 
/j.eT€iX7](f)aai Kal raWa t,q)a ra iirl jPj^i, dWa 
Kal ra Oela Kal vrj At" avra ra rerrapa (TTOi')(ela 
av(o Kal Kaico TpeireTai Kal /jbera^dWev Kal yrf 
re vB(op ylveraL Kal vhcop dyjpy ovto<; Be ttoXlv eh 
aide pa /lera^dWer Kal 6 avT6<i rpoiro^i t^9 
fjLeral3o\rj<; avwOev Karw. eav rrpo^ ravrd rt<i 
eTTiy^eLpfj peireiv top vovv Kal ireiOeiv eavrov 
eKovra hex^o^Oai ra dvajKala, Tvdvv fjuerpio)^ Kal 
fiovaiKcb^; hia^Kaaerai rov ^iov. 

9 (180). Gellius, XIX. 1, 14-21 ^ 

14 P/iilosophus in disciplina Stoica celehratns . . , ex 
sarciniila sua lihrum protnlit Epicfefi philosophi quinfiim 
Atakeieojy, qitas ah Arriano digestas congruere scriptis 

15 Zenonis et C/in/sippi non duhium est. in eo lihro, 
graeca scilicet oraiione scnptnvi ad hanc seyitejitiam 
legimus : Visa aniini {qiias (^avracrta? philosophi ap- 
pellant), quibus mens honiinis prima statim specie 
accidentis ad animum rei pellitur, non voluntatis 

* Also in abbreviated form (from Gellius) in Augustine, 
Civ. Dei, 9, 4 (cf. 9, 5), and Quaest. in Hcptat. 1, 30. 

^ That is, from the heavier to the lighter, and again from 
the lighter to the heavier. 



Rufus. From the. remarks of Epictetus 07i friendship 

Such was, and is, and will be, the nature of the 
universe, and it is not possible for the things that 
come into being to come into being otherwise than 
they now do. And not only has mankind participated 
in this process of change and transformation, and all 
the other living beings upon earth, but also those 
which are divine, and, by Zeus, even the four 
elements, which are changed and transformed up- 
wards and downwards,^ as earth becomes water, and 
water air, and air again is transformed into ether ; 
and there is the same kind of transformation also 
downwards. If a man endeavours to incline his 
mind to these things, and to persuade himself to 
accept of his own accord what needs must befall 
him, he will have a very reasonable and harmonious 


A philosopher ?vho is ivelL known in I he Stoic school 
. . . brought out of his handbag the Jijth book of the 
Discourses of the philosopher Epictetus, ivhich had been 
arranged by Arrian, and agree, no doubt, with the 
writings of Zeno and Chrysippus. In that book, written 
of course in Greek, we find, a passage to this purport : 
Things seen by the mind {which the philosophers call 
(fiavTaacas) ,'^ whereby the intellect of man is struck 
at the very first sight of anything which penetrates 
to the mind, are not subject to his will, nor to his 

2 External impressions. 



sunt neqiie arbitraria/ sed vi quadam sua inferunt 
sese hominihus noscitanda;- })rol)ationes -antem^quas 

16 o-vyKuTa^e'crcts vocant), quibus eadem visa noscuntur^ 

17 voluntariae sunt fiuntque liominum arbitratu. prop- 
terea cum sonus aliquis forniidabilis aut caelo aut ex 
ruina aut repentinus nescio cuius ^ periculi nuntius 
vel quid aliud est^eiusmodi factum, sapientis quoque 
animum paulisper moveri et contrahi et pallescere 
necessum est, non opinione alicuius mall praecepta, 
sed quibusdam motibus rapidis et inconsultis officium 

18 mentis atque rationis praevertentibus. mox tamen 
ille sapiens ibidem ras TOLavTa<; <^avTao-tas {id est visa 
isiaec animi sui ierrifica) non adprobat {hoc est ov 
(TvyKaraTidtrai ovhl Trpoo-eTrtSo^d^ei), sed abicit re- 
spuitque nee ei metuendum esse in his quicquam 

19 videtur. atque hoc inter insipientis sapientisque 
animum differe dicunt quod insipiens, qualia sibi 
esse primo animi sui pulsu visa sunt saeva et aspera, 
talia esse vero })utat et eadem incepta, tamquam ^ si 
iure metuenda sint, sua quoque adsensione adprobat 

20 KoX " Trpoo-eTTiSo^u^et " {hoc enim verba Stoici, cum super 
ista re cUsser^mt, utuiitur), sapiens aulem, cum breviter 
et strictim colore atque vultu motus est, ov crvyKara- 
TtdiTaL, sed statum vigoremque sententiae suae reti- 
net, quam de huiuscemodi visis semper habuit, ut de 

^ L. Carrio : arbitrariae MSS. 

2 Sahiiasins : noscitandae MSS. 

3 ?]d. Greifswald 1537 : nescius MSS. 
* J. Gronov : ex MSS (or omit) 

' Edd. : quamquam MSS. 

^ Does not assent or confirm by approval. 
'^ Such external impressions. 
^ Also confirms by liis approval. 

* The word seems to occur only here, and may be peculiar 
to Kpictetus. 


control, but by virtue of a certain force of their own 
tlirust themselves upon the attention of men ; but 
the assents {tvhich they call rrvyKaTa^co-ets), where- 
by these same things seen by the mind are recog- 
nized, are subject to man's will, and fall under his 
control. Therefore, when some terrifying sound 
comes from the sky, or from the collapse of a build- 
ing, or sudden word comes of some peril or other, 
or something else of the same sort happens, the 
mind of even the wise man cannot help but be 
disturbed, and shrink, and grow pale for a moment, 
not from any anticipation of some evil, but because 
of certain swift and unconsidered motions which 
forestall the action of the intellect and the reason. 
Soon, however, our wise man does not give his 
assent {this is, ov a-vyKaTUTiOiTai ovde TrpocrcTrtSo^a^ct) ^ 
to TOLs ToiauVa? (ftavTacTLa^ ^ {that is, these terrifying 
things seen by his mind), but rejects and repudiates 
them, and sees in them nothing to cause him fear. 
And this, they say, is the difference betw^een the 
mind of the fool and the mind of the wise man, that 
the fool thinks the cruel and harsh things seen by 
his mind, when it is first struck by them, actually to 
be what they appear, and likewise afterwards, just 
as though they really were formidable, he confirms 
them by his own approval also, koX TTpoat-mho^a^u^ 
{the word the Stoics use when they discuss this 
matter) ; * whereas the wise man, when his colour 
and expression have changed for a brief instant, 
ov o-vyKaTaTiOerai,^ but keeps the even tenor and 
strength of the opinion which he has always had 
about mental impressions of this kind, as things 

^ Does not give his consent. 


minime metuendis, sed fronte falsa et formidine inani 
21 Haec Kpic/etum j)hilosophum ex decretis Sloicorum 
sensisse atque dixisse, in eo, (pio dixi, libro legiy/ius. 

10 (179). Gellius, XVII. 19 

Favorinum ego aiidivi dicere Epiclctum philosop/mvi 
dixisse plerosque istos, qui philosophari viderentur, 
philosophos esse eiiisceinodi " Sivev rov TrpdrTeLv, fj-^xpf- 
Tov Aeyeiv " {id signijicat '[factis procul, verbis tenus "). 

2 iayn illud est vehementins, quod Arrianus solitum eum 
diclitare in lihris, quos de disserlationibus eius cotnposuit, 

3 scripium reliquit. nam, cum, inquit, animadverterat 
hominem pudore amisso, inportuna industria, cor- 
ruptis moribus,, audacem, confidentem lingua cetera- 
que omnia praeterquam animam procurantem^ istius- 
modi, inquil, hominem cum viderat studia quoque et 
disciplinas philosophiae contrectare et physica adire 
et meditari dialectica multaque id genus theoremata 
auspicari ^ sciscitarique : inclamabat deum atque 
hominum fidem ac plerumque inter clamandum his 
eum verbis increpabat : ""AiOpcoTrs, ttov (SdWei^; or/cc'ii/ai, 
€( KtKaOapTaL to ayyctov. av yap eU rrjv oX-qaiv avra 
fSd\r]<;,^ aTTtoA-CTO' rjv ^ aaTrfj, ovpov rj o^O's iyevero * rj it 
Tt TovTwv x^lpov." nihil prqfccfo his verbis gravius, 

4 ?iihil veiius : qiiibus declnrabal incLxivnis philosophorum 
litteras atque doctrinas philoso})hiae, cum in hominem 

^ Eussner : suspicari MSS. ^ Usener : fidw-ps MSS. 

3 H or HC the M8S. * Usener : yivono MSS. 

^ Without doing, as far as speaking. 

'•^ Man, where arc you stowing all this? Look and see if 
the vessel has been cleansed. For if you stow it in the 


that do not deserve to be feared at all^ hut terrify 
only with a false face and a vain fear. 

This is the sentiment and expression of the philosopher 
Epicletus, derived from the doctrines of the Stoics, that 
we have read in the hook of which I spoke above. 


/ have heard Favoriniis say that he had heard the 
philosopher Epictetus say, that most of those who gave 
the appearance of philosophizing were philosophers 
uf this kind : avev rov 7rpam.Lv, jJ-^xpt rov Aeyeti' ^ (this 
means, " apart from deeds, as far as words"). There 
is a still more vigorous expression tvhich he was accus- 
tomed to use, that Arrian has recorded in the books 
which he ivrote about his discourses. For Arrian says 
that when Epictetus had noticed a man lost to 
shame, of misdirected energy, and evil habits, bold, 
impudent in speech, and concerned with everything 
else but his soul, when he saw a man of that kind, 
contijives Arrian, handling also the studies and pur- 
suits of philosophy, and taking up physics, and 
studying dialectics, and taking ap and investigating 
many a theoretical principle of this sort, he would 
call upon gods and men, and frequently, in the 
midst of that appeal, he would denounce the man 
in these words : "Av(9poj7re, ttov /3aA.X€i9 ; crKeY'ai, et 
K€KdOapTaL TO ayyeLov. av yup £19 tt)v 0L7]mv avTO. (3dXy]<;, 
ctTrajXcTo" r]v craTrrj, ovpov r] 6^o<? iyeveTO rj ct tl tovtiov 
X^^pov.^ Surely there is nothing iveightier, nothing 
truer than these woids, in which the greatest of philo- 
sophers declared that the writings and teachings of 
philosophy, when poured into a false and low-lived 

vessel of opinion, it is ruined ; if it spoils, it turns into urine, 
or vinegar, or, it mav be, something worse. 



falsum atque degenerem tamquam in vas spurcum 
atque pollutiim influxissent, verti, mutari, corrumpi 
et {quod ipse KwiKiOTipov ait) urinam fieri aut si quid 
est urina spurcius. 

5 Praeferea idem tile Epictelus, quod ex eodem Favo- 
rino audivimus, solitus dicere est duo esse vitia multo 
omnium gravissima ac taeterrima, intolerantiam et 
incontinentiam, cum aut iniurias, quae sunt ferendae, 
non toleramus neque ferimus aut, a quibus rebus 
voluptatibusque nos tenere debemus^ non tenemus. 

6 '' itaque," inquit, " si quis haec duo verba cordi habeat 
eaque sibi imperando atque observando curet, is 
erit pleraque inpee('al)ilis vitamque vivet tranquil- 
lissiniam." verba haec duo dicebat : '' avi)(ov'' el 

" a-7T€.)(0V. 

10a (181). Arnobius, Adversus Gcntcs, 2, 78 

Cum de animarum agitur salute ac de respectu 
nostri^ aliquid et sine ratione faciendum est, ut 
Epiclelum dixisse adprobat Arrianus. 

11 (174). Stobaeus, IV. 33, 28 

'E« TO}V WppiaVOV irpOTpeiTTlKMV OfJLikiWV. 

'AXXa hrj X(iyKpdT7)<; ^Ap')(e\dov /jLeraTre/jLTro- 
fiei'DU avTOV w? 7TOii]aovro<; irXovaiov eKeXevaev 
(iTTayyelXaL avrco hLon^ "Wdtjvrjat r^craape^ elai 
')(OLViKe<^ TMV aX(f)LrQ)v o^oXou onnoi koI Kprjvai 

^ Gesner : Zia rt MSS. 

^ Somewhat after the fashion of the Cynics. 



person, as tliough into a dirty and defiled vessel, 
turn, change, are spoiled, and (a.? he himself says 
KvviKOiTipov) ^ become urine, or something, it may be, 
dirtier than urine. 

The same Epictetus, moreover, as we have heard 
from Favoiinus, was in the habit of saying that there 
were two vices which are far more severe and 
atrocious than all others, want of endurance and 
want of self-control, when we do not endure or bear 
the wrongs which we have to bear, or do not abstain 
from, or forbear, those matters and pleasures which we 
ought to forbear. '' And so," he says, "if a man should 
take to heart these two words and observe them in 
controlling and keeping watch over himself, he will, 
for the most part, be free from wrongdoing, and 
will live a highly peaceful life." These two words, 
he used to say, were av^x^v (i^id d7re;\(ov.^ 

10.^/ (181) 

VVlien the salvation of our souls and regard for our 
true selves are at stake, something has to be done, 
even without stopping to think about it, a saying of 
Epictetus which Arriati quotes with approval. 


From the homilies of Arrian, exhorting to virtue 

Now when Archelaus ^ sent for Socrates with 
the intention of making him rich, the latter bade 
the messenger take back the following answer : 
'' At Athens four quarts of barley-meal can be 
bought for an obol,^ and there are running springs 

* Bear and forbear. ^ The king of Macedon. 

* A penny and a half, or three cents ; in other terms, the 
sixth part of the day's wage of an ordinary labourer. 



uSaro^ peovaiv.^ ec yap tol fjurj iKaua Ta bvra 
€/jLOL, aX)C iyoo rovrot^; iKav6<; fcai ovrco KUKelva 
efJLoi. T) ovy^ opa<;, on ovk ev^^wvorepov ovhe 
'tjBlov^ 6 llwAo? TOP Tvpavvov OlBiTToha VlT€Kpi- 
vero 7] rov eVl KoXoyvcp dXtjrrjv ^ Koi inciy^ov ; 
elra ')(^£ipwv Tlotikov 6 y€vvalo<; avrjp (pavelrai, 
o)? fiJ] Trdr TO irepireOev etc rov haifioviov ivpoaw- 
iTov viroKpivaaOat AraXw? ; ov^e rov 'OSvaaia 
fitfiijaeraL, 09 Kal ev TOt? pu/cecTLv ov^ev jxelov 
hieTrpeirev i) ev ry ovXi] ■)(\aLvr} ttj TTopcpvpa ; 

12 (note to frag. 71). Stobaeiis, 111. 20, 47 


XleyaXoOvpoL vryoaox? elai TLve<; yjcrvxfj '<^al olov 
aopyi'iTOi^ irpdrTOVTe^ oaa fcal 01 a<p6Spa rfo 
dvfiw (f)ep6/iievoL. (pvXaKTeov ovv Kal to tovtmv 
d^XeiTTrifxa &)? iroXv ■)(elpoj' ov rov SiaTetvofierov 
opyl^eaOaL. ovtol fiev yap rax^ Kopov tt}? 
Ti/jLCOpLa^ XafijSdvovaiv, oi Be et? iiaKpov irapa- 
TeivovaLV co? ol Xctttw? TrvperTOVTe^. 

13 (omitted). Stobaeus, I. 3, 50 


'AW' opo), (j)r)aL Tf9, Toi/? KaXov<; Kal dyaOov^ 
Kal Xipo) Kal pLyet dTroXXv/ievov<;. — Toi'9 Be fir] 

^ (jaisford : SC ov MSS. 

'^ Sciiweighauser : aKdTrjv MSS. 



of water." For, look you, if what I have is not 
sufficient for me, still, I am sufficient for it, and so 
it too is sufficient for me. Or do you not see 
that Polus^ was not accustomed to act Oedipus 
the King with any finer voice or more pleasure to 
his audience than Oedipus at Colonus, tlie outcast 
and beggar? And then shall the man of noble 
nature make a poorer showing than Polus, and 
not play well any role to which the Deity assigns 
him? And will he not follow the example of 
Odysseus, who M'as no less pre-eminent in his rags 
than in his rich and purple cloak ? 


From Arrian 

There are certain persons who exliibit their high 
spirit rather gently,'^ and in a sort of passionless 
manner do everything that even those who are 
swept away by their anger do. We must be on 
our guard, therefore, against the error of these 
persons, as something much worse than violent 
anger. For those who give way to violent anger 
are soon sated with their revenge, but the others 
prolong it like men who have a light fever. 


From Ihe Memorabilia of Epicletus 

But, says someone^ I see the good and excellent 
perishing from hunger and cold. — And do you not see 

^ A famous actor of the fourth century. See J. B. O'Connor, 
Chapters in the History of Actors and Acting (1908), 128-.30. 

2 Capps suggests that Ti<Tvxg is used here as it is in 
Menander, Heroy 20. 



Ka\ov<; Kal fxrj dyaOov<; ou')(^ 6pa<i Tpv<j)fj Kal 
aXa^oveia kol direipoKa'KLa aTroWvfiei'ov^ ; — 
'AW,' ala-^puv TO irap^ dXXov rpe^eaOai. — Kal 
Tt9, CO /caKoEaLfiOv, avT6<; e^ eavrov Tpec^erau 
aWo<; y€ rj 6 Koafio^; ; oari^ youv iyKaXel ttj 
Trpovoia, on ol Trov^jpol ov hihoacn Slktjv, on 
la^vpoL elac Kal irXovaiot, Ofiotov n Spa wairep 
el T0L/9 6(f)6aX/jL0v<^ diroXoyXeKorcov avrwv eXeye 
firj hehcoKevai Slki]v avT0v<;, on ol ovv)(^e^ vyL€L<; 
elev. iyu) fiev yap (hvfJLi iroXv ^ Sta^epeLv /xaXXov 
dp6TJ]V KTi^aewi ^ rj 6(f)0aXp.ol ovv^wv hia^kpovaiv. 

14 (52). Stobaeus, III. 6, 57 

*Ea: TOiv 'Ettikttjtov diro/jLVij/jLovev/jidToyv.^ 

... * Toi;? Sva-)(^epeL<; Be <piXoa6(f>ov<i et? fieaov 
ayovre^, ot? ov BoKel Kara (pvaip 7)Soi'7] elvai, 
dXX' eTTLyiyveaOat tol^ Kara (f)vaLV, SiKatoavvr), 
afod)poavvrj, iXevOepia. tl iror ovv 1) "^vxh ^'^^ 
fiev T0Z9 Tov GOL>p,aTO<s dyaOoL<; /iiKpQTepoi<; ovaL 
y^alpei Kal yaXrjvidy w? <i>7]aiv 'ETrt/cou/OO?, eVl Be 
rol<; avTrj<; dyaOoh fieyiaTOL<^ ovaiv ovx yBerai, ; 
Kalrot Kal BeBcoKe pot ?; <^v(tl<; alBCo Kal iroXXa 
vrrepvOpio), orav n vTToXd^co alaxpov Xeyeiv. 
TOVTu pe TO Kivrjpa ovK ea ri^v 7]Bovr]v OeaOai 
dyaOov Kal reXo^ rod /3lov. 

* at (&v P^) after this word was deleted b}' Meineke. 

2 Suggested by Schenkl : kukIus M8S. 

3 The last word of the title added by Asmus. 

* Schenkl indicated the lacuna. 


those who are not cjood and excellent perishing from 
luxury, and bombast, and vulgarity ? — Yes, but it is 
disgraceful to be supported by another. — And who, 

miserable fellow, is supported by himself alone, 
except the Cosmos ? Whoever accuses Providence, 
therefore, because the wicked are not punished, and 
because they are strong and rich, is acting just as 
though, when the wicked had lost their eyes, he 
said they were not being punished because their 
finger-nails were in good condition. Now, as for me, 

1 assert that there is much more difference between 
virtue and property than there is between eyes and 


From the Memorabilia of Epictetvs 

. . . bring forward the ill-natured ^ philosophers, 
who think that pleasure is not something natural, 
but a sequel of things that are natural, as justice, 
self-control, and freedom. Why indeed, then, does 
the soul take delight in the lesser goods of the body, 
and enjoy calm therein, as Epicurus says,- and yet 
not find pleasure in its own goods, which are very 
great.'' Verily nature has also given me a sense of 
shame, and frequently I blush, when I feel that I 
am saying something disgraceful. It is this emotion 
which does not allow me to lay down pleasure as the 
good and end of life. 

* Or "morose," that is, from the point of view of the 
Epicureans. The reference is to the Stoics, who rejected the 
"pleasure" of Epicurus, and accepted only that which 
followed on virtuous conduct. 

2 Frag. 425 (Usener). 


arrian's discourses of epictetus 

15 (53). Stobaeus, III. G, 58 

*E/tf TCOV 'RtTLKt/jTOV a7rOJJLV^]fJLOVeV/J.dT(t)V. 

''Ev T(i)fjLTj al <yvva7./c€<; fj-era X€?/3a9 exovat ri-)v 
nXaTcoi^o? YloXireiav, on KOiva<; a^iol elvai ra? 
jvva2/ca<;. rot? yap pyfjiaat it po a exovat top vovv, 
ov rfi Stavoia TavSp6<;, on ov yajxelv KeXevcov Kal 
avvoLfcelv eva fjna elra KOLva<^ elvai /SovXerac ra<; 
yvi>aiKa<;, dXX' i^aipcov rov tolovtov <ydfxov Kal 
dXXo n elSo? yd/iov €ia(p6pcov. Kal to oXov oi 
dvOpwiTOi x^^^povcnv dTToXoyia'; toI<^ eavrojv d/xap- 
TijfjLaai, TTopi^ovTe^;' iirei tol <pLXoao(f>ia (f)i](TLV, 
on ovSe top SdKTvXov eKTeiveiv elKrj 7rpoai]K€L. 

16 (78). Stobaeus, III. 29, 84 


Elha'ai XPV^ '^"^^ ^^ pdBiop Soy pa irapayeveaOai 
dvdpooiTcp, el fir] KaO' €Kdan]i' '))pepai> rd avrd 
Kal XeyoL ti<; Kal ukovoi Kal dp,a XP^?'^^ tt/jo? 
Tov i'Slov. 

17 (15). Stobaeus, III. 4, 91 


Et? (TV pLiT 6(j Lov fiev ovv 7rapaKX')]66i>T€<; rw 
TrapovTi XP^/^^^^' ^^ ^^ ''"^f '^^Xevoi tov vTroBexo- 

^ The coiiiinunity of women wliich Plato proposed was, 
first of all, restricted to a small, highlj'-traiiied, and devoted 
band of warrior-saints ; and, second, such that no man and 
woman should pair off for more than a very temporary " marri- 
age," all such matings being carefully supervised by the 
highest authorities. Instead of being more licentious than 




From the Memorabilia of Epicletus 

At Rome the women have in their hands Plato's 
Republic, because he insists on community of women. 
For they pay attention only to the words, and not to 
the meaning of the man ; the fact is, he does not 
bid people marry and live together, one man 
with one woman, and then go on to advocate the 
connnunity of women, but he first abolishes that kind 
of marriage altogether, and introduces another kind 
in its place. ^ And in general people delight in 
finding excuses for their own faults ; for, indeed, 
philosophy says we ought not to stretch out even 

our fiuiier at random '^ 


Fro7n the Memorabilia of Epictetus 

One ought to know that it is not easy for a 
man to acquire a fixed judgement, unless he should 
day by day state and hear the same ])rinciples, and 
at the same time apply them to his life. 

From Epictetus 
Now when we have been invited to a banquet, we 
take what is set before us ; and if a j)erson should 

ordinary monogamous marriage (which frequently deserves 
Bernard Shaw's jibe, that it is popular largely because it 
combines the maximum of temptation with the maximum of 
opportunity), Plato's proposal was relatively a denial of the 
flesh, and a marked move towards asceticism. 

2 See II. 11, 17. The remark in this connection is no 
doubt ironical, mockingly justifying the process of " rational- 
ization" just described. 

46 1 


fxevov l')(^dv<; avrCo irapariOivaL t) TrXa/coOrra?, 
aTOTTO^ av B6^6i€i^, ev Se tw Kocr/io) aurovfiev 
Tou«? 6eov<;, a fxrj BiSoaai, kuI raina ttoWmv 
ovTwi'y a ye })/jiu> oedco/caac. 

18 (16). Stobaeus, III. 4, 92 
Tov avTOV. 

\apL6PT€^, €<f)y], elalv ol \xkya (f)povovvT€<; eVt 

TOi<s OVK i(j)' y/jLLV. " €70),' (f)7]aL, " KpeiiTOiv eifii 

aov ^ dypov<^ yap e^^w ttoWoi;?, av he Xifirp nrapa- 
reivr).'''' dXXo^ \eyei " eyco xjiraTtKo^ el/ii." a\Xo<; 
" iyoD eVtTpoTTO?." dXXo<; " eyo) ovXa<; rpLxa<; 

eX^^'"^ ITTTTO? S' XlTITCp OV Xiyet OTL '' KpeiTTCOU 

elfiL (TOV TToXvv yap K€KTr)/jLai %tXoz^ Kal KpiOd^i 
TToWa^ Kal xcI'Xlvol fxoi elau XP^<^ol Kal icpLTnna 
TTOiKiXa,^' aXX' otl " aiKvrepo^ aov el/jLL.'' Kal 

TTCLV ^(pOV KpeLTTOV Kal X^lpoV icTTLV CK T^9 

eavTOV apeT7]<; Kal KaKia^;. ap ovv avOpa)7rov 
p,6vov aperrj ovk ecmp, aX\a Bel r)/j,d<; ei? ra? ^ 
rpi^a'^ d(f)opdi> Kal rd Ip^dria Kal tov<; TruTnrov^ ; 

19 (17). Stobaeus, III. 4, 93 

OV avTOV.^ 

To) /jL€p larpcp /jL-qBev avpL^ovXevovrt d)(6ovTaL 
ol Kdfxi>ovTe<; Kal i]yovPTai dTreyvwaOaL vir^ avrov. 

^ ffov added here by Sclienkl ; after iyw A man. alt., and 

2 txf^ added by Gesner. 



bid his host to set before him fish or cakes, he would 
be rejrarded as eccentric. Vet in the world at large 
we ask the gods for things which they do not give 
us^ and that too when there are many things which 
they actually have given us. 


From the same 

Those are amusing persons, he said, who take 
great pride in the things which are not under our 
control. A man says, " I am better than you ; for I 
have many estates, and you are half-dead with 
hunger." 1 Another says, " I am a consular." An- 
other, " I am a procurator." Another, " I have thick 
curly hair." But one horse does not say to another 
horse, '^I am better than you, for I have quantities 
of fodder, and a great deal of barley, and my bridles 
are of gold, and my saddle-cloths are embroidered," 
but "\ can run faster than you can." And every 
creature is better or worse because of its own 
particular virtue or vice. Can it be, then, that 
man is the only creature without a special virtue, 
but he must have recourse to his hair, and his 
clothes, and his grandsires ? 


The same 

When men are sick and their physician gives 
them no advice, they are annoyed, and think that 

^ The phrase is from Plato, Symposium, 207 B. 

3 Toty added by Meineke. 

* The superscription added by Gaisford. 



TT/oo? Oe TOP <pL\6ao(f)OV Sia tl^ ovk av Ti? ovtw 
BiareOeiT), coare olrjOPjvac arceyvoiadai iiir* avrov 
auKppovf'jaeiVy el fxi^hev \eyoL en ^ tt/oo? avrov tmv 
'^prjai/jLCOv ; 

20 (18). Stobacus, III. 4, 94 

ToO avrov. 

Ol ro (TO)/xa €U StaKei/ievoi Ka\ Kavfiara teal 
"^vxV yTTO/xevovcnV ovrw 8e Kal ol rrjv '\frv)(r]v 
fca\fj)<; hiaKeifievoi /ca) opyijv /cal \v7njv /cal irepi- 
■)(^c'ipeLav KOI ra ciXka irddt] (pepovatv. 

21 (56). Stobaeus, III. 7, 16 


Aia rovro eiraivelv ' Aypiirirlvov BiKaiov, on 
7r\ei(Trov d^io<; ciprjp yepo/jievo'^ ovBcrrcoTrore 
iirrjveaev eavrov, aXX* el /cal aXXo<; ri? avrov 
eirijveL, ijpvOpla. ovro<; S\ €(pr], 6 (hnjp roLOvro'^ 
7]v, ware rod avfjL^au>ovro<; ael eavrw hvaKoXov 
eiraivov ypdcf^eiv el fiev rrvperroL, rrvperov' el Be 
dBo^ol, dho^ia^' el he (pevyoi,^ cf)vyrj<;. Kal irore 
fieXXnvri, e(f)rj, avrrp * dpiarrjaeiv eirearr] 6 Xeycov, 
on (pevyeiv avrov /ceXevei Ne/^wr, Kal 09 ^ " ovkovv,^^ 
elirev, " ev ^ KpiKia dpLarr]aop.ev'' 

1 hih. rl Gesner : ^tSn MSS. ^ Biicheler : n MSS. 
^ Meineke : ^uyoi MSS. * Gesner: to? or to! MSS. 

^ i(pTi after this word deleted by Schow. 

1 A distinguished Roman Stoic of the middle of the first 
century after Christ. See I. 1, 28-30 ; I. 2, 12-13; frag. 22. 



he has given them up. And why should not a man 
feel that way toward the philosopher^ and so conclude 
that he has given up hope of one's ever coming to a 
sound state of mind^ if he no lunger tells one any- 
thing that is of any use ? 


The same 

Those whose bodies are in good condition can 
endure heat and cold ; so also those whose souls are 
in an excellent condition can endure anger, and grief, 
and great joy, and every other emotion. 


From Epictefus 

For this reason it is right to praise Agrippinus,^ 
because, although he was a man of the very highest 
worth, he never praised himself, but used to blush 
even if someone else praised him. His character 
was such, said Epictetus, that when any hardship 
befell him he would compose a eulogy upon it ; on 
fever, if he had a fever ; on disrepute, if he suffered 
from disrepute ; on exile, if he went into exile. 
And once, he said, when Agrippinus was preparing 
to take lunch, a man brought him word that Nero 
ordered him into exile ; " Very well," said he, " we 
shall take our lunch in Aricia." ^ 

2 The first stop outside Rome for persons travelling south 
and east, the common direction, as in the well known 
egressmn mapia me excepit Aricia Roma (Horace, Sat. I. 5, 1). 
Compare the versi(m of the same incident in I. 1, 30. 



22. Stobaeus, IV. 1, U 

Ay p ITT TTLl'OV ?■ 

'O ^AypnTTTLVo^; yjye/xorevwv iTreipdro tou? 
KaTa^iKa^OfjL6vov<; vtt" avrov TreiOeiVy ore TrpoarJKei 
avTOL<; KaraBiKaaOfji'aL. ov yap co? 7roXe/xf09 
avToi<;, €<p7], ouS' w? X^^crr?)? KaTa(f)€pa) ttjv 
\p-i')4)0v avTOdv, aX>C &)? eVf/LieX^^Tr;? Ka\ KrjSeficjv, 
oddirep fcal 6 larpo^ tov re/j.i'6/jLei'Ov Trapa/ivOelTai 
Kal TrelOeL irapex^eiv eavrov. 

23 (94). Stobaeus, IV. 53, 29 

Qav/jLaari] i) <pvai<^ fcal, to? (^rjcnv 6 '^evocfycov, 
cf)i\6^M0<i. TO yovv aa)fjLa, to ttclvtcov a-qheara- 
Tov fcal pvTrapcoraTov, arepyopLev /cal OepaiTevopLev' 
el yap eSei irevre pLovat^ r]p,6pai<; deparrevaai to 
TOV yeiTOvo<; aoypa, ovk av vrrepLeivapLev. opa 
yap olov eaTiv ewdev avaaTavTa Tpl/Seiv tol/? 
oSoi^Ta? Tou? dWoTpLOV<; Kal tl tcop avayKaiwv 
7roi7]aavTa cnrovi^eiv i/celva to, p-eprj. tw oVt^ 
OavpiaGTov eoTi c^CKelv TrpdypLU, cJ ToaavTa 
XeiTovpyovpiev Ka6^ e/cdaTijv 'tip.epav. pdrTco 
TovTOvl TOV OvXaKOv eiTa Kevoo' tl tovtov 
^apvTepov ; dWd dew Sel pL€ vTrrjpeTelv. Bid 
TovTO pLevco Kal dve)(opLaL Xovcop to BvaTT]vov 

^ See explanatory note. 

^ Ascribed to Epictetus by Gaisford and Asnius, but there 
is some doubt about the ascription, for the resemblance with 
I. 18 is not conclusive. 




From Agrippinus ^ 

VV'hen Agrippinus was goveriior,^ he used to try to 
persuade the persons whom he sentenced that it was 
proper for them to be sentenced. " For," he would 
say, " it is not as an enemy or as a brigand that 1 
record my vote against them, but as a curator and 
guardian ; just as also the physician encourages the 
man upon whom he is operating, and persuades him 
to submit to the operation." 


From Epictetiis 

Nature is wonderful, and, as Xenophon ^ says, 
'' fond of her creatures." At all events we love and 
tend our body, the most unpleasant and dirtiest 
thing that there is ; why, if we had had to tend our 
neighbour's body for no more than five days, we 
could not have endured it. Just consider what a 
nuisance it is to get up in the morning and brush 
some other person's teeth, and then after attending 
to a call of nature to wash those parts. Truly it is 
wonderful to love a thing for which we perform so 
many services every day. I stuff this bag here ; ^ and 
then I empty it ; what is more tiresome ? But I 
must serve God. For that reason I remain, and 
endure to wash this miserable paltry body, and to 

2 He was proconsul of Crete and Cyrenaica under Claudius. 
For all that is known about him see Frosopographia Imperii 
Homani, III. p. 4, No. 16. 

' Memorabilia, I. 4, 7, where, however, the expression is 
used (^f a " wise Creator.' 

* Pointing to his belly. 



TOUTO afo/jidTioi', %o/5Ta^o:»j', dKeirayv' ore Be 
V€a)T6po<; r]v, koI aWo re TrpoaerarTe fioi Kal 
o/x&)9 r)V€Lx6/ir)v avrov. Slo, tl ovv ovk avey^eaOe, 
orav i) hovaa ij/jllv (j)vaL<; to acofia dcfiaiprjTac ; — 
<t>Acu, cJ)1](tIv, avTO. — Ovk ovv, o vvv hr) eXeyov, 
Kal avTo TO (f)i\eLV 77 (pvac<; aoc SeScoKev ; rj S' 
avTJ] 'XeycL " a^e? avTo ySr] Kal /jli]K€tl irpdyiia 

24 (95). Stobaeus, IV. 53, 30 

Tov avTov, 

'Edv veo<i TeXevTO, tov /3lov, iyKaXet tol(; 
Oeolt; . . .,^ OTL Seov avTOV ?;3>; dvaireiravodai 
irpdyixa e;^6t, Kal ovSev tjttov, OTav irpoair} ^ 
6 OdvaTo^, ^rjv /SovXcTat Kal 7re/x7ret irapd tov 
laTpov Kal SetTaL avTOV /xtjSev aTroXiTrelv irpo- 
Ov/biia<^ Kal eVtyu-eXeta?. OavfiacrTOu, ecj)}], dv- 

OpCOTTOL fJirjTe t^TjV dekOVTe^ /J,7]T€ d7roOvr](TK6LV. 

25 (71). Stobaens, III. 20, 67 


"Otw fieTa dvaTdcreo)^ Kal d'JTeCKrj's €my^ei,p6l<;, 
/jL6/JLvt]ao TrpoXeyeiv, otl rjjjiepo^ er Kal ovSev dypcov 
Spdaa<; d/ieTavorjTO^ Kal dvev0vvo<; Stayevy^ay. 

^ For tlie obviou.s lacuna the best suggestions seem to be : 
OTi irph TTis wpas apTra^erai (Cobet)' iav Se yepwv rts iov fi^ 
rfXevTo. Thv ^iov (iSchweighiiuser), koX oIitos iyKaXf'i toTs Beols 

- Meiboni : irpoa-fii} or irpoai'd MSS. 



feed and slielter it; and when I was younger, there 
was still another behest which it laid upon me, yet 
nevertheless I endured it. Why, then, when Nature, 
which <xave us our body, takes it away, do you not 
bear it? — I love it, says somebody. — Well, but as I 
was just now saying, is it not Nature that has given 
you this very affection ? But the same Nature also 
says, " Let it go now, and have no more trouble 
with it." 


The same 

If a man dies young, he blames the gods ^because 
he is carried off before his time. But if a man fails 
to die when he is old, he too blames the gods), 
because, when it was long since time for him to rest, 
he has trouble ; yet none the less, when death draws 
nigh, he wishes to live, and sends for the doctor, and 
implores him to spare no zeal and pains. People are 
very strange, he used to say, wishing neither to live 
nor to die. 


From Epictetus 

When you attack someone with vehemence and 
threatening, remember to tell yourself beforehand 
that you are a tame animal ; ^ and then you will 
never do anything fierce, and so will come to the 
end of your life without having to repent, or to be 
called to account. 

1 See IV. 5, 10. 



26 (176). Marcus Aurelius, 4, 41 
"^vx^^piov el iSacrrdt^ov ve/cpov, co? ^Ettlktijtos 


27 (177). Marcus Aurelius, 11, 37 
T€')(^i'y]v 6(f)r) Be irepi ro auyf^araTtOeaOai 

evpelv Koi ev rw irepi Ta<; op/JLa<; rorrco to 
irpoaeKTLKOv (f)v\daa€LL>, 'iva fieO^ vire^aipiaew^;, 
'iva KOLVcovi/cal, Iva Kar dPiav, koi 6p€^eco<; p^ev 
iravrd'TTaaiv direx^adai, eKKXlaet Be 7rp6<; p^rjE'ev 
rayp ov/c icp' rjixlv ^^pi'jaOat. 

28 (178). Marcus Aurelius, 11, 38 

Ol" irepl Tov TVXOVTo^; ovv, 6(j)r], ecrrlv 6 dycov, 
dWd irepl rov fiaivea-Oat rj fii]. 

28 a. Marcus Aurelius, 11, 39^ 
'O ^(OKpdrr]<; eXeyep " Tt OeXere ; XoyiKoyv 
"v/ru^a? eX^iP V dXoycov ; " " XoyLKcov.^ " tIpcov 
XoyiKMP ; vyLWP rj (f)avX(ov ; " " vyicop.'' *' Tt 
ovv ov ^r/TGiTe;" "oTi exofxepJ^ '' rl ovv pudxecrOe 
Koi BiacpepeaOe ;'* 

28 b. Marcus Aurelius, 4, 49, 2-6 ^ 

" ' 'Arvxrjs iyco, on rovro pLOi Gvve^r].^ ovpLeu- 
ovy dAA' ' evrvxrjS eyuj, on tovtov piOL avpi^e- 

^ Ascribed to Epictetus by Leopold and Breithaupt. 

* Convincingly assigned to Epictetus for many reasons, 
chiefly lexicographical, by H. Frankel, Ph.hdoyus 80 (1924), 
221. I give the text of Schenkl (1913), with the quotation 
marks adjusted to the new interpretation. 




You are a little soul, carrying around a corpse, as 
Epictetus used to say. 

We must discover, said he, an art tliat deals with 
assent, and in the sphere of the choices we must be 
careful to maintain close attention, that they be 
made with due reservations, that they be social, and 
that they be according to merit ; and from desire we 
must refrain altogether, and must exercise aversion 
towards none of the things that are not under our 


It is no ordinary matter that is at stake, said he, 
but it is a question of either madness or sanity. 

28 a 

Socrates used to say, '' What do you want ? To 
have souls of rational or irrational animals.''" "Of 
rational animals." "Of what kind of rational 
animals? Sound or vicious?" "Sound." "Why, 
then, do you not try to get them?" "Because 
we have them." "Why, then, do you strive and 
quarrel ? " 

28 61 

" Me miserable, that this has befallen me ! " Say 
not so, but rather, " Fortunate that I am, because, 

^ This whole passage is taken to be a direct quotation 
from Epictetus, with the exception of the first two lines in 
the second paragraph, wliere Marcus Aurelius applies the 
doctrine to hunself, and the last two lines, in which he 
characteristicall}' condenses and sunnnarizes it. 



^t}k6to<; aXuTTo? SiartXco ovre viro 7rap6vro<; 
Opav6/jLei'0<iy ovT€ eiriov ^o/3oi;yLtej^o9.' av/xfii^vai 
fi€V yap TO TOiovTov iravTi eovvuTO' aXviro^ he 
ov TTCL^ iiTi TOUTft) av BiETeXeaei'. Sia ri ovv 
€Kelvo /xdWov arv-^rj/jLa rj tovto evTV^V/^^ >' 
Xeyei? Se oXco? aTV')(^)]/j.a avOpodiroVy o ovk ecrriv 
aiTOTevyfia ti)<; (bvcreco^; rov avOpcoirov ; airo- 
revyiJia he t?}? (f)Vcreco<i rov dv6 putirov elvau ho/cel 
aoL, o fii] Trapa to /SovXTj/xa tT;? (f)vaeco^ avrov 
earl ; ri ovv ; to ^ovXrj/ia fi€p.dOt]Ka<;. fi)] tl 
ovv TO (TV/x^efirjKo^ tovto KcoXvet ae hUaiov 
elvai, fieyaXoyp-vy^ov, acocfypova, e/icppova, dirpo- 
TTTcoTOv, dSidylrevaTOv, alhrjfiova, eXevOepov, toX- 
Xa, o)V avfJLTrapovTtov rj (f)vcrL<; i) tov dvOpooirov 
direy^SL tci thia ; ' 

XlefJivrjcro Xolttov errl ttuvto^ tov eZ? Xvtttjv 
ae TTpoayo/jLevov, tovtw '^(prjaOaL tw hoy/iaTr 
" ou^ OTL TOVTO dTV')(r)pa, dXXd to ^epeiv avTo 
yevvaiw^ evTv^VH-^'^ 


29 (77). Stobaeus, III. 35, 10 1 

*E^ TOV ^UttlktiJtov eyx^^'Pt-hlov. 

\lr]hev6<; outw? ev ttuvtI Tvpovoet, u><; tov 
da(f)aXov^' dacpaXeaTepov yap tov XeyeLV to 
aiydv edv Be to Xeyeiv, oaa hixa eaTUL vov 
Kal yjroyov peaTu.^ 

^ These words are not found iu the Enchciridion, and may 
very possibly not be by Epictetus at all. 


althon_i>:li this lias befallen me, 1 continue to live 
untroubled, being neither crushed by the j)resent 
nor afraid of the future." For something of this 
kind might have befallen anyone ; but not everyone 
would have continued to live untroubled by it. 
Why, then, count the former aspect of the matter 
a misfortune, rather than this latter good fortune ? 
And in general do you call a man's misfortune that 
which is not an aberration from man's nature ? And 
does that seem to you to be an aberration from the 
nature of man which does not contravene the will of 
his nature ? What then ? This will of man's nature 
you have already learned ; this, then, which has be- 
fallen you does not prevent you, does it, from being 
just, high-minded, self-controlled, self-possessed, 
deliberate, free from deceit, self-respecting, free, 
and everything else, the possession of which enables 
the nature of man to come into its own ? 

Remember for the future, whenever anything begifis 
to trouble you, to make use of the following Judgement : 
This thing is not a misfortune, but to bear it in a 
noble spirit is good fortune. 



F}-om the Encheiridion of Epicteius 

Under all circumstances take thought of nothing 
so much as safety ; for it is safer to keep silence 
than to speak ; and refrain from saying what will 
be devoid of sense and full of censure. 

* Supplied by Hense. 



30 (89). Stobaeus, IV. 46, 22 ^ 

[ KinfcryjTov.] 

Gi^re vavf ef evo<; dyKVpiov ovre ^iov ck fxtd^ 
e\7rt8o9 dp/jLoareov. 

31 (90). Stobaeiis, IV. 46, 23 
ToO avTov. 

Kal roL<; aKekecn Kal Tal<^ eXiriai ra Bvpard 

32 (92). Stobaeus, IV. 53, 27 « 


^^XV^ ^a)/zaT09 dvay/caiorepov IdaOar rov 
yap KUKM^ ^Tjv TO TsdvdvaL Kpelaaov. 

33 (54). Stobaeus, III. 6, 59. Democritus, frag. 

232 (Diels) 

[Tov aVTOV {^E7rLK\r]T0v)].^ 

Tcop i)he(uv rd aTravLcoTara yipo/xeva fidXiara 

34 (55). Stobaeus, III. 6, 60. Democritus, frag. 

233 (Diels) 

ToO avTOv. 

El' T£9 vTrep^dWoi to /jLerpiov, rd iTmepiria 

rara drepTreaTara dv yivoLTO.^ 

^ This and the next fragment probably belong to the 
collection of Aristonymus. 

" Variously ascribetl elsewhere. 




From Epicleliis 

We ouglit neither to fasten our ship to one small 
anchor nor our life to a single hope. 


From the same 

We ought to measure both the length of our 
stride, and the extent of our hope, by what is 


From Epicielus 

It is much more necessary to cure the soul than 
the body ; for death is better than a bad life. 


From the snine 

Those of our pleasures which come most rarely 
give the greatest delight. 


From the same 

If a man should overpass the mean, the most 
(iclightful things would become least delightful. 

» So in Florilegucm, Cod. Paris. 1168 [500 E]. The frag- 
ment belongs to Democritus. 

* Burchard : yiyvono or yivono MSS. The fragment 
belongs to Democritus. 


VOL. 11. Q 


35 (114). Flori/egiuvi, Cod. Paris. 1168 [501 E] 
OuSel? €XevO€po<; eavrov fjurj KparCov} 

36 (UO). Aiitonius, 1, 21 ^ 
' KOdvarov y^prjixa y aXijOeta kcu dtBioPy 
irapex^f^ ^^ VM'^^ ^^ i^dXXo^ Xpov^P fiapatvopevov 
ovre Trapprjalav dipaiperrjv^ viro SiK)]<;, dXXa 
rd hiKaia koI rd vo/xt/xa SiaKpivovaa dir avroju 
rd dBiKa /cal direXeyxova-a. 

1 In Stobaeus the maxim is ascribed to Pythagoras. 

2 The style of this fragment is alien to Epictetus. 
® Kronenberg : b.(paipdTi]v MS. 



No man is free who is not master of himself. 

The truth is something immortal and eternal, and 
does not present us with a beauty that withers from 
the passage of time, nor a freedom of speech which 
can be taken away by justice, but it presents us 
with what is just and lawful, distinguishing the 
unlawful therefrom, and refuting it. 



This celebrated work is a compilation made by 
Arrian himself from the Discourses, and the great 
majority of those who know Epictetus at all have 
come to do so from this little book alone. That is 
a pity, because the necessary aridity and formalism 
of such a systematization obscure the more modest, 
human, and sympathetic aspects of the great 
teacher's character. Most of the unfavourable 
criticism which has been passed upon Epictetus — 
and there is some of this, although not much — is 
clearly based upon the occasionally somewhat in- 
adequate impressions which any compendium must 
produce. For it may be doubted whether even 
so noble a statement as the Apostles' Creed has ever 
made a single convert. 

Occasionally Arrian has modified to a slight degree 
the form of statement, as we may observe from the 
numerous instances, amounting to somewhat more 
than half of the book, where material from the first 
four books of the Discourses has been emploved ; 
but the substance seems to have been faithfully 
preserved, wherever it is possible to follow his 
procedure in detail. 

The separate editions and translations of the 
Encheiridioji ^ are extremely numerous. Few, how- 

^ Those M'ho are curious about bibliographical information 
may be referred to a separate study, Contributions toward 
a Bibliography of Epictetus, Urbana, Illinois, 1927. 



evei\, have been of any notable value, except, per- 
haps, the celebrated translations by Politian and 
Leopardi, and Schvveighauser's separate edition of 
1798/ which is still the last independent critical 
text,^ and has been reprinted by most subsequent 
editors, even Schenkl, although the latter has added 
much useful critical material in his notes, especially 
those which indicate the probable sources of such 
passages as seem to be derived from the four 
books of the Discourses, and in jiarticular has 
arranged the apparatus criticus in more convenient 

The sigla which Schenkl has devised for Schweig- 
hauser's apparatus, and which may occasionally be 
employed below, are the following : 

A MSS. in which })ortions of the Eucheiridion 
precede the corresponding commentary of 

V The ed. of 1528. 

^ For some unknown reason Schweighauser in his 
Epicteteae Philosophiae Monumenta, III. 1799, reproduced 
Upton's much less satisfactory text. 

'^ One reason for this delay is the extremelj' large number 
of MSS. involved, not merely of the work itself, but of the 
two Christian paraphrases and of the huge commentary by 
Simplicius, which is more than ten times the bulk of the 
original. The texts of these must first be critically deter- 
mined before their value for the Encheiridioii can be esti- 
mated, so that in reality four works instead of one have 
to be edited from the very foundations. Another is the 
very slight probability that any really notable contributions 
to knowledge might result therefrom. As an intellectual 
problem the preparation of a new edition of the EncheiridUm 
presents certain interesting features, but as a practical 
ujidertaking it is outranked by a good many other possible 



B MSS. in which the entire Enchciridio)i j)re- 

cedes the commentary of Simplicius. 
C MSS. containin<^ the EncheiridioJi alone. 
V The edition of TrincavelH (1535). 
D MSS. of Class B which exhibit the text of the 
Encheiridion (frequently abbreviated) as 
lemmata before the commentary of Sim- 
un. unus. 
nonn. nonnulli. 
sing, singuli. 
Nil. The Encheiridion in the paraphrase of St. 

Nilus (Schweighauser, V. 95-138). 
Par. The Encheiridion in the anonymous Christian 
paraphrase (Schweighauser^ V. 1-94). 



1 c. 1. T(jt)v ovTwv TO, fiev ear IV icp' tj/jllv, ra Bk 
ovK €(p' ijfiLV. i(f)' r)/JLLV fi€V VTT oXrjy^ L<; , opfxi], ope^L^, 
€KK\Lai<; KoX €vl Xoyw oaa y^jjierepa epya' ovk ecp^ 
r)/iLV Se TO (7(o/jLa, rj Krijai^, Bo^aiy apycii Kal eul 

2 \6yM oaa ou^ y/J^erepa epya. Kal ra fiev e^* 
r]pXv iarl (f)va€i iXevOepa, aKcoXvra, airapaTTo- 
Bcara, ra Be ovk e</)' ■i]/xLv aaOevrj, SovXa, KcoXvrd, 

3 dWorpia. fxefivrjao ovv, on, iav ra (f)vcreL SovXa 
ekevOepa olr)6fj<; Kal rd dWoTpca cBia, efiTToBia- 
Oijar], TTevOrjaei^;, rapa')(6i]ar), fiefxy^rr] Kal 6eov<i 
Kal dv0p(O7rov<^, edv Be to aov fiopov ohfOrj'^ aov 
elvai, TO Be dWoTpioVy oiairep eaTiv, dWoTpiov, 
ovBeL<; <T€ dvayKCLGei ovBeiroTe, ovB€L<i ae kw\v(T€L, 
ov puefi'^D ovBeva, ovk eyKaXeaei^; tivl, aKOdv 
7rpd^ei<; ovBe ev, e)(9pov ov^ e^€i<;,^ ovBeL<; ae 
jSXdyjreCy ovBe yap ^Xa^epov tl Treiarj. 

4 Tr]XiKovT(OV ovv ecl)te/j,evo<; /xe/ipyjao, otl ov Bel 
pLeTpiw^ KeKLvrffjievov diTTeadai avTcov, dXXd Ta 

^ This is the order for tlie last phrase in Nil. All other 
authorities put it after fi\d\pei. 



1. Some things are under our control, while others 
are not under our control. Under our control are 
conception, choice, desire, aversion, and, in a word, 
everything that is our own doing; not under our 
control are our ])ody, our property, reputation, office, 
and, in a word, everything that is not our own 
doing. Furthermore, the things under our control 
are by nature free, unhindered, and unimpeded; 
while the things not under our control are weak, 
servile, subject to hindrance, and not our own. 
Remember, therefore, that if what is naturally 
slavish you think to be free, and what is not your 
own to be your own, you will be hampered, will 
grieve, will be in turmoil, and will blame both 
gods and men ; while if you think only what 
is your own to be your own, and what is not 
your own to be, as it really is, not your own, then 
no one will ever be able to exert compulsion upon 
you, no one will hinder you, you will blame no one, 
will find fault with no one, will do absolutely 
nothing against your will, you will have no personal 
enemy, no one will harm you, for neither is there 
any harm that can touch you. 

With such high aims, therefore, remember that 
you must bestir yourself with no slight effort to lay 
hold of them, but you will have to give up some 



fi€V a(f)L€vai TrayreXo)?, ra 3' virepjLSeaOaL irpo<^ 
TO irapov. iav 8e koI ravr iOeXrj^; koX ap)(^eLV 

KoX 7r\0VT€Ll', TV')(hv pilv OvS' aVTMV TOVTCOV T€V^TJ 

Bia TO fcal Tiov irpoTepcov €(f)L€adai, TraVro)? ye 
fjL7]V €fC€Lva)V aiTOTev^r], hi cov jjlovcov iXevOepia koI 
evSai/jLOVLa TrepiyLveTai. 
5 Eu^L/? ovv irdcrr) (pavTaaLa Tpa-)(^eia pLeXcTa 
eirCXeyeiv oti " (pavTaala el Kai ov ttui^tco^; to 
(f)aLv6pi€vov." eireiTa i^€Tat,€ avTtjv kol hoKip^a^e 
T0L<; Kai'oai tovtoi<; oh ex^L^i, TrpcoTO) Se tovtm 
Kol pidXidTa, rroTepov irepl to, icj)^ r)puv eaTlv 

rj TTepl TO, OVK €(/)' t'jpLLV KCiV TTepL TL T03V OVK €^' 

7),uLV fj, 7rp6)(6ipov ecTTO) TO hiOTL " ovhev 7rp6<; 


1 c. 2. MefiVTjao, otl 6pe^6co<; eTrayyeXia iiri- 
Tu^la^ ov opeyrj, iKKXiaew<; eirayyeXia to pLrj 
irepiiTecrelv eKeivcp o cKKXiveTai., koI 6 p,€v ev ^ 
ope^et diroTvy^dvcov aTV^^^f o 8e ev^ e/cKXlaei 
irepnriiTTWv huaTV')(r)^, av piev ovv pdva eKKXivrj^ 
TCL Trapd <f)V(TLV TCdv iirl <tol, ovBevl, oyv iKfcXlvei^, 
irepLireafi' voaov S* dv eKK\ivr]<^ rj Odvarov rj 

2 ireviaVy BvaTvy^ijo'ei'^. dpov ovv Tr)V CK/cXiaLV 
diro irdvTCov twv ovk l<^ r\pJlv kclI peTdOa eVl 
Ta irapd (j)vaiv tcov icj) rjpLtv. Ttjv ope^cv Be 
iravTeXco^ iirt tov iTap6vTo<i dveXe' dv te yap 
opeyrj tmv ovk i(f ijpuv tlv6<;, dTvx^^^ dvdyKJj, 

^ Nil. alone : iarlu iirtrux^i^ AD, icrrl rh iirirvx^'iV C, to 
i-niTvx^lv B [rvx^'iv Par., TO rvx^lu 8inipl.). 
- Nil. C uu, ^ Nil. alone. 

1 The remark, as many others of the admonitions, is 
addressed to a student or a beginner. 



things entirely, and defer others for the time being. 
But if you wish for these things also, and at the 
same time for both office and wealth, it may be that 
you will not get even these latter, because you aim 
also at the former, and certainly you will fail to 
get the former, which alone bring freedom and 

Make it, therefore, your study at the very outset 
to say to every harsh external impression, "You 
are an external impression and not at all what you 
appear to be." After that examine it and test it 
by these rules which you have, the first and most 
important of which is this : Whether the impression 
has to do with the things which are under our con- 
trol, or with those which are not under our con- 
trol ; and, if it has to do with some one of the 
things not under our control, have ready to hand 
the answer, " It is nothing to me." 

2. Remember that the promise of desire is the 
attainment of what you desire, that of aversion is not 
to fall into what is avoided, and that he who fails 
in his desire is unfortunate, while he who falls into 
what he would avoid experiences misfortune. If, 
then, you avoid only what is unnatural among those 
things which are under your control, you will fall 
into none of the things which you avoid ; but if you 
try to avoid disease, or death, or poverty, you will 
experience misfortune. Withdraw, therefore, your 
aversion from all the matters that are not under our 
control, and transfer it to what is unnatural among 
those which are under our control. But for the time 
being ^ remove utterly your desire; for if you desire 
some one of the things that are not under our con- 
trol you are bound to be unfortunate ; and, at tiie 



Twz' T6 €(/)' iifilv, oacov opeyeaOui koXov dv, ovBev 
ovheiTCd aoL irdpeaTL. /jlovco Be rw op/xdv koI 
d(f)opjjidv %/oa>, KOV(j)co(; pLeinoL Koi fxeO' vire^aipi- 

c. 3. 'E</)' eKciarov rcov yjrv')(^a'yco'yovvTa)v rj 
^petaz/ vapexovrwv y crrepyo/jLepcov fjuefivrjao 
iiriXeyeLv, oirolov eariv, diro roiv a/jLLKpordraw 
dp^dfievo^. av ^^ur/oai^ arepyy^;, on " )(VTpav 
arepyco"' KaT6ayeLa^]<; yap (ivrTJ<; ov rapa^OijaTj. 
av iraihiov aavrov KaTa(f)i\fj<! rj yvvacKa, ort 
dv9p(0'iTov KaTa(f)i\€U' diroOavovTO^ yap ov 


c. 4. "Orav diTTeaOai tlvo^ epyov fieXXrjf;, 
v7rofii/iV)]a/C€ aeavTov, oirolov eVrt to epyov. 
edv Xova6/i€vo<^ dTrlr)^, Trpo^aWe aeavTM ra 
yivojieva ev ^aXavelw^ tov<; diroppaivovra'^y rov^ 
eyKpovo/ievov<;, rov<i XoiBopovvra'^, tou? KXeinov- 
ra?. Kal ovt(o<; dacpaXearepov ciyjrTj rod epyov, 
edv einXeyrj^ evOv<; otl " XovaaaOat OeXw Kal 
TTjv ifiavTOv irpoaipeaiv Kara (pvaiv exovcrav 
Trjprjaai." Kal cbcrauTco? e(^' eKuarov epyov. 
ovTco yap dv tl irpo^ to XovaaaOai yevrjrai 
ifiTToScor, irpoxetpov earai hioji " dXX! ov tovto 
rjOeXov fiovov, dXXd kg! ttjv e/iavrov irpoaipeaiv 
Kara (pvaiv exovaav Ti]pf]aaf ov Ti]p)]acD Se, edv 
dyavaKTO) tt/^o? ra yivo/neva." 

C. 5. TapdaacL tou? dvd pdirrov^ ov ra m pay- 
fjuara, dXXd rd irepl rcov irpaypidTOdV Soy/xara- 

1 See M. Aurelius, 1, 4, where Mr. Haines (in L.C.L.) 
suggests that the reference is to some such reservations as 



same time, not one of the things that are under our 
control, which it would be excellent for you to 
desire, is within your grasp. But employ only 
choice and refusal, and these too but lightly, and 
with reservations,^ and without straining. 

3. With everything which entertains you, is useful, 
or of which you are fond, remember to say to your- 
self, beginning with the very least things, ^' What is 
its nature ? " If you are fond of a jug, say, " I am 
fond of a jug" ; for when it is broken you will not 
be disturbed. If you kiss your own child or wife, 
say to yourself that you are kissing a human being ; 
for when it dies you will not be disturbed. 

4. When you are on the point of putting your 
hand to some undertaking, remind yourself what 
the nature of that undertaking is. If you are going 
out of the house to bathe, put before your mind 
what happens at a public bath — those who splash 
you with water, those who jostle against you, those 
who vilify you and rob you. And thus you will 
set about your undertaking more securely if at 
the outset you say to yourself, " I want to take 
a bath, and, at the same time, to keep my moral 
purpose in harmony with nature." And so do in 
every undertaking. For thus, if anything happens 
to hinder you in your bathing, you will be ready to 
say, " Oh, well, this was not the only thing that I 
wanted, but I wanted also to keep my moral pur- 
pose in harmony with nature ; and I shall not so 
keep it if I am vexed at what is going on." 

5. It is not the things themselves that disturb 
men, but their judgements about these things. For 

recommended in James iv. 15 : " For that ye ought to say is, 
If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that." 



olov 6 6dvaT0<; ovSev heivov, iirel koL ^(OKpaTci 
av icpalvero, aWa to 607/za to Trepl rov OavaTOV, 
hioTi Beivov, eKelvo to havov icrriv. orav ovv 
e/j-TToSi^cofieOa rj rapaaaco/ieOa rj Xvirco/ieOa, 
fxijSe'iroTe dWov alriwfieOa, dX)C eauTou?, toOt' 
eaTi ra eavTcov Boy/xara. airaihevrov epyov to 
aXXoL<; ijKaXelvy ecj) ol? avTO? irpdacreL KaKO}<i' 
7)pyfi€vov TraiSeveaOai to kavrw' ireTvaihevfJiivov 
TO jjii'jTe aXX(p ijli]t6 eavrw. 

c. 6. 'Etti p,i)hev\ e7rapdfi<^ dXXoTpiw Trporepij- 
fiarL. el 6 iVTro? i7raip6/ji€vo<i eXeyev on " kuXo^; 
el/jLi," olcnov av rjv av Be, orav Xeyr]<i erratpo' 
fievo^i OTL " Xttttov KaXov e;;^a)," XaOi, on eirl 
LTTTTOV^ dyaOo) eiraipr]. ri ovv ean aov ; XP^'/o'i? 
(pavraaicop. 0}(j6\ orav ev ')(pi]a€t (^avraaiSiv 
Kara (f)vcnv cr^V^^ rrjviKavra eTrdpOtjn' rore 
yap iirl aw nv\ dyaOfo errapOrjarj. 

c, 7. KaOdirep ev rrXw rod irXoiov KaOopfna- 
dlvros el e^eXdoL? vBpevaaadat, oBov pev Trdpep- 
yov /cat KoyXiBiov dvaXe^rj /cat ^oX^dpLov, 
rerdaOai Be Bel rrjv Bidvoiav enrl ro irXolov Kal 
avve'X^co'i emarpe^eaOai, p,r) irore Kv^epVTjrrj^; 
KaXeaj], Kav KaXearj, rrdvra eKelva diptevai, iva 
fi7) B€Beftevo<; ep^XrjOfj^; co? rd Trpo/Sara' ovro) 
Kal ev rw /Sum, edv BiBuirai dvrl /SoX/Saplov Kal 
ko)(XlBlov yuraiKdpiov Kal rraiBioi', ovBev KcoXvaer 
edv Be 6 KV^epv7jrr]<; KaXearj, rpe^e eirl ro rrXolov 

* Upton, after Simplicius : 'i'-mrcf} practically all MSS. 

1 The Greeks ate a good many different bulbous plants, 
as we use a variety of different plants for " greens." 



example, death is nothing dreadful, or else Socrates 
too would have thought so, but the judgement 
that death is dreadful, this is the dreadful thing. 
When, therefore, we are hindered, or disturbed, 
or grieved, let us never blame anyone but our- 
selves, that means, our own judgements. It is 
the part of an uneducated person to blame others 
where he himself fares ill ; to blame himself is the 
part of one whose education has begun ; to blame 
neither another nor his own self is the part of one 
whose education is already com{)lete. 

6. Be not elated at any excellence which is not 
your own. If the horse in his elation were to say, 
"I am beautiful," it could be endured; but when 
you say in your elation, '^ I have a beautiful horse," 
rest assured that you are elated at something good 
which belongs to a horse. What, then, is your 
own .'* The use of external impressions. There- 
fore, when you are in harmony with nature in the 
use of external impressions, then be elated ; for 
then it v/ill be some good of your own at which you 
will be elated. 

7. Just as on a voyage, when your ship has 
anchored, if you should go on shore to get fresh 
water, you may pick up a small shell-fish or little 
bulb^ on the way, but you have to keep your atten- 
tion fixed on the ship, and turn about frequently for 
fear lest the captain should call ; and if he calls, you 
must give up all these things, if you would escape 
being thrown on board all tied up like the sheep. 
So it is also in life : If there be given you, instead 
of a little bulb and a small shell-fish, a little wife 
and child, there will be no objection to that; only, 
if the Captain calls, give up all these things and run 



a<^ei9 eKelva airavra firfSe e7ncrrpe^6fxevo<i. eav 8e 
'yepwv 7*9, fii-jhe diraWayfj^ Trore rod ttXolov 
fiaKpdv, 111] TTore KaXovvTO<i eXXiTTT;?. 

c. 8. M^ ivTCL rd yiv6/jL€va jli^eadai o)? OeXeci, 
dWd 6e\e ra yivofMeva 0)9 'yiverai kol evporiaei^. 

C. 9. Noo'09 cr(o/iar6<; ianv i/jLTroBiov, Trpoaipi- 
<T€(o<; 8e ov, eav /irj avrr] deXrj. ')(^a)\avaL<; <TKe\ov<{ 
earlv i/jLiroSiop, irpoaLpeaeoy'; 8e ov. koX tovto 
i<f)^ eKuarov rcov ifjUTriTrrovTcov iiriXeye' evprforei^ 
yap avro dWov TLVo<i epurohiov, aop Be ov. 

c. 10. *E^' exdarov tmv irpoaiTiTrrovTcov fxe- 
livr)(TO €TriaTp€(f)Q)p eirl aeavrov ^rjrelv, rlva Bvva- 
fiiv e%6t9 77/309 TJjv y^pYjdiv avTOv. idv KaXov tBrj^ 
Tj KaXr]Vy evprjaei^ Bvvaiiiv 'irpo<; ravra eyKpdreiav 
idv 7roi/09 7rpoa(j)€p7jTaL, evp7]aeL<; Kaprepiav dv 
XoiSopia, €vp}](Tet<i dve^LKaKtav. Kal ovtw^ idi^o- 
fievov ae ov (TvvapTrda-ovaip al ^avradiai. 

c. 11. MT^SeVoTe eVl /jL7]Sep6<; etirr)^ on ** aTTco- 
Xecra avro,^' dXX' ore ** aTreSw/ca." to iraiBiov 
direOavev ; aTTehoOrj. r) yvvr] aired avev ; direSoOy]. 
*' TO ')((opLOV d(f)TjpeOr]v.^^ ovkovv Kal tovto dne- 
B66t]. ** dXXd KaK0<; 6 dcpeXofievo^;,^^ rv Be aol 
fieXcL, Bid rLVO<i are 6 Bou<; d-nyrriae; p-expi 5' 
dv BiB(p, ft)9 dXXorpLov avrov eiri/jLeXov, 0)9 rov 
TTavBoy^elov 01 TTapiovTe<^. 
1 c. 12. El TTpOKoyjraL 0eXeL<i, d(p€<; Tov<i roiovTov<; 



to the ship, without even turning around to look 
back. And if you are an old man, never even get 
very far away from the ship, for fear that when He 
calls you may be missing. 

8. Do not seek to have everytiiing that happens 
happen as you wish, but wish for everything to 
happen as it actually does happen, and your life will 
be serene. 

9. Disease is an impediment to the body, but not 
to the moral purpose, unless that consents. Lameness 
is an impediment to the leg, but not to the moral 
purpose. And say this to yourself at each thing 
that befalls you ; for you will find the thing to be an 
impediment to something else, but not to yourself. 

10. In the case of everything that befalls you, 
remember to turn to yourself and see what faculty 
you have to deal with it. If you see a handsome 
lad or woman, you will find continence the faculty 
to employ here ; if hard labour is laid upon you, 
you will find endurance ; if reviling, you will find 
patience to bear evil. And if you habituate your- 
self in this fashion, your external impressions will 
not run away with you. 

11. Never say about anything, "I have lost it," 
but only " I have given it back." Is your child dead ? 
It has been given back. Is your wife dead ? She 
has been given back. " I have had my farm taken 
away." Very well, this too has been given back. 
"Yet it was a rascal who took it away." But what 
concern is it of yours by whose instrumentality the 
Giver called for its return ? So long as He gives 
it you, take care of it as of a thing that is not your 
own, as travellers treat their inn. 

12. If you wish to make progress, dismiss all 



i7riXoyia/j,ov<;. " eav d/jbeXijcrco rcbv ifjiwvy ov')(^ 
efft) BcaTpo(pd<; "• ** idv /xt) Ko\da(o rbv iralha, 
7rovr}po<; ecTTat.^* Kpelaaov yap Xi/ifo diroOavelv 
dXvTTOv Kal d(f)Oi3ov yevofxevov rj ^tjv ev d(j)66voi<; 
Tapao-ao/iievov. Kpelrrov Be tov iralBa kukou 
elvat ri ere KaKoBaifiova. dp^at roiyapovv diro 

2 TOdv a/jLLfcpcov. eK')(elTai ro eXdBiov, KXeTrrerai 
TO olvdpiov eiriXeye on " roaovrov irwXelrai 
dirdOeia, Toaovrov drapa^ia "• irpotKa Be ovBev 
irepiyLverat, orav Be KaX7J<; tov iralBa, ivOvfiov, 
OTL BvvaTaL jjLij viraKOvaaL fcal v7rafC0vaa<; fiyjBev 
TTOLTjaai 0)v deXei^' dXX' ouy ovtco<; eaTlv avTW 
KaXax;, iva iir eKeivay fj to ae /xj] Tapa-)(^dr)vai. 

C. 13. Et TTpOKoyjrai deXet<i, vTTOfJbeivov eveKa tmv 
€«T09 dv6r)T0<^ B6^a<i Kal rfXiOLo^, fxi-jBev ^ovXov 
BoKelv eTriaTaadai' kclv Bo^\]<s ri? elvai Tiaiv, 
aTriaTei aeavTw. tadi yap otl ov pdBiov ttjv 
irpoaLpecriv ttjv aeavTOv KaTa (j)vacv e^ovaav 
(jivXd^aL Kal to, ckto*;, dXXa tov eTepov eiri- 
fieXovfievov tov eTepov d/jLeXrjaaL nrdaa dvdyKrj. 

1 c. 14. 'Eai^ OeXr)<; to, TeKva aov Kal Trjv yvuacKa 
Kal Tou? (f)LXov<; aov TrdvTOTe ^rjv, njXidio^; er 
Ta yap fit] eVl aol OeX€t.<; eirl aol ewac Kal ra 
aXXoTpia ad elvar ovtco Kav tov iralBa 6eXr]<; 
fir] d/xapTdveiv, /ji(opo<; el' OeXeL<; yap ttjv KaKtav 

^ That is, the slave-boy would be in a remarkable position 
of advantage if his master's poiK-e of mind depended, not 
upon the master himself, but upon the actions of his 



reasoning of this sort : " If I neglect my affairs, 1 
shall have nothing to live on." " If I do not punish 
my slave-boy he will turn out bad." For it is 
better to die of hunger, but in a state of freedom 
from grief and fear, than to live in plenty, but 
troubled in mind. And it is better for your slave- 
boy to be bad than for you to be unhappj'. Begin, 
therefore, with the little things. Your paltry oil 
gets spilled, your miserable wine stolen ; say to 
yourself, " This is the price paid for a calm spirit, 
this the price for peace of mind." Nothing is got 
without a price. And when you call your slave-boy, 
bear in mind that it is possible he may not heed you, 
and again, that even if he does heed, he may not do 
what you want done. But he is not in so happy a 
condition that your peace of mind depends upon him.^ 

13. If you wish to make progress, then be con- 
tent to appear senseless and foolish in externals, do 
not make it your wish to give the appearance of 
knowing anything ; and if some people think you to 
be an important personage, distrust yourself. For 
be assured that it is no easy matter to keep your 
moral purpose in a state of conformity with nature, 
and, at the same time, to keep externals ; but the man 
who devotes his attention to one of these two things 
must inevitably neglect the other. 

14. If you make it your will that your children 
and your wife and your friends should live for ever, 
you are silly ; for you are making it your will that 
things not under your control siiould be under your 
control, and that what is not your own should be your 
own. In the same way, too, if you make it your will 
that your slave-boy be free from faults, you are a 
fool ; for you are making it your will that vice be not 



fiTj elvai /caKLav, aXX' dWo ri. eav he de\r)^ 
opeyofievof; /ir] cLTroTvyy^dvecp, tovto Buvaaat. 
2 TOVTO ovv d<JK€L, o BvvaaaL. KvpiO<; CKaaTOV 
€<ttIv 6 TOiV VTT €K6ivov OeXofievcov Tj fjLTj OeXo- 
fjL€V(ov e'X^cov Tifv i^ovalav et? to TrepnroirjcraL rj 
a<^e\ea6ai. oaTL^ ovv iX€vOtpo<; elvai ^ovXeTaiy 
fjL7]Te OeXeTw tl /jltJtc (pevyeTO) ti twv eV dWoL<;' 
el Be fiT], BovXeveLv avdyKr\. 

C. 15. M.€/JLV7}(T0, OTL CO? €V (TVIJLlT0(Tl(xi a€ Bel 

dva(TTpe<f)eaOai.. TrepKJ^epo/jievov yeyove ti Kara 
ae' eKTeiva^ ttjv X^^P^ Koafilco'^ fxeTaXajSe. ira- 
pepx^Tai' firj «aTe;^e. ovtto) rjKer /ir) eTrifiaXXe 
TToppco Trjv ope^LV, dXXa ireplfjieve, fiexpi'^ civ 
yevTjTat kuto, ae. ovtco 7rp6<; TCKva* ovtco tt/jo? 
yvvaiKa, ovtco 7rpo<; dpxd^, ovtcd tt/do? ttXovtov 
Kol ear) iroTe d^io<; twv Oewv a-vfiiroTrj^;. dv Be 
KoX TTapaTeOevTWv arou firj Xd^r]<i^ dXX! virepiBij'^, 
t6t€ ov fjbovov GvpbiroT^i's Twv Oewv ecTT}, dXXa kol 
{Tvvdpx^^v. ovTO) yap ttolcov Atoyevt]^; kol 'Wpd- 
KXeiT0<; Kal ol OfjLOLoi d^[w<; deloi re rjcrav Kal 

c. 16. "OTav KXaiovTa iBrj'; TLvd iv TrevQeu y 
d7roBr]jj,ovvTO^ tckvov rj dnoXcoXeKOTa tcl eavTov, 
Trpoaex^ P'V ^^ V (pavTaala avvapirdcyrj o)? ev 
KaKOL<; 6vT0<; avTov toI<; eKTO^y dXX^ evdv<; eVro) 

TTpOX^l'pOV OTL " TOVTOV dXlffei OV TO (TV pLJSefilfKO^ 

(dXXov yap ov OXi^ei), dXXd to Boyfia to nepl 


vice, but something else. If, however, it is your 
will not to fail in what you desire, this is in your 
power. Wherefore, exercise yourself in that which 
is in your power. Each man's master is the person 
who has the authority over what the man wishes or 
does not wish, so as to secure it, or take it away. 
Whoever, therefore, wants to be free, let him 
neither wish for anything, nor avoid anything, that 
is under the control of others ; or else he is necessarily 
a slave. 

15. Remember that you ought to behave in life 
as you would at a banquet. As something is being 
passed around it comes to you ; stretch out your 
hand and take a portion of it politely. It passes on ; 
do not detain it. Or it has not come to you yet ; 
do not project your desire to meet it, but wait 
until it comes in front of you. So act toward 
children, so toward a wife, so toward office, so 
toward wealth ; and then some day you will be 
worthy of the banquets of the gods. But if you 
do not take these things even when they are set 
before you, but despise them, then you will not only 
share the banquet of the gods, but share also their 
rule. For it was by so doing that Diogenes and 
Heracleitus, and men like them, were deservedly 
divine and deservedly so called. 

16. When you see someone weeping in sorrow, 
either because a child has gone on a journey, or 
because he has lost his property, beware that you 
be not carried away by the impression that the man 
is in the midst of external ills, but straightway keep 
before you this thought : " It is not what has 
happened that distresses this man (for it does not 
distress another), but his judgement about it." Do 



TOUTOV.'^ fi^XP'' H'^v'TOi Xoyov firj okvgl av^Trepi- 
<f>€p€crOaL avTO), kuv ovtoj tvxv* '^^^ <TVV€7ri<TTeud- 
^ai' 7rpo(Te;^€ juevroL /x?; Kal ecrwOev arevci^rjf;. 

c. 17. ^le/jLvrjao, oil viroKpLTi]'^ el hpafxarot;^ 
oCov av 6e\r} 6 BiBdaKaXo^;' av ppax^> ^pa')(^eo<;' 
av fiaKpov, jiaKpov' av 7rrco')(^ov viroKpivacrOai ae 
deXr], tW Kol rovTOv €V(^vo)<^ vTroKpivr}' av ')(^ci)X6v, 
av dp^ovra, av ISlcottjv. <t6v yap tovt €(ttl, to 
hoOev vTTOKpLvaaOaL irpoawnov KaXco^' ckXc- 
^aadai S* avro dXXov. 

c, 18. Kopaf orav fjirj aloiou KCKpayrj, fir] avv- 
ap7Tat,€T(x} ae rj <l>avTaoia' oAA' evdvs Scalpel 
irapa aeavro) Kal Xiye on '* tovtcov ifiot ovhev 
iiTLai]ixaiv6Taiy aXV rj tw aco/jLariO) /jlov rj t&) 
KTrjaeihicp /jlov rj ro) ho^apiw /xov rj roh re/cvoL'i 
V '^V y^i^cLi'f^^' i/iol Se TTcivra aXaia arnialveTai, 
edv iyco OeXw 6 rt 7a/) av tovtcdv uTro/SaLvrj, eV 
e/jLol iariv ci)(p€X7]drjvai dir at'Toi)." 

1 c. 19. ^AvLKJ]ro<; elvac hvvaaai, idv ei? fir^heva 
dyodva KaTa/3aivr}<;, ov ovk ecrrcv iirl aol viKijaai. 

2 opa fiijirore IBcov riva irporifjuofievov rj fieya 
Buvd/jLevov rj dXXco^ evBoKt/iovvTa ijLaKapL(7rj<;, vtto 
T% <f)avTaaLa<; avvapTracrOeL^. idv yap ev toI<; 
€0' 7]/j,LV rj ovaia rov dyaOov 77, ovre <f)06vo(; ovre 
^t]XoTU7TLa yaypav e^et* av re avT0<^ ov crrpa- 
T17709, ov TrpvravL's rj viraro^ elvac deXtjcrei's, 
dXX^ eXevOepo^. fiia he oho'^ irpo^ tovto, Kara- 
(^puvyi(Ji<^ JMV OVK e<p i)ixlv. 

^ A reverent designation for God. See I. 25, 13. 


not-, however, hesitate to sympathize with him so 
far as words go, and, if occasion offers, even to 
groan with him ; but be careful not to groan also 
in the centre of your being. 

17. Remember that you are an actor in a play, 
the character of which is determined by the Play- 
wright : if He wishes the play to be short, it is short ; 
if long, it is long ; if He wisiies you to play the part 
of a beggar, remember to act even this role adroitly ; 
and so if your role be that of a cripple, an official, 
or a layman. For this is your business, to play 
admirably the role assigned you ; but the selection 
of that role is Another's.^ 

18. When a raven croaks inauspicfously, let not the 
external im|)ression carry you away, but straightway 
draw a distinction in your own mind, and say, '^ None 
of these portents are for me, but either for my paltry 
body, or my paltry estate, or my paltry opinion, or 
my children, or my wife. But for me every portent 
is favourable, if I so wish ; for whatever be the out- 
come, it is within xny power to derive benefit from it." 

19. You can be invincible if you never enter a 
contest in which victory is not under your control. 
Beware lest, when you see some person preferred 
to you in honour, or possessing great power, or other- 
wise enjoying high repute, you are ever carried away 
by the external impression, and deem him happy. 
For if the true nature of the good is one of the 
things that are under our control, there is no place 
for either envy or jealousy ; and you yourself will 
not wish to be a praetor, or a senator, or a consul, 
but a free man. Now there is but one way that 
leads to this, and that is to despise the things that 
are not under our control. 



c. 20. Me/uLvrjao, on ovy 6 XoihopMV r) 6 tvtttcov 
v^pi^ei, dWa to Boy/xa to irepl tovtodv o)? v/SpL- 
^6vT(i)v. orav ovv epeOtajj ere rt?, I'aOt, otl r) gi] 
(76 vTr6\r}y^L<i 7]pediKe. TOiyapovv ev 7rpcoTOt<i 
ireipM V7T0 T>)? (pavTuala^ firj avpapTraaOijvar 
av yap aira^ y^povov Kal SLarpL^jj^; TV)(rj<;, paov 
KpaT7]a€L<; aeavTOv. 

c. 21. SdvaT0<^ Kal (pvyrj Kal iravTa tcl BeLvd 
(j)aLv6peva irpo 6(j)da\p.ct)v eaTco aot Ka6^ Tjfiepav, 
p,dXiaTa he irdvTcov 6 OdvaTO^' Kal ovSev ovhe- 
7T0T€ ovTe Taireivov ev6vp,rj6r}ar) ovt€ dyav 
i7nOv/jL7]aei<; tcvo^. 

c. 22. El (^LKoao(f>ia<; eiriOvp^eh, irapaaKevd^ov 
avToOev &)? KaTayekaaOrjaopevo'^t co? KaTapw 
K7)aop.evwv aov ttoWoov, oo? epovvTwv on ** d^vfo 
(f)L\6ao(f)0<; r)pZi> eiraveXrjXvOe^' Kal " iroOev jj/jllv 
avTTi r) 6(f)pv<; ; " <jv he ocppvv p,€V fir] axfj^' ^(tyv 
he ^eXrlaTCov aot <j>aivopevcoi^ oi^tco? eyov, co? 
VTTO Tov 6eov TeTaypievo^ et? TavTjjv ti-jv ')(^u>pav' 
p,epvr](j6 T€ hiOTLy^ edv pev epipLeivrji; to?? avT0L<;, 
01 KaTayeXoiVTe^ aov to irpoTepov ovtol ae vaTe- 
pov OavpdaovTai, edv he 7)TT7]0fj<; avTcop, BnrXovv 
7rpoaXy]\lrr) KaTayeXwTa. 

c. 23. 'Eai/ TTore aoi yev7]Tat e^o) aTpac^rjvai 
Trpo^ TO ^ovXeadai dpeaai tlvl, I'aOt otl diTco- 
X€<Trt9 TTjv evaTaaiv. dpKov ovv ev iravTl tw 
elvai (f)iX6ao(f)o<;, el he Kal hoKelv ^ovXei,^ aavTw 
(f)aLvov Kal iKavo'^ ^arj. 

c. 24. OvTOL ae ol hiaXoyiapol pr) OXi^eTcoaav 

^ T€ Si6ti Nil. : Se on Ench. 

* The words t^ thai at this point are omitted by Par. 



20. Bear in mind that it is not the man who 
reviles or strikes you that insults you, but it is your 
judgement that these men are insulting you. 
Therefore, when someone irritates you, be assured 
that it is your own opinion which has irritated you. 
And so make it your first endeavour not to be 
carried away by the external impression ; for if once 
you gain time and delay, you will more easily 
become master of yourself. 

21. Keep before your eyes day by day death and 
exile, and everything that seems terrible, but most 
of all death ; and then you will never have any 
abject thought, nor will you yearn for anything 
beyond measure. 

22. If you yearn for philosophy, prepare at once 
to be met with ridicule, to have many people jeer 
at you, and say, " Here he is again, turned philo- 
sopher all of a sudden," and '^ Where do you suppose 
he got that high brow ? " But do you not put on 
a high brow, and do you so hold fast to the things 
which to you seem best, as a man who has been 
assigned by God to this post ; and remember that 
if you abide by the same principles, those who 
formerly used to laugh at you will later come to 
admire you, but if you are worsted by them, you 
will get the laugh on yourself twice. 

23. If it should ever happen to you that you turn 
to externals with a view to pleasing someone, rest 
assured tliat you have lost your plan of life. Be 
content, therefore, in everything to be a philosopher, 
and if you wish also to be taken for one, show to 
yourself that you are one, and you will be able to 
accomplish it. 

24. Let not these reflections o{)press you : " I 



'* aTL/JLO<; iyo) /Sicoaofiac Kal ouSet? ovBa/xov.' el 
yap T) cLTLfjila iarl kukov, ov hvvaaai ev KaKw 
elvai hi ciWov, ov /idWov rj ev alay^pw' fxi) tl 
ovv (jov iariv epyov to a/3%'}9 rv)(^elv t) irapa- 
\rj(p6P]paL e<^' eariaaiv ; ovSa/jLa)<;. ttco? ovv en 
TOVT eariv anfila ; ttw? ^e ou^et? ovhafiov eaij^ 
ov ev /jL6voi<i elvai riva Bel rot? inl aoi, ev oU 

2 e^ecTTL aoi elvac TrXeiarov a^iw ; aWd aoi ol 
(f)iXoi a(3orjd7]TOL eaovrai ; ri Xeyei^ to a^orjOrj- 
TOL ; ovx e^ovai Trapa aov Kep/iaTLov ovBe 
7ro\iTa<; 'Pco/iaicov avTov<; 770Li]aeL<^. tls ovv aoi, 
eiirev, oti tuvtu tcpv ecj)' rjfilv eVrtV, ov^l Bk 
aWoTpia epya ; Tt? Be Bovvai BvvaTai eTepw, a 
fjLT] e')(ei avTOf; ; " KTrjaai ovv," (^rjaiv, " Xva r}/i€i<; 

3 €')(^(i)/jLevJ' el Bvva/j.aL KTTjaaaOat. Ti^pcov ifiavTov 
alBrjfJLova Kal incrTov real /xeyaXocppova, BeuKwe 
Tr-jV oBov Kal KTi^aopLai. el S' efxe a^iovTe to, 
ayada to, ifiavTov aiioXeaai^ Xva vfieh to /j,?] 
ayaOa TrepLTroit'iarjaO e^ opaTe vfielf;, Trco? cIvlctol 
ecTTe Kal ayv(op,ove<i. tl Be Kal povXeaOe fidWov ; 
dpyvpiov 7] (jiiXov ttlgtov Kal alBij/iova ; el^; 
TOVTO ovv fjLOC fioXXov avXXa/i/SdveTe Kal fiyj, Bl 
a)v aTro/SaXa) avTa TavTa, eictlvd fie rrpdacreiv 


4 " 'AW' r) 7raT/3t9, oaov eir' €/jL0L," (prjalv, 

^ That is, e\cvy man is exclusively responsible for his own 
good or evil. But honour and the lack of it are things which 
are obviousl}- not under a man's control, since ihey depend 
upon the action of other people. It follows, therefore, that 



shall live without honour, and be nobody any- 
where." For, if lack of honour is an evil, you 
cannot be in evil through the instrumentality of 
some other person, any more than you can be in 
shame. ^ It is not your business, is it, to get office, 
or to be invited to a dinner-party ? Certainly not. 
How, then, can this be any longer a lack of honour? 
And how is it that you will be '^ nobody anywhere," 
when you ought to be somebody only in those 
things which are under your control, wherein you 
are privileged to be a man of the very greatest 
honour? But your friends will be without assist- 
ance ? What do you mean by being " without 
assistance " ? They will not have paltry coin from 
you, and you will not make them Roman citizens. 
Well, who told you that these are some of the 
matters under our control, and not rather things 
which others do? And who is able to give another 
what he does not himself have? "Get money, 
then," says some friend, " in order that we too may 
have it." If I can get money and at the same time 
keep myself self-respecting, and faithful, and high- 
minded, show me the way and 1 will get it. But 
if you require me to lose the good things that 
belong to me, in order that you may acquire the 
things that are not good, you can see for yourselves 
how unfair and inconsiderate you are. And which 
do you really prefer? Money, or a faithful and 
self-respecting friend? Help me, therefore, rather 
to this end, and do not require me to do those 
things which will make me lose these qualities. 
" But my country," says he, ''so far as lies in me, 

lack of honour cauiiot be an evil, but must be sonielhing 


" a^oy]6T]TO<; earaiS irdXiv, iroiav kol ravTy]v 
fiotjOeiav ; aroa^ ovx ^?^^ ^^<^ cr^ ovre ^aXavela. 
Kal TL Tovro ; ouSe yap vnoSyj/jLara e\;e£ Slcl top 
y^akKea o»8' oirXa Sia rov aKvrea' LKavov 5e, eav 
eKatjTO^ ifCirXTjpcoar} to eavrov epyov. el Se ciWov 
TLva avTTj Karea Kevat,€^ ttoXlttjv iTLajov Kal 
alhi]iiova, ovhev av avryv co^eXei? ; ** vai.'' 
ovKovv ovSe av avro'; dvco(f)€\r)<; dp ecrjf; avrfj. 
" Tiva ovv €^0)," (f)7]a-L, " ')(o)pav iv rfi iroXei ;''^ 
r)v dv Svvrj (pvXdrrcov d/ia rov inaTov Kal 
5 alh/][iova. el he eKeivrjv oicpeXelv /3ouXo/jL€1'0^ 
aTToySaXet? ravra, ri o(^eXo9 dv avrfj ykvoio 
dvaiBr)^ Kal aTTtcrro? d7TOTeXea6ei<; ; 

1 c. 25. YLpoeTtfDJOj] GOV ti<; iv earLciaet rj iv 
iTpoaayopevaei r) iv tw irapaXrj^Orjvai et? cru/x- 
fSovXlav ; el fiev dyaOd ravrd iari, y^aipeiv ae 
Set, OTi eTV)(^ev avTCJV eVet/'o?* el Se KaKa, fiyj 
d')(OoVy on av avTwv ovk eVf^e?* [lefivqao Se, otl 
ov hvvaaai piy ravrd ttoimv tt/oo? to Tvy)(^dveLv 

2 TMV OVK i(f)' i)p2v rcov I'acov d^tovaOai. rrui^ yap 
Xaov exeiv Svvarai 6 fiJ] (fjoircov iirl 6vpa<^ Tt,vo<; 
ro) (poircovri, ; 6 firj TrapaTre/jiTTCDv rSt irapaTrefjL- 
TTOvri ; 6 /JL7] iiraivSiv too irratvovvrL ; dhiKO<^ ovv 
ear) Kal d-nXr^aro^, el /jtrj 7rpOie/jievo<; ravra, dvO^ 
d)v iKelva TTLirpdaKeraL, irpolKa avrd ^ovXrjar) 


will be without assistance." Again I ask, what 
kind of assistance do you mean ? It will not have 
loggias or baths of your providing. And what does 
that signify ? For neither does it have shoes pro- 
vided by the blacksmith, nor has it arms provided by 
the cobbler; but it is sufficient if each man fulfil 
his own proper function. And if you secured for it 
another faithful and self-respecting citizen, would 
you not be doing it any good ? " Yes." Very well, 
and then you also would not be useless to it. 
"What place, then, shall I have in the State?" 
says he. VV' hatever place you can have, and at the 
same time maintain the man of fidelity and self- 
respect that is in you. But if, through your desire 
to help the State, you lose these qualities, of what 
good would you become to it, when in the end you 
turned out to be shameless and unfaithful ? 

25. Has someone been honoured abov^e you at a 
dinner-party, or in salutation, or in being called in 
to give advice ? Now if these matters are good, 
you ought to be happy that he got them ; but if 
evil, be not distressed because you did not get 
them ; and bear in mind that, if you do not act the 
same way that others do, with a view to getting 
things which are not under our control, you cannot 
be considered worthy to receive an equal share with 
others. VVhy, how is it possible for a person who 
does not haunt some man's door, to have equal 
shares with the man who does ? For the man who 
does not do escort duty, with the man who does ? 
For the man who does not praise, with the man who 
does? You will be unjust, therefore, and insatiable, 
if, while refusing to pay the price for which such 
things are bought, you want to obtain them for 


3 Xa/n/SdveLV. aWa iroaov TTLTrpdaKovTai dpihaK€<; ; 
o^oXoVy av ovTco tvxv* ^^ ^^^ "^^^ TTpoefievo^ rov 
o^oXov Xd/Srj 6piBaKa<;, av Be /it] Trpoifievo^ /xt) 
Xd^7]<;, fir] ol'ov eXarrov e^^iv rov Xa^6vTo<;. ox? 
^ap ifceivo^; e;\^ei OpihaKa'^, ovrw av rov 6(3oX6v, ov 
OVK eScoKas. 

4 Tov avTov Sr) rpoirov koI evravOa. ov irape- 
KX/]Or]<; e^' kariaaiv tivo<; ; ov yap eSw/ca? rco 
KaXovPTi, oaov TrcoXel rb helirvov. eiraivov 6' 
avTO TTwXel, Oepaireia^i TrcoXel. So<i ovv rb dcd- 
(fyopov, €L aoL Xvai-reXel, oaov ircoXelrai. el Be 
KUKelva 6eXei<; /jltj TrpoieaOai, koI ravra Xa/ji^dveiv, 

5 dirXTjaro'^ el koI d^eXrepo<;. ovBev ovv e^ei^; 
dvrl rov Beirrvov ; e'X^eu^ fxev ovv rb /jltj eiraLveaaL 
rovrov, ov ov/c rjOeXe^iy rb /jlt) dvaay^eadai avrov 
rcov enl t/}? elaoBov. 

c. 26. To ^ovXrj/jia rr}? (f)vae(i)<; Karafiadelv 
eanv e^ a)v ov Biac^epofieda irpb^; dXXi'fXov^, 
oloVf orav aXXov rraiBdpiov Kared^rj rb Tror/jpiov, 
7rp6)(€ipov €vdv<i Xeyeiv on " rwv yivo/jLevcov 
eariv.''^ taOt ovv, ore, orav kol rb abv Kareayfj, 
roLOvrov elvai ae Bel, ottolov ore kol rb rov 
dXXov Karedyrj' ovrco perariOei /cal eirl ra 
fieu^ova, reKvov dXXov reOvrjKev rj yvvij' ovBeif; 
eanv 09 ovfc av el'iroL on " dv6pct)7rtvoV''''' dXX 
orav rb avrov rtvb<; dTToOdvrj, evOv<; " otfioi, rdXa<; 

1 See note on frag. 11. 


nothing. Well, what is the price for heads of lettuce ? 
An obol/ perhaps. If, then, somebody gives uj) his 
obol and gets his heads of lettuce, while you do not 
give your obol, and do not get them, do not imagine 
that you are worse off than the man who gets his 
lettuce. For as he has his heads of lettuce, so you 
have your obol which you have not given away. 

Now it is the same w-ay also in life. You have 
not been invited to somebody's dinner-party ? Of 
course not ; for you didn't give the host the price at 
which he sells his dinner. He sells it for praise ; 
he sells it for personal attention. Give him the 
price, then, for which it is sold, if it is to your 
interest. But if you wish both not to give up the 
one and yet to get the other, you are insatiable and 
a simpleton. Have you, then, nothing in place of 
the dinner ? Indeed you have ; you have not had to 
praise the man you did not want to praise ; you 
have not had to put up with the insolence of his 

26. What the will of nature is may be learned 
from a consideration of the points in which we do 
not differ from one another. For example, when 
some other person's slave-boy breaks his drink- 
ing-cup, you are instantly ready to say, "■ That's 
one of the things which happen." Rest assured, 
then, that when your own drinking-cupgets broken, 
you ought to behave in the same way that you do 
when the other man's cup is broken. Apply now 
the same principle to the matters of greater im- 
portance. Some other person's child or wife has 
died; no one but would say, "Such is the fate 
of man." Yet when a man's own child dies, imme- 
diately the cry is, *' Alas I Woe is me!" But we 



iyci).'''' exPW ^^ fJ^e/ivijaOaiy tl 'nda)(^ofi,ev irepl 
aXXcov avTO aKovaavie^. 

c. 27. "flairep aK07ro<; Trpo? to dTrorv^elv ov 
TiOerat,, oi/to)? ovSe kukov (fivcn<; iv Koafxw yLverai. 

c. 28. Et /jL€v to aoifid aov rt? iirerpeTre tw 
(iTravTjja-avTty 7]yavdKT€i<; av on he crv rrjv 
yvcofiTjv TrjV aeavrov e7TLTpeiT6L<i rw TvyovTi, 'Iva, 
idv XoiSopi](T7]TaL aoc, rapaydfi iKeivt] Kal avy- 
X^^lJy ovfc alaxyvr) tovtov eveKa ; 

1 c. 29. 'l^Kuarov epyov aKoiret to, KaOr^yov- 
fieva Kal rd dKoXovOa avrov Kal ovt(jo<; ep^ov 
iii avTO. el he pn], riiv /xep Trpcoriji' irpoOvp^w^ 
?;^6/9 are p,i]8€v royv e^?}? evTe6vp,rip.evo<s, varepov 
he dva^avevTcov hvcrxepoiv Tivoiv alaxpoi^ drro- 

2 arjjai]. OeX€i<; ^OXvpuria viKrjaaL ; Kdyco, V7] 
TOu<? Oeov^' KopL-\\rov yap eariv. dWd aKoirei rd 
KaOt]yovp,eva Kal rd aKoXovOa Kal ovrco<; dirrov 
rov epyou. het a evraKrelv, dvayKorpoc^elVy 
aTrex^eaOaL irep.pdrwv, yvpvd^eaOai tt/do? dvdyKrjv, 
iv o)pa reraypievr]^ iv Kavpari, iv yfrvx^L, fit] 
yjrvxpov Trlveiv, p,7j olvov, o)? erv^^Vy aTrXoi? &>? 
lajpw TTapahehwKevai aeavrov rw iirLardrrj, elra 
iv Tcu dyoivi irapopvaaeaOaL,^ earc he ore X^t/ja 
iK^dXelVy^ a(j)vp6v Grpey\raL, iroWijv d(f))]V Kara- 

^ Upton from the Disc. : ■napepx^(J'^'^^ ^^ Trape'xeo-^aj MSS. 
^ Upton from tlie Lisc. : $a\du, Ka^^lv, or fi\a^e7v M8S. 

^ That is, it is inconceivable that the universe should 
exist in order that 8ome things may go wrong ; hence, 
nothing natural is evil, and nothing that is by nature evil 
can arise. — Thus in effect Simplicius, and correctly, it seems. 

^ This chapter is practically Avord for word identical with 
111. 15. Since it was omitted in Par., and not com- 
mented on by Simplicius, it may have been added in some 
second edition, whether by Arrian or not. 



ought to remember how we feel when we hear of 
the same misfortune befalling others. 

27. Just as a mark is not set up in order to be missed, 
so neither does the nature of evil arise in the universe.^ 

28. If someone handed over your body to any 
person who met you, you would be vexed ; but 
tiiat you hand over your mind to any person that 
comes along, so that, if he reviles you, it is disturbed 
and troubled — are you not ashamed of that ? 

29.- In each separate thing that you do, consider 
the matters which come first and tliose whicii follow 
after, and only then approach the thing itself. 
Otherwise, at the start you will come to it enthusi- 
astically, because you have never reflected upon 
any of the subsequent steps, but later on, when 
some difficulties appear, you will give up disgracefully. 
'Do you wish to win an Olympic victory ? So do I, 
by the gods ! for it is a fine thing. But consider 
the matters which come before that, and those which 
follow after, and only when you have done that, put 
your hand to the task. You have to submit to 
discipline, follow a strict diet, give up sweet cakes, 
train under compulsion, at a fixed hour, in heat or in 
cold ; you must not drink cold water,^ nor wine just 
whenever you feel like it ; you must have turned 
yourself over to your trainer precisely as you would to 
a physician. Then when the contest comes on, you 
have to ''dig in " * beside your o])ponent, and some- 
times dislocate your wrist, sprain your ankle, swallow 

' That is, cold water not at all ; while wine may be 
drunk, but only at certain times, i.e., prol^ably with one's 
meals. Such prohibitions are still conimou in Europe, 
particularly in popular therapeutics. 

* See note on III. 15, 4. 



ineh', eaO'' 6t€ /j.aaTiy(o6fji'at, koX fiera rovrcov^ 

3 'jTiivTcov iHK)jOP]rai. ravra eincrfce'^dfievo';, av en 
06\r]<i, epxov eVl to aOXetp. el Se fii], o)? ra iraihia 
dj'acrTpa(f)7]a7j, a vvv fxei/ iraXaL<JTa<; irai^eL, vvv 
he /xovofidxovfif vvv he o-aXTrl^eL, elra TpaywSel- 
ovTO) Kol (TV vvv /ji€V d6\i]T if^i , VVV he iMovofidxp^t 
elra 'pi]TO)p^ elra <^i\6ao(j>o<;^ oXrj he rrj "yfrvxy 
ovhev dX-V ct)9 TTt^r/vo? rrdaav Oeav, vjv dv ihT)<;, 
/jLL/jif} fcal dWo e^ dXXov crot dpeaKet, ov <ydp 
jmeTa aice^^e(ji)<^ rfk6€<; eiri tl ovhe TrepLohevaa^i, 
aXX' eiKr} kol Kara yfrvxpdv einOv/jLLav. 

4 OvTCo Oeaad/xevoL Tive<; (f)i\6ao(j)ov koX 
dKOvaavre^; ovtco rivo^; Xeyovro^;, co? ¥^v<ppdTt]<; ^ 
Xeyet {Kalrot rt? ovrco hvvarau eLirelv, o)? eKelvo'^ ;), 

5 OeXovcn fcal avrol (f)LXo(TO(f)elv. dvOpwTre, irpcorov 
eiriaKey^raL^ oirolov ecrri to irpdyfia' elra /cal rrjv 
aeavTov (jivatv KardpaOe, el hvvaaai ^aardaai. 
7revra6Xo<^ elvai /3ovXeL y 7raXaiaT7]<i ; che 
aeavrov roy? /3pa'X^ova<;, tou? pn-jpov'i, tt]v ocr^vv 

6 Kard/iaOe. dXXo<;^ yap tt/jo? dXXo 7re(j>vK€. 
hoK€i<;, on ravra ttolcov dyaavToy; hvvaaai 
iaOieiv, d)aavTco<i Trlveiv, ofioiw^ opeyeaOai, 
6/jL0L0)<; ovaapearetv ; dypvTTvPjaat hel, irovrjaai, 
diTo TOiv oLKeL(ov direXOelv, vtto iraihapiov 
Karac^povijdfjvaL, vno rcov dTravrcovTCOV * xaraye- 
XacrdrjvaL, ev Travrl rjTTOv eyeiv, ev rifxfj, ev dpxy, 

7 ev hifcrj, ev irpaypLarlrp iravTi. ravra eiriaKeyjrai, 

^ Nil. and the Discourses : ruv Ench. 

^ Wolf from the Discourses : u>s ev :iccKpdTii5 Ench. ; ws ev 


^ Nilus and the Discourses : &\\o Ench. 

* Schweighauser from the Discourses : airdvTuiv A un., 
Nil. ; tlie clause om. by otlier AliSS. 


quantifies of sand, sometimes take a scourging, and 
along with all that get beaten. After you have 
considered all these points, go on into the games, if 
you still wish to do so ; otherwise, you will be turning 
back like children. Sometimes they play wrestlers, 
again gladiators, again they blow trumpets, and 
then act a play. So you too are now an athlete, 
now a gladiator, then a rhetorician, then a philo- 
sopher, yet with your whole soul nothing ; but like 
an ape you imitate whatever you see, and one thing 
after another strikes your fancy. For you have 
never gone out after anything with circumspection, 
nor after you had examined it all over^ but you act 
at haphazard and half-heartedly. 

In the same way, when some people have seen 
a philosopher and have heard someone speaking like 
Euphrates ^ (though, indeed, who can speak like 
him.?), they wish to be philosophers themselves 
Man, consider first the nature of the business, and 
then learn your own natural ability, if you are able to 
bear it. Do you wish to be a contender in the 
pentathlon, or a wrestler? Look to your arms, 
your thighs, see what your loins are like. For one 
man has a natural talent for one thing, another for 
another. Do you suppose that you can eat in the 
same fashion, drink in the same fashion, give way 
to impulse and to irritation, just as you do now ? You 
must keep vigils, work hard, abandon your own people, 
be despised by a paltry slave, be laughed to scorn 
by those who meet you, in everything get the worst 
of it, in honour, in office, in court, in every paltry 
affair. Look these drawbacks over carefully, if you 

^ See note on IIL 15, 8. 


€1 ^t'Xet? dvTiKaraWd^aaOai rovrcov dirdOeLaVt 
eXevOepiav, drapa^iav el Se /nrj, /xrj Trpocrdyaye, 
fjLT) o)? rd iraihia vvv (j)t\6cro(f)o^, varepov Se 
reXcovijf;, elra prjrayp, elra eiriTpoiTO'^ K.aiaapo^. 
ravra ov (jvfKpwvel. eva ae Set avdpcDiTOV rj 
dyaOov rj ku/cov elvar /; to rjye/iioviKOP ae hel 
€^6pyd^€aOaL ro aavrov rj rd €Kr6<;' rj irepl rd 
eaco (f)LXoT€XV€LV rj irepi rd e^ay tout' ecTLV rj 
(ptXoaocpou rd^LV iire-x^eLv r) ISidyrov. 

c. 30. Ta KadrjKovra co? erriirav ral^ aykaeai 
TTapaixeTpelraL. irarrip idTiv vTrayopeverai iin- 
fxeXelaOai, irapa^^copelv aTrdvTwv, dvix^o-Oai 
\oi8opovPTOS, 7ralopro<;. ** dWd irarrjp kuko^; 
ecTTL.''^ fJLrj Tt, ovv TTpo^ dyuOov irarepa (pvcrei 
(pKeLOddrjf; ; dXXd 7r/3o? irarepa, *' o dSeXcfio^; 
dSiKel,'''' rrjpeL rotyapovv rr)v rd^iv rr]v creavrov 
TT/oo? avrov fjurjSe aKOireL, ri i/celvo^; ttolcl, dXXd 
Tt aol TTOLt^cravrL Kard (pvaiv r; ar) e^ei rrpoaipe- 
aL<^. ae yap dXXo^ ov 0Xdyjr€L, dv fir) av 6eXr]<i' 
rore he earj ^effXafJipevo^, orav viroXd^r)^ 
pXdirreaOai. ovr(o<; ovv diro rod yetrovo^, dno 
rod iToXirov, drro rod arparyjyov ro KadrjKOv 
evpi](jeL^, edv rd<; a')(^eaeL<; eOi^rj decopelv. 
1 c. 31. Tt)? irepl TOL'9 Oeov^ evae^eia^ XaOi on, 
ro Kvpicorarov eKelvo eariv, opOd^ v7roX7Jyjrec<i 
rrepl avroyv ex^LP 009 ovrwv Kal SioLKOvprcjp rd 
oXa KaXu)^ Kal SiKalco^;, Kal aavrop eU rovro 
Kararera^evaL,^ ro ireideaOai avrol<; Kal eiKeip 
rrdai rol<i yiPop,epoi<s Kal aKoXovOelv eKovra &)? 

^ KaraTixax^To^ suggested by Schweighiiuser. The sense 
would theu be: "and have appointed you to," referring to 
the gods. 


are willing at the price of these things to secure 
tranquillity, freedom and calm. Otherwise, do not 
approach philosophy ; don't act like a ciiild — now 
a philosopher, later on a t.ix-gatherer, then a 
rhetorician, then a procurator of Caesar. These 
tilings do not go together. You must be one person, 
either good or bad ; you must labour to improve 
either your own governing principle or externals ; 
you must work hard either on the inner man, or 
on things outside ; that is, play either the role of a 
philosopher or else that of a layman. 

30. Our duties are in general measured by our 
social relationships. He is a father. One is called 
upon to take care of him, to give way to him in 
all things, to submit when he reviles or strikes you. 
*^But he is a bad father." Did nature, then, bring 
you into relationship with a good father.'' No, 
but simply with a father. " My brother does me 
wrong." Very well, then, maintain the relation 
that you have toward him ; and do not consider 
what he is doing, but what you will have to do, if 
your moral purpose is to be in harmony with nature. 
For no one will harm you without your consent ; you 
will have been harmed only when you think you are 
harmed. In this way, therefore, you will discover 
what duty to expect of your neighbour, your citizen, 
your commanding officer, if you acquire the habit of 
looking at your social relations with them, 

31. In piety towards the gods, 1 would have you 
know, the chief element is this, to have right 
opinions about them — as existing and as administer- 
ing the universe well and justly — and to have set 
yourself to obey them and to submit to everything 
that liappens, and to follow it voluntarily, in the 



VTTo T7}9 dptcrT7]<; yvcofit]'; eTTLTeXovfJcevoL'^. ovtco 
yap ov /jL€/i^rj irore toi)? Oeov^; ovre €jKa\e(T€i<; 

2 CO? a[ie\ovp.evo<^. aW(o<; 8e ov-^ olov re rovro 
yiveaOat, iav /irj apij'^ cltto tmv ovk ec/)' i)iilv xal 
€V TOi? e(^' 7]fjLLV /j,6voL<; 0r}(; to ayaOov koI ro 
KaKov. a)<;, av ye tl eKeiviov v7ro\d^r)<; dyaOov 
Tf KaKOVy irdaa dvdyKrj, orav dTrorvy^dvp^ o)V 
Oe\€L<; Kol irepiTriiTrr]^ oU fit] OeXei^i, /xefjuyp-aaOai 

3 ae Kol fiiaelv rov<i alTLov<;. 'Tre<^VKe yap Trpo? 
TOVTO irav ^a>ov ra fiev ^Xa^epa (^aivop-eva Kal 
ra a'lTta avrcov ^evyeiv Kal eKTpeireaOai, ra Se 
uK^eKifia Kal ra atria avrcov ixenevai re Kal 
redrjTrevai.^ dpn'jxavov ovv fiXdrrreaOai rtva 
olofJievov ')(aipeLv ru> SoKovvrc /SXdirreiv, wairep 

4 Kal ro avrfj rfj ^Xd/3rj ')(^aipeLV dhvvarov. evOev 
Kal irarijp viro vlou XoLSopelrat, orav rcjv Bo- 
KOvvTcop dyaOcov elvai rco Tvaihl fir) /jLeraBcSw' 
Kal YloXweiKiiv Kal 'RreoKXea tout* eiro'n^ae 
TToXe/JLiOv^ dXX}]Xoi(i ro dyaOov oXeadai rrjv 
rvpavvlSa. Bia rovro kol 6 y€0)pyo<; XoiSopel 
rov<i Oeov^, Bia rovro 6 vavrt]'^, 8ia rovro 6 
e/jLTTopo^, Bid rovro ol rd<; yvvaLKa<; Kal rd reKva 
diroXXvvre';. onov yap ro avfMcpepov, eKel koI 
ro eucre/Se?. oiare, oart^ eiTLfieXelrai rov ope- 
yeaQai &)? BeX Kal eKKXlveiv, iv ra) avrw Kal 

5 €va€/3€ia<i €7ri/jLeXe2rai. airevBeLv Be Kal Oveiv 

^ Vv: redavnaKfvai Ench. (Nil. ; Simpl.). 



belief that it is being fulfilled by the highest in- 
telligence. For if you act in this way, you will 
never blame the gods, nor find fault with them 
for neglecting you. But this result cannot be 
secured in any other way than by withdrawing your 
idea of the good and the evil from the things which 
are not under our control, and placing it in those 
which are under our control, and in those alone. 
Because, if you think any of those former things 
to be good or evil, then, when you fail to get what 
you want and fall into what you do not want, it is 
altogether inevitable that you will blame and hate 
those who are responsible for these results. For 
this is the nature of every living creature, to flee 
from and to turn aside from the things that appear 
harmful, and all that produces them, and to pursue 
after and to admire the things that are helpful, and 
all that produces them. Therefore, it is impossible 
for a man who thinks that he is being hurt to take 
pleasure in that which he thinks is hurting him, 
just as it is also impossible for him to take pleasure 
in the hurt itself. Hence it follows that even a 
father is reviled by a son when he does not give 
his child some share in the things that seem to be 
good ; and this it was which made Polyneices and 
Eteocles enemies of one another, the thought that 
the royal power was a good thing. That is why the 
farmer reviles the gods, and so also the sailor, and 
the merchant, and those who have lost their wives 
and their children. For where a man's interest lies, 
there is also his piety. Wherefore, whoever is 
careful to exercise desire and aversion as he should, 
is at the same time careful also about piety. But 
it is always appropriate to make libations, and sacri- 



KOi ciTrdp'y^eaOai Kara ra Trdrpia eicdaTore 
TrpoatJKec /ca6apco<; Ka\ /j.7] iTriaeavpfxevco^; fjirjSe 
aytteXw? /jLrjSi ye y\ia)(pa)^ fxrjSe virep Bvi'a/JLLV. 

1 c. 32. "Orap /mavriKfj Trpoalrj^;, fiepivrjao, 
on, ri /jL€V ciTTo/Sy'jaeTai, ovk oZ8a9, aWa 
i]Kei<i ft)9 Trapd rov ixdvrew^ avro Trevrro/ievo^, 
OTTolov Be Ti earivy €\,i']\vOa<; etSw?, e'lirep el 
(f)iX6ao(f)0<;. el jdp earl re rcdv ovk e<^' rj/ilv, 
rrdaa avdyK-q fiijre dyaOov avro elvai fjbrjre 

2 KaKov. fjLT) f^epe ovv 7rp6<; rov /idvriv ope^Lv t) 
€KKXt(TLv /JLTjSe ^ rpc/icov avrw Trpoaec, dXXd 
Bi€yv(OKd)(;, on irav ro drro^rjaofjievov dhidc^opov 
Kal ovSep TYPO'S ere, ottolov 5' av f), earai ^ avrw 
-y^p^aaaOai /caXw? Kal rovro ovStl<; KcoXvaei. 
Oappoiv ovv o)? eVl avp.l3ov\ov<^ ^PX^^ tou? 
6eov^' Kal XoiTTov, orav ri aoL avpi/SovXevdfj^ 
fiep,vT]ao riva<; (Tvp,^ov\ov^ rrapeXa^e'^ Kal rivcop 

3 irapaKovaei'i direLdrjaa'^. ep^ov Be errl ro /xav- 
reveadai, KaOdirep 7;ftou '^wKpdrrj^;, e(j> cop rj 
rraaa aKeyJrLf; rr)V dpa(f)opdp eh ryv eKJSaaiv e^ei 
Kal ovre €k Xoyov ovre eK re;^/-^? nvo<^ dX\rj<; 
d(f)op/jLal BiBoprat tt/jo? to avviBelv ro rrpoKei- 
/levop' ware, orap Beijar) (jvyKivBvvevaai (jylXo) 
Tj TTarpLBi, /jLT) fiapreveaOaVy el (TvyKLpBvpevriov, 
Kal yap ap Trpoelirrj^ aoc 6 fidpn<i (pavXa 
yeyopepai ra lepd, BrjXop on Odparo<; arffiaLverai 
rj TTtjpcoaLf; fi€pov<; nvo^ rov aco/xaro^; rj cfivyi)' 

^ C un. : 6i 5e /[XT) Epi'h. 

^ C un. : earaai ydp MSS. 

^ C un. : ■npoeivT) or TrpocTfiiroi MSS. 

^ See II. 7 where the principal points made here are 
illustrated at greater length. 


fices, and to give of the firstfruits after the manner 
of our fathers, and to do all this with purity, and 
not in a slovenly or careless fashion, nor, indeed, 
in a niggardly way, nor yet beyond our means. 

32.^ \Vhen you have recourse to divination, re- 
member that you do not know what the issue is 
going to be, but that you have come in order to 
find this out from the diviner ; yet if you are indeed a 
philosopher, you know, when you arrive, what the 
nature of it is. For if it is one of the things which 
are not under our control, it is altogether necessary 
that what is going to take place is neither good 
nor evil. Do not, therefore, bring to the diviner 
desire or aversion, and do not approach him with 
trembling, but having first made up your mind that 
every issue is indifferent and nothing to you, but 
that, whatever it may be, it will be possible for 
you to turn it to good use, and that no one will 
prevent this. Go, then, with confidence to the 
gods as to counsellors ; and after that, when some 
counsel has been given you, remember whom you 
have taken as counsellors, and whom you will be 
disregarding if you disobey. But go to divination 
as Socrates thought that men should go, that is, in 
cases where the whole inquiry has reference to the 
outcome, and where neither from reason nor from 
any other technical art are means vouchsafed for 
discovering the matter in question. Hence, when 
it is your duty to share the danger of a friend or of 
your country, do not ask of the diviner whether you 
ought to share that danger. For if the diviner 
forewarns you that the omens of sacrifice have been 
unfavourable, it is clear that death is portended, or 
the injury of some member of your body, or exile; 



aXV alpel ^ 6 \6yo<; Kal avv Tovrofs irapiara- 
(jOai ^ Tft) (f)iX(p Kal rfj ^ irarpihi avyKivhvveveiv. 
TOLjapovv Tcp fiel^oPL fjidvTei irpoae^e, rfp WvOUp^ 
o? e^e^aXe rod vaov top ov fSorjO-qaavra avai- 

pOV/J.€Vfp TW ^l\(p. 

1 C. 33. Td^ov Tiva rjh-q '^^apaKrfjpa aavrfo Kal 
TVTTOv, ov (f)v\d^6i<i eVt re aeavTOv oiv Kal 

2 dvOpcoTTOK; evTvy^dvcov. Kal aLcoirr] ro ttoXv 
earcD i) XaXeiadco rd dvajKala Kal Bl* oXljcov. 
(T7ravLco<; Be irore Kaipov irapaKaXovvTo^ eirl ro 
Xiyeiv Xe^ov fxev, dXXd irepl ovBevb^; tcov tv- 
y^ovToov' /jlt) irepl fiovofiaxi'MV, fir) irepl iTriro- 
Bpo/uLLcov, fir] irepl dOXyrcov, firj irepl /Spw/idrcov 
rj TTOfidrcov, rwv 6KaaTa')(^ov,^ /idXiara Be firj 
irepl dvOpdiiTcov yjreycov rj eiraLvoyv rj avyKpivwv. 

3 dv fiev ovv ol6<; re 17?, fierdyaye tol<; aol<i Xoyoi^ ^ 
Kal TOL'9 TCOV avpovTcov eirl to TrpoarJKov. el Be 
ev dX\o(f>vXoi<; d'7ToX')j(f)6el<; Tvxoi<i, accoTra. 

4 TeX(o<; firj ttoXv? eaTco firjBe iirl ttoXXo?? fir]Be 

5 "OpKov TrapauTTjaai, el fiev olov re, el<; dirav, 
el Be fit], €K TMV ev6vT(ov. 

6 'Karidaei^ Ta? e^co Kal IBicoTLKa^; BtaKpovov' 
edv Be TTore ylvTjTai Kaip6<;, evrerdaOco ctol r) 

^ Salmasius and Schweighaiiser : ipe7 or eyi MSS. 

2 Salmasius and Schweighiiuser : irapiaTarai MSS. 

3 Added by Salmasius and Schweighauser. 

* Nil,, Simplicius : kKaaraxov Ktyoixevuv Elich. 
^ C un. : rovs aovs \6yov5 MSS. 

^ A few more unimportant details are given b}' Aeliaii, 
Varia Nistoria, 3, 44 ; and Simplicius in liis commentary on 
thip passage, p. 258 c ff. (Heinsius), or p. 411 (Schweighauser). 



yet reason requires that even at this risk you are 
to stand by your friend, and share the danger with 
your country. Wherefore, give heed to the greater 
diviner, the Pythian Apollo, who cast out of his 
temple the man who had not helped his friend 
when he was being murdered.^ 

33. Lay down for yourself, at the outset, a certain 
stamp and type of character for yourself, which you 
are to maintain whether you are by yourself or are 
meeting with people. And be silent for the most 
part, or else make only the most necessary remarks, 
and express these in few words. But rarely, and when 
occasion requires you to talk, talk, indeed, but about 
no ordinary topics. Do not talk about gladiators, 
or horse-races, or athletes, or things to eat or drink 
— topics that arise on all occasions ; but above all, 
do not talk about people, either blaming, or praising, 
or comparing them. If, then, you can, by your own 
conversation bring over that of your companions to 
what is seemly. But if you hapj^en to be left alone 
in the presence of aliens, keep silence. 

Do not laugh much, nor at many things, nor 

Refuse, if you can, to take an oath at all, but if 
that is impossible, refuse as far as circumstances 

Avoid entertainments given by outsiders and by 
persons ignorant of philosophy ; but if an appro- 
priate occasion arises for you to attend, be on the 

The point of the story is that a man does not need to go to 
a diviner in order to learn whether he should defend his 
country or his friends. That question was long ago settled 
by the greatest of diviners, Apollo at Delphi, who ordered to 
be cast out of his temple an inquirer that had once failed to 
defend his own friend. 


TTpocroxVy f^VT^ore apa vnroppvfjf; el<i ISicorKT^ov. 
XaOi "yap, OTi, eav 6 eralpo^; y /jL€/jlo\v(t/jl€vo<;, kol 
rov (TvvavaTpi^ofjLevov avTW av/jL/jLoXvpeaOai 
dvdyKrj, Kav avro^ o)v TV')(r) KaOapo'^. 

7 Ta irepl to crMfxa f^expt t% %/oeta? yjrtXi]'; 
TrapdXdjjLjSave, olov Tpo(pd<i, 7ro/xa, dfjLTrexovrjVy 
OLKiav, olfcerlav' to Be tt/oo? Bo^av rj Tpu(prjv 
airav ireplypacpe. 

8 Uepl di^pohiaia el's Svva/itv irpo ydfiov Ka~ 
OapevreoV dirroixevw Be cov vofii/jiov icrri /le- 
ToXTjirreov. /jLtj /levroL eiraxOr]^ <yivov toI<^ 
Xp(»>fiivoi<; firjBe eXeyKTiKO^;' /jL-yjBe 7roX\,a)(ov to 
OTL avTO<; ov XPV^ irapd(j)€pe. 

9 'Eai/ T^9 (TOL dTrayyeiXr) otl 6 Belvd ae fcaKa)<; 
XeyeCj firj diroXoyov 7rpo<i to, Xe^^^vTa, dXX^ 
diTOKpivov Blotv "^71/oefc ydp to, dXXa to, irpo- 
aovTa fiot, KaKd, iirel ovk av tuvtu jjuova 

10 Et9 TO, OeaTpa to ttoXv Trapcevac ovk dvayKolov. 
el Be TTore Kaipo^ etr], ^fjBevl airovBd^cop (j^aivov 
7) aeavTw, tovt eaTC OeXe yiveaOai fiova to, 
yivofieva fcal vlkclv /jlovov top pikcovtu' outco ydp 
OVK ifMTToBiaOtjarj. ^orj<; Be Koi tov eiriyeXav 
Tivl rj iirl TToXv avyKiveladai iravTeXoi^ direxov, 
Kol fieTa TO diTaXXayrjvaL firj jroXXd irepl rw^ 
yeyei>7]ixev(i)V BiaXiyov, oaa /jlt) (jyepei tt/jo? rr^i/ 
arjv iiravopOwaLV ejju^aiveTaL ydp eK tov toiov- 
TOV, OTL eOavfiaawi Tr]v Oeav. 


alert to avoid lapsing into the behaviour of such 
laymen. For you may rest assured, that, if a man's 
companion be dirty, the person who keeps close 
company with him must of necessity get a share of 
his dirt, even though he himself happens to be clean. 

In things that pertain to the body take only as 
much as your bare need requires, I mean such 
things as food, drink, clothing, shelter, and house- 
hold slaves; but cut down everything which is for 
outward show or luxury. 

In your sex-life preserve purity, as far as you can, 
before marriage, and, if you indulge, take only those 
privileges which are lawful. However, do not make 
yourself offensive, or censorious, to those who do 
indulge, and do not make frequent mention of the 
fact that you do not yourself indulge. 

If someone brings you word that So-and-so is 
speaking ill of you, do not defend yourself against 
what has been said, but answer, " Yes, indeed, for 
he did not know the rest of the faults that attach 
to me ; if he had, these would not have been the 
only ones he mentioned." 

It is not necessary, for the most part, to go to 
the public shows. If, however, a suitable occasion 
ever arises, show that your principal concern is for 
none other than yourself, which means, wish only 
for that to happen which does happen, and for him 
only to win who does win ; for so you will suffer no 
hindrance. But refrain utterly from shouting, or 
laughter at anyone, or great excitement. And after 
you have left, do not talk a great deal about what 
took place, except in so far as it contributes to your 
own improvement ; for such behaviour indicates that 
the spectacle has aroused your admiration. 


11 Et? cLKpoaaeL^ rivoiv fxif elicrj firjhe pahiw^ 
TrdpcOc' TrapLcov Be to aepLVov /cal to ^ €V(7Ta0€<; 
Kol afia ave7raxOe<; (fyvXaaae. 

12 "Orav TivX /leXkrj^; crv/n^aXelv, /jLciXicrTa rcov 
ev virepoxfl Bokovvtcov, Trpo/SaXe aavrw, ri av 
^TToitfaev ii> toutw %(0/cpdT7]'i y Zt^vcov, kol ovk 
d7rop7)a6L<; rov ')(^pi)aaa6aL irpoai^Kovrw^ to) 

13 ifiireaovTL. orav (f>OLTd<; Trpo? riva rcov /xiya 
Svva/jL6i'(oi>, iTpopake, on ov)( €vp>](T€i<; avrov 
evhov, OTL diTOKXeiaOi^ar), otl ivru^a'^^OijcTovrai^ 
(TOL at Ovpai, OTt ov ^povTLel crov. kolv avv 
Tovroi<; iXOelv KadrjKr), ekOoov (f)6pe ra yipofieva 
Koi /jLTjBiTrore eiirrj^i avrbii 7rpo<i eavrbv otl " ovfc 

TjV TOaOVTOV "• IhiWTLKOV jdp KOL Bi,a^€0Xrjfi€vov 
TT/OO? TCI eVtO?. 

14 'Ei^ Tal'^ OfJLiXiaL<i direcrTco to eavTOV tivo)v 
epycop rj KLvhvvwv eVl iroXv kol dfieTp(o<; pe/jii'fj- 
adai. OV ydp, tw? aol rjSv icTTi to TOiv crcov 
KLvhvvwv /JLe/jLvrjcrdai, ovtco Kal Tot? dXXoL^; rjSv 

eCTTL TO T(OV (Tol aVfJi^€^y]K6T0)V dKoveiv. 

15 'ATrecTTft) Be Kal to yeXcoTa KLvelv 6Xiadr]po<i 
yap 6 T/)o7ro9 ^ et? IBicoTia/iov /cal a/ua iKav6<; 
T7jp alBo) TTjV Trpo<i (T6 Twi/ TrXyalop dvLevat. 

16 cVto-</)aXe<? Be Kal to 6t<? alaxpoXoyiav irpoeXOelv. 
OTav ovp TL au/jL^fj TOiovTOP, ap fiep evKaipop y, 

^ In Nil. only. " Nil. : iKTivaxSva-ovrai MSS. 

3 C un., Nil., Simpl. : ronos MSS. 

^ A favourite way of introducing a new work of literature 
to the reading public, somewhat like our modern musical 



Do not go rashly or readily to peoi)le's public 
readings/ but when you do go, maintain your own 
dignity and gravity, and at the same time be careful 
not to make yourself disagreeable. 

Wiien you are about to meet somebody, in 
particular when it is one of tliose men wiio are 
held in very high esteem, propose to yourself the 
question, '^ What would Socrates or Zeno have done 
under these circumstances?" and then you will 
not be at a loss to make proper use of the occasion. 
When you go to see one of those men who have 
great power, propose to yourself the thought, that 
you will not find him at home, that you will be 
shut out, that the door will be slammed in your 
face, that he will pay no attention to you. And 
if, despite all this, it is your duty to go, go and 
take what comes, and never say to yourself, '^ It 
was not worth all the trouble." For this is character- 
istic of the layman, that is, a man who is vexed at 

In your conversation avoid making mention at 
great length and excessively of your own deeds or 
dangers, because it is not as pleasant for others to 
hear about your adventures, as it is for you to call 
to mind your own dangers. 

Avoid also raising a laugh, for this is a kind of 
behaviour that slips easily into vulgarity, and at 
the same time is calculated to lessen the respect 
which your nei^jhbours have of you. It is dangerous 
also to lapse into foul language. When, therefore, 
anytliing of the sort occurs, if the occasion be 
suitable, go even so far as to reprove the person 

recitals, or artists' exhibitions. See also III. 23 for similar 
public lectures giveu by a philosopiier. 


airocjLCdirrjaai /cat ipvOptdaat, Kal aKvOpwirdaaL 
BfjXo<; ylvov Sva^epaivcov rw Xoycp. 

C. 34. "Orav r)Sov)]<; tlvo<^ (^avraaiav Xd^rjf;, 
KaOdirep eirl roiv dXXcov, (f>uXaaa6 cravrov, /x/; 
(7vvapiTacr6fj<^ vir'' avTp)<;' dXX' ifcBe^dcrOo) ae to 
TTpdy/jia, Kal dva^oXr}v Tiva irapd aeavrov Xd^e. 
eireLTa fivqaOrjTL dii^orepcov rcov xpovwv, Ka6' ov 
re diToXavaeLfi rif}? y)Bovr)<^, Kal Ka9^ ov diroXavaa'^ 
varepov /x€Tavoy](T€L<; Kal avT6<; aeavTM XoiBo- 
prjarj' Kal rovroLf; dvTi6e<; otto)? dnocr^o/j.euo'; 
')(aLpr](T€L<; Kal iiraLvecrei^; avTO<; aeavTov. iav 
Be aoc Kaipo^ (pavfj dyjraaOac rov epyov, 
TTpoaexe, firj rjrr^a-r} ae to Trpoarjve^ avrov Kal 
TjBv Kal eTraycoyoV dXX^ avTiriOei, TToaoi afxeivov 
TO avveiBevai creavTa> TavTrjv ttjv VLKrjv vevLKT)- 


c. 35. "Orav ti Biayvov^, oti TTOtr)Teov eVrt, 
iToif]'^, fjLrjBeiroTe (f)vyr]<; 6(f)6P]vaL irpdaaoiv avTo^ 
KCiV dXXolov Ti jxeXXwaLv ol iroXXol irepl avTov 
VTr oXa/jL^dveiv. el fiev yap ovk 6pOa)<; TTotei?, 
avTO TO epyov (f>evye' el Be 6p6(t3<;, tl (J>o,3tj tov<; 
emirXi'-j^ovTa'; ovk 6p0o)<; ; 

c. 6b. 11? TO 7)/j,epa eari Kat vv^ eaTi 
TTpo? fiev TO Bte^evy/ievov fieydXrjv e;^et d^iav, 
7rpo<i Be TO av/jLTreiTXey/jievov dira^Lav, ovtco Kal 

^ The ordinary person, to be sure, can no more call up a 
blush olT-hand than he can a sneeze or a hiccough, and the 
observation of nature implied by the command is, therefore, 
imperfect (cf. note in IV. 11, 1). But all Epictetus means is 
that one should make no elfort to conceal any natural ex- 
pression of monil resentment under such circumstances. 



who has made such a lapse ; if, however, the occasion 
does not arise, at all events show by keeping silence, 
and blushing,^ and frowning, that you are displeased 
by what has been said. 

34. When you get an external impression of 
some pleasure, guard yourself, as with impressions 
in general, against being carried away by it ; nay, let 
the matter wait upon 7/our leisure, and give yourself 
a little delay. Next think of the two periods of lime, 
first, that in which you will enjoy your pleasure, and 
second, that in which, after the enjoyment is over, 
you will later repent and revile your own self; and 
set over against these two periods of time how much 
joy and self-satisfaction you will get if you refrain. 
However, if you feel that a suitable occasion has 
arisen to do the deed, be careful not to allow its 
enticement, and sweetness, and attractiveness to 
overcome you ; but set over against all this the 
thought, how nmch better is the consciousness of 
having won a victory over it. 

35. When you do a thing which you have made 
up your mind ought to be done, never try not to be 
seen doing it, even though most people are likely 
to think unfavourably about it. If, however, what 
you are doing is not right, avoid the deed itself 
altogether ; but if it is right, why fear those who 
are going to rebuke you wrongly ? 

36. Just as the propositions, " It is day," and " It 
is night," are full of meaning when separated, but 
meaningless if united ;2 so also, granted that for 

2 Compare I. 25, 11-13. It does not seem possible in our 
idiom to use the same expressions for a|ia, " worth," or 
" value," which occurs three times in this section, and 
oira^ia, "lack of worth," or "lack of value," which occurs 


ro T7]i' /jL€L^(t) fiepiha eKke^aaOai rrpo'i fiev to 
GCiifxa ex^Tco a^lav, irpo^ 5e to ^ to kolvwvikov 
iu eaTLuaei, olov Set, <j>v\d^ai, a-rra^iav ex^i" 
orav ovv avvecy6Lr)<i krepw, p.€fjLVt]ao, jjlt) fiovov 
rrjv irpo^ to aay/xa a^iav tcov 7rapafC€L/j,epwp opdv, 
dWa fcal tjjv tt/oo? toz^ ecrTidropa alBo) cpvXd^aL.^ 

C. 37. ^Kdp virep Svva/iLV dva\d^r]<; n irpo- 
(TWTTOV, KOI iv TOVTO) r}a)('r]/i6v7](Ta<; /cat, o r/Svvaao 
iK7rXi]pa)aaL, TrapeXtTre?. 

c. 38. 'Ey TO) TrepiiraTetv KaBdirep irpoaex^i^, 
fi7] em^f)^ r}\w rj aTpey\rr}<i top iroha aov, ovrco 
irpoaex^, f^V fcal to rjyefjLOViKOV ySXa-v//-?;? to 
aeavrov. koX rovro idv icp^ e/cdarov epyov 
7rapa(f)vXdcrao)/jL€V, dcr(^a\eaT€pop d-ylrofieOa rou 

c. 39. ^lerpop /CT7;ae&)? to aodpua eKdarw ax; 
6 TToi;? v7roSi]/jLaT0<;. idp fxep ovp eVt rovrov 
cTT^?, (j)v\d^€t^ TO ilerpop' idp Be vTrep/Sfji;, o)? 
Kara KpiijJLvov Xolttop updyKr} (^epeaOau' Kaddirep 
Kol eVt Tov vTToBi'-jfiaTo^i, idp iiirep top iroda 
vTT€p^f)^, yiverai Kardy^^pvaov VTToSijpa, elra 

TTOpCpVpOVP, K€PT7]t6p. TOV jdp UTTU^ U7T€p TO 

fierpop opo<i ovdei<; iarip. 

c. 40. A/ yvpaLKe<; euOv<; diro recraapeorKaiBe/ca 
ircop VTTO TMP dpSpcop Kvpiat KaXovpraL. tol- 
yapovp opcjaaL, on dXXo p.€P ovBep avral^ 
TTpoaeari, [jlovop Be (TvyKoip^oiPjai TOt? dvBpdcri, 
dpxoprai KaXXwTrit^eaOaL Kal ip roinw irdaa^ 

^ r6 added by Schweighauser from Simplicius. 

' oiSoi 0uXa$a» Schweighauser : oTav Se? (^vAox^7Jj/at MSS, 

^ That is, property, which is of use only for the body, 
should be adjusted to a iiiaD's actual bodily needs, just as a 


you to take the larger share at a dinner is good for 
your body, still, it is bad for the maintenance of the 
proper kind of social feeling. When, therefore, you 
are eating with another person, remember to regard, 
not merely the value for your body of what lies 
before you, but also to maintain your respect for 
your host. 

37. If you undertake a role which is beyond your 
powers, you both disgrace yourself in that one, and 
at the same time neglect the role which you might 
have filled with success. 

38. Just as you are careful, in walking about, not 
to step on a nail or to sprain your ankle, so be care- 
ful also not to hurt your governing principle. And 
if we observe this rule in every action, we shall be 
more secure in setting about it. 

39. Each man's body is a raea'^ure for his property,^ 
just as the foot is a measure for his shoe. If, then, 
you abide by this principle, you will maintain the 
proper measure, but if you go beyond it, you cannot 
help but fall headlong over a precipice, as it were, 
in the end. So also in the case of your shoe ; if 
once you go beyond the foot, you get first a gilded 
shoe, then a purple one, then an embroidered one. 
For once you go beyond the measure there is no 

40. Immediately after they are fourteen, women 
are called "ladies " by men. And so when they see 
that they have nothing else but only to be tlie bed- 
fellows of men, they begin to beautily tliemselves, 

shoe is (or at least should be) adjusted to the actual needs of 
a man's foot. The comparison seems to have been a 
commonplace; see Demophilus, Similitvdines, 20 (Mullach); 
Horace, Epist. I. 7, 98 and 10, 42 f. 


e^e/i^ ra? eXTrtSa?. irpoak^'^iv ovv a^tov, 7va 
alaOayvTaL, Store eV ovhevl dW(p ri/xcjPTai y tw 
KOGynai ^aiveaOai Kal alSy]/jLOve<;.^ 

c. 41. 'A(f)via<; o-rjfielov to ivBiarpl^eiv tol^ 
irepl TO aa)/ia, olov eirl ttoXv yv/jLvd^eaOai, iirl 
TToXv iaOiELV, eirl ttoXv Triveiv, iirl ttoXv diro- 
Trarelv, ox^veiv. dWa ravra fiev ev irapepyw 
TTOi-qreov Trepl Se Tr]v yvco/jiijv rj nrdaa ecrrco 

c. 42. ''Orav ai rt? KaKw^ TTOtfj rj kukoj^; Xeyrj, 
fMefJivt^aOy on KaOrjKeiv avrcp olofxevo^ iroiel rj 
Xeyet. 01);^ ^^^^ '^^ ^^^' dKoXovOelv avrov ra> crol 
(paLV0/jL6P(p, dXXd tw eavrw, wcrre, el KaKOi^ avTO) ^ 
(patperai, eKelvo^ /SXdTrreraL, 6aTt<; Kal e^rj- 
irdrTjTat.. Kal yap to dX7]6e<i av fxTTeirXey ixevov 
dv Tt? viroXd^r} ■x/reOSo?, ov to av/jLTreTrXey/jLevor 
^€/3Xa7TTai, dXX' 6 i^aTrarrjOelf;. diro rovrcop 
ovv opfjL(o/j.evo<i Trpacoi; e^ei? tt/oo? toz^ Xoihopovvra. 
iiTL^deyyov yap 6<p' eKaaro) on " eho^ev avTW,'''' 

c. 43, Hdv TTpdy/ia 8vo e)(^€i, Xa/3d^, rrjv fiev 
<f)opTjr7]v, rrjv ok d(f)6pr]T0v. 6 a8e\^09 cdv 
dSiKrj, evTevOev avro fir) Xd/x^ave, on dBiKel 
(avrr) yap rj Xa^r) ecTTLV avrov ov (popr)r7]), dXXd 
eKslOev fidXXov, on dheX(^6^, on avvrpo(f)o<;, Kal 
Xrj-^T) avro KaO^ (poprjrov. 

^ un., Nil. : ai5^/xov€S eV (rcotppoarvyr] other MSS. 
2 C un.. Nil. (ed. Rom.) : om. other* MSS. 

^ Two judgements connected with "and." Zeller, Philo- 
sophie der Qriec/ien,* III. 1 (1909), 106, and note 3. Compare 
also I. 26, 14 ; II. 9, 8. An example of an inconsistent 
composite judgement is given in Eiich. 36. 



and })ut all their hopes in that. It is worth while 
for us to take pains, therefore, to make them under- 
stand that they are honoured for nothing else but 
only for appearing modest and self-respecting. 

41. It is a mark of an ungifted man to spend a 
great deal of time in what concerns his body, as in 
much exercise, much eating, much drinking, much 
evacuating of the bowels, much copulating. But 
these things are to be done in passing ; and let your 
whole attention be devoted to the mind. 

42. When someone treats you ill or speaks ill 
of you, remember that he acts or speaks thus 
because he thinks it is incumbent upon him. That 
being the case, it is impossible for him to follow 
what appears good to you, but what appears good 
to himself; whence it follows, that, if he gets a 
wrong view of things, the man that suffers is the 
man that has been deceived. For if a person thinks a 
true composite judgement^ to be false, the composite 
judgement does not suffer, but the person who has 
been deceived. If, therefore, you start from this 
point of view, you will be gentle with the man who 
reviles you. For you should say on each occasion, 
'^ He thought that way about it." 

43. Everything has two handles, by one of which 
it ought to be carried and by the other not. If 
your brother wrongs you, do not lay hold of the 
matter by the handle of the wrong that he is doing, 
because this is the handle by which the matter 
ought not to be carried ; but rather by the other 
handle — that he is your brother, that you were 
brought up together, and then you will be laying 
hold of the matter by the handle by which it ought 
to be carried. 



c. 44. OvToi 01 \6yoL davvafCTOL' " 67:0 aov 
'7r\ovai(i)T€p6<; elfjn, eyco aov apa Kpeiaauiv''^' 
" iyd) aov \oyLa)T€po<;, eyo) aov dpa Kpeiaawv "" 
€K6Lvot, Se fjbdWov avvaKTLKoi' ** eV*^ ^o"*^ ttXov- 
accorepo^ el/jLi, rj ifxij dpa Kri]aL<; ri]<; ai)^ Kpeia- 
aoov'^- " eyo) aov \oyid)T€po<;, 1) e'yu,?; dpa Xe^t^ r?}? 
o-r/9 Kpeiaacov^ av Be ye ovre KTT]aL<; el ovre Xefi?. 

c. 45. Aoverai ri<; rax^f^^' A*-?; ecTrr]^ on KaK(o<;, 
dX}C on ra'X^co'i. Trivei n<; iroXvv olvov' fir) 
€L7r7j<; on KaK(o<;, aXA,' on iroXvv. irplv yap 
Biayvcavat. to Soyfia, rroOev olada, el KaKcb<; ; 
ovT(M)<; ov^ avfi/SyjaeraL aoi dWcov^ fiev <f>avTa- 
aia'^ KaTa\y]7TTCKd<; Xafi^dpecv,^ dWoi<; Be auyKa- 

1 c. 46. Mz/Sa/xoO aeavrov eXirij^i (f)L\6ao(f)ov firjBe 
XdXet, TO TToXv ev lBLcoTat<i irepl tcov dewpiifJidTCiiv, 
dXXd TToiei to diro twi/ dewprj/jidTcov olov ev 
avfjLTToaiM pLTj Xeye, ttco? Bel iaOleiv, dXX^ eaOie, 
o)? Bel. fiepLVTjao yap, otl oi/Ta>9 d(^r)pr]KeL iravTa- 
yodev 'S^coKpaTT]^ to eTTiBecKTiKov, waTe ^ rip^ovTo 
irpo's avTov /SovXo/iepot (piXoaocpot^ vrr* avTov 
avaTaOrjvai, KUKelvo^ dirrfyev avTOV<;. ovt(o<; 

2 r^veix^TO Trapopcofievof;. kclv irepi Oewpi'^ixaTo^ 
TiV0<; ev IBioiTai^ efnriirTr) Xoyo^, aidyira to ttoXv' 
fieya<; yap 6 klvBvvo<; evOv^ i^ep-eaai, o ovk 

1 Nil. : o.V Emh. 

2 C un., Nil., Simpl. : &K\as other MSS. 

3 C un., Nil. : KaTa\a/x.8dy€iv Other MSS. 

* C un., Nil., Simpl. : oni. here but placed before k&v 
(below) by otlier MSS. 



44. The lollowinn^ statements constitute a non 
sequitur : *' I am richer than you are, tlierefore 1 am 
superior to you " ; or, " I am more eloquent than 
you are, therefore I am superior to you." But the 
following conclusions are ])etter: "I am richer than 
you are, therefore my property is superior to yours " ; 
or, " I am more eloquent than you are, therefore my 
elocution is superior to yours." ^ut you are neither 
property nor elocution. 

45. Somebody is hasty about bathing ; ^ do not say 
that he bathes badly, but that he is hasty about 
bathing. Somebody drinks a good deal of wine ; do 
not say that he drinks badly, but that he drinks a 
good deal. For until you have decided what judge- 
ment prompts him, how do you know that wliat he 
is doing is bad ? And thus the final result will not 
be that you receive convincing sense-impressions of 
some things, but give your assent to others. 

46. On no occasion call yourself a philosopher, 
and do not, for the most part, talk among laymen 
about your philosophic principles, but do what 
follows from your principles. For example, at a 
banquet do not say how people ought to eat, but 
eat as a man ought. For remember how Socrates 
had so completely eliminated the thought of osten- 
tation, that people came to him when they wanted 
him to introduce them to philosophers, and he used 
to bring them along. So well did he submit to being 
overlooked. And if talk about some philosophic 
principle arises among laymen, keep silence for the 
most part, for there is great danger that you will 
spew up immediately what you have not digested. 

1 The implication must be that a hurried bath, like a 
hurried shave, is apt to leave something to be desired. 


€7re\lra<;. koI orav cXttt) <tol t^?, otl ovhev olcrOa, 
fcal (TV firj hrj-y/^d fi<; , tots laOi, on ap-)(r} tov epyov. 
eVel Kal ra TrpS/Sara ov xopTOV (pipovra toI? 
TTOi/jLeaiu iiTiheiKvyeL rroaov €(j)ay€v, dWa ttjv 
vo/j.T]v eao) Treyjravja epia e^co ^epei Kal 'ydXa' 
Kal (TV Toivvv /jLtj to, Oecoprj/xaTa Tol<i lSi(t)Tac<s 
eiriBeiKwe, dX)C a7r' avroiv Trecj^Oevrcov rd 

c. 47. "Orav eureXw? r)p/jLoa/ji€vo<; 179 Kard to 
aco/xa, fiT) KaWcoTrl^ov eirl rovT(p /x^S', dv vBcop 
iTivr]<^, eK 7rdarj<; d(f)opfjLrj<^ ^€76, otl v8(op TTtVet?. 
Kav daKYjaal iroTe 7rp6<; ttovov deXrj^, aeavTw Kal 
/JLT) TOi? efft)' /jlt) tov<; dvhpt,dvTa<i 7repL\dfi/3av€' 
dWd Scyjrcov Trore cr(f)o8pa)<; eTrLaTraaai yfrvxpov 
vSaTO<; Kal eKirrvaov Kal firjSevl eLirr]<;. 

c. 48. ^ihiOiiTov cTTacTL^; Kal y^apaKTTTjp' ovheiTOTe 
ef eavTov irpoahoKa cDcpeXetav 1) ^Xd/Srjv, dXX' 
drro TMV e^co. (f)LXoa6(f)OV crTdai<; Kal x^paKTrip' 
jrdaav (jt)(peX€iav Kal ^Xdffrjv i^ kavTOV TTpocr- 

^r]/j,€La irpOKOTTTOVTO^- ovBeva ^jr€y€L, ovBiva 
€TTat,vel, ovheva /jL€/jL(p€Tat, ovSevl iyKoXel, ovSev 
TTcpl eavTov Xeyec co? 6pto<; tlvo^ rj elB6T0<i tl. orav 
ifXTToScaOT] TC 7) KcoXvdrj, eavTM iyKaXel. Kav Tt9 
avTov eiraLvfi, KaTayeXa tov i7raLvovvTO<; avTO<; 
irap^ lavT(j}' Kav yjreyT}, ovk aTToXoyecTai. irepUt,- 

^ That is, in cold weather (see III. 12, 2 and 10), because 
this takes a person out of doors where people can see him. 
2 See III. 12, 17, and note. 


So when a man tells you that you know nothing, 
and you, like Socrates, are not hurt, then rest 
assured that you are making a beginning with the 
business you have undertaken. For sheep, too, do 
not bring their fodder to the sliepherds and show 
how much they have eaten, but they digest their 
food within them, and on the outside produce wool 
and milk. And so do you, therefore, make no dis- 
play to the laymen of your philosophical principles, 
but let them see the results which come from these 
principles when digested. 

47. When you have become adjusted to sim})le 
living in regard to your bodily wants, do not preen 
yourself about the accomplishment ; and so likewise, 
if you are a water-drinker, do not on every occasion 
say that you are a water-drinker. And if ever you 
want to train to develop physical endurance, do it 
by yourself and not for outsiders to behold ; do not 
throw your arms around statues,^ but on occasion, 
when you are very thirsty, take cold water into your 
mouth, and then spit it out, without telling anybody.- 

48. This is the position and character of a layman : 
He never looks for either help or harm from him- 
self, but only from externals. This is the position 
and character of the philosopher : He looks for all 
his help or harm from himself. 

Signs of one who is making progress are : He 
censures no one, praises no one, blames no one, 
finds fault with no one, says nothing about himself 
as though he were somebody or knew something. 
When he is hampered or prevented, he blames him- 
self. And if anyone compliments him, he smiles to 
himself at the person com])limenting ; while if any- 
one censures him, he makes no defence. He goes 


(Ti he KaOdnrep ol appcocrroi, €vXa^ov/x€p6<; ri kl- 
vrjaac tmv KaOtarafievcov, irplv ttPj^lv \a(Belv, 
3 ope^iv uTracrav r]pKev ef eavrov' rrju 8' exKXiatv 
eU /jLOva ra irapa (j)vaLV rcov e(f> fierareOeiKev. 
opixfi 7rpo<; diravra dveLfiivrj ^y^prjTai. av ijjXlOio'^ 
rj dfjiaOrj<; SoKrj, ov 7T€(f)p6vTLK€V. evL re Xoyqy, co? 
iyOpov eavTOV irapacpvXdcraeL kol €7rL/3ov\ov. 

c. 49. 'Orav rt? iirl rw voelv kol i^-qyeladai 
hvvacrOai ra XpuabTrTrov ^l/SXiu a6/jLvvvT]Tai, Xeye 
avTO<^ 7rpo<; eavrov on, " el fii) XpucrtTTTro? daacpco^; 
e<y€ypd(f)€i, ovSev av elx^v outo?, e<^' c5 eaefivv- 


'Eyft) Be rl /SovXofiat ; KarauaOelv t7]V cf>u(Tiv 
Kal ravry eirecrOac. ^tjto) guv, rt? earlv 6 i^Tjyov- 
fjL€vo<;' Kal cLKOVda^, on XpvaiTnroff, ep^ofJ^at, 
7r/909 avTov. dXX^ ov voco ra yeypafijieva' ^yro) 
ovv rov €^)]yovfjLevov. Kal fte^pt tovtcov ovttco 
crefivov ovhev. orav he evpco rov e^jjyovfievov, 
diroXeiirerat ')(^pr}(jdaL roL<; 7Tapy]yyeX/jL€voL<;' rov- 
ro avro /lovov cre/jLvov icrrLV. av Be avro rovro 
ro e^rjyeicrdai Oavfjudaco, ri clXXo tj ypap.pbarLKO'^ 
aTrereXeadrjv dvrl (pcXocrocjiov ; irXi^v ye Brj on 
dvrl 'Ofirjpov XpvaiTnrov e^7)yovfi€vo<;. /xdXXov 
ovv, orav rt? etirrj fMOi " eiTavdyvcoOi /loi ^ ^pv- 
aiTTTrov,'^ epvOpiS}, orav jjli] Bvvco/iai ofxoia ra 
epya Kal avfK^wva eTrtBeLKVveiv rol<i \070i?. 

c. 50, 'Oaa rrporiderai, rovroi<: o)? v6fioi<i, o)? 
^ In A alone. 


about like an invalid, being careful not to disturb, 
before it has grown firm, any part which is getting 
well. He has put away from himself his every desire, 
and has transferred his aversion to those things only, 
of what is under our control, which are contrary to 
nature. He exercises no pronounced choice in 
regard to anything. If he gives the appearance 
of being foolish or ignorant he does not care. In 
a word, lie keeps guard against himself as though 
he were his own enemy lying in wait. 

49. When a person gives himself airs because he 
can understand and interpret the books of Chry- 
sippus, say to yourself, " If Chrysippus had not 
written obscurely, this man would have nothing 
about which to give himself airs." 

But what is it I want ? To learn nature and to 
follow lier. I seek, therefore, someone to interpret 
her ; and having heard that Chrysippus does so, I 
go to him. But I do not understand what he has 
written ; I seek, therefore, the person who inter- 
prets Chrysippus. And down to this point there 
is nothing to justify pride. But when I find the 
interpreter, what remains is to put his precepts into 
practice ; this is the only thing to be proud about. 
If, however, I admire the mere act of interpretation, 
what have I done but turned into a grammarian 
instead of a philosopher ? The only difference, 
indeed, is that I interpret Chrysippus instead of 
Homer. Far from being proud, therefore, when 
somebody says to me, •' Read me Chrysippus," I 
blush the rather, when I am unable to show him 
such deeds as match and harmonize with his words. 

50. Whatever principles are set before you, stand 
fast by these like laws, feeling that it would be 



dae^ijacop, av 7rapa0^<;, efjufxeve. 6 tl S* av ipfj 
Ti<; irepX aov, firj einaTpe^ov' tovto yap ov/c er 
earl a op. 

1 c. 51. Et? iTolov en \p6vov avafiaXkr) to TOiv 
^eXrla-rcov d^iovv (reavrov koI iv /irjhevl irapa- 
^aivetv rov BiaLpovvra \6<yov ; 7rap€LX7](f)a<; ra 
6eo)pi)paTa, oh eBei ae (Tvp^fidWeiv, Kal av/jL^e- 
^XrjKa<;. irolov ovv 6tl hihaaKoXov 7rpoaBoKa<;, 
'iva eh eKelvov virepOfi rrjv eiravopdwdLv iroirjcraL 
rrjv creavTOV ; ov/c en el jxeipaKLOV, dWd dvrjp 
Tjhr} TeXeco<;. dv vvv djjueXi'jcrr)^ Kal padvpLi](Tri^ 
Kal del irpoOeaeL^ ^ eV TrpoOeaeco^ ^ iroifj ^ Kal 
rjfiepa^ aXXa<; eV dXXai<; 6pL^rj<;, /leO' a? rrrpo- 
ae^€i<; aeavrw, Xrjcrei^ aeavrov ov TrpOKoyjra^;, 
dXX' lhi(OTr]<; SiaTeXea€i<; Kal ^(ov Kal diroOif^aKcov. 

2 7]Srj ovv d^iwaov aeavrov jSiovv ot)<; riXetov Kal 
TTpoKOTTTOvra' Kal irdv to ^eXTicjTOv ^aivofxevov 
ecTTft) croL vofio'i dirapd^aTO^. kclv eiriTTOvov ti 
r) rjBv Tf evBo^ov rj dho^ov TrpoadyrjTai, /jLefJLvrjao, 
OTL vvv 6 dycov Kal rjBrj irdpeaTi, tcl 'OXv/xTTLa Kal 
ovK eaTLV dvaj3dXXeadai ovKeTi Kal ori^ irapd 
filav Tjjiepav Kal ev irpdyp^a ^ Kal ^ diroXXvTai 

3 TrpoKOTTj) Kal ^ (j(i)i^eTai. X(OKpdTi](; ovto)<; dire- 
TeXeaOrj, eirl ttuvtcov tmv irpoaayofievoiv avTw '^ 
fiTjBevl dXX(p Trpoaexo^v rj tw Xoyo). av Be el Kal 
/jL7]7r(0 el ^ci)KpdT7}<;, 009 ^(OKpaTrj^; ye elvai ^ovXo- 

/jL€V0<; 6(f)€LX€L<; /3iovv. 

^ A un., Nil.: virepOdaeis the other MSS. 

- A un., Nil. : vxepdea-ews ( — ewv) the other MSS. 

3 Nil. : irotfis Ench. 

* C (several), Nil. : fhi the other MSS. 

^ T)ix4pav Koi %v irpay^ia Sinipl. : T]TTav Koi ivZoffiv Elich. 

* C un., Nil., Simpl. : f) the other MSS. (except in the 
second case ri Kai B A sing.). 



impiety for you to traiisij^ress them. Hut pay no 
attention to what somebody says about you, tor this 
is, at lengtli, not under your control. 

51. How long will you still wait to think yourself 
worthy of the best things, and in nothing to trans- 
gress against the distinctions set up by the reason ? 
You have received the philosophical principles 
which you ought to accept, and you have accepted 
them. What sort of a teacher, then, do you still wait 
for, that you should put off reforming yourself until 
he arrives ? You are no longer a lad, but already a 
full-grown man. If you are now neglectful and 
easy-going, and always making one delay after 
another, and fixing first one day and then another, 
after which you will pay attention to yourself, then 
without realizing it you will make no progress, but, 
living and dying, will continue to be a layman 
throughout. Make up your mind, therefore, before 
it is too late, that the fitting thing for you to do is 
to live as a mature man who is making progress, 
and let everything which seems to you to be best 
be for you a law that must not be transgressed. 
And if you meet anything that is laborious, or 
sweet, or held in high repute, or in no repute, 
remember that now is the contest, and here before 
you are the Olympic games, and that it is impossible 
to delay any longer, and that it depends on a single 
day and a single action, whether progress is lost or 
saved. This is the way Socrates became what he 
was, by paying attention to nothing but his reason 
in everything that he encountered. And even if 
you are not yet a Socrates, still you ought to live as 
one who wishes to be a Socrates. 

' rwv ■Kpoo'a'yojxivuv avTtf Meibom : Trpoadyuv eavr6y Ench. 



1 c. 52. 'O TrpwTO? Koi avayKaioraro^; totto? 
iarlv ev ^Ckoaof^ia 6 rfj<; ')(py]aea)<; tmv Oecop^j/id- 
Twv, olov TO ^ 1X7] -yjrevSeaOar 6 hevrepof; 6 tmv 
uTTohei^ewv, olov irodev on ov Sec -ylrevBearOat ; 
rpiro^ 6 avTcov tovtcov /Se^aicoTLKo^ Kal hiapdpw- 
Ti/co9, olov TToOev on tovto aTroSeL^L^; ; ri 'yap 
eanv cnroheL^i'^, ri aKoXovOta, tl /id)(^^r], rl d\i]Oe^, 

2 Tt ylrevSo^ ; ovkovv 6 fiev t/oito? totto? dvayKa2o<; 
Bid Tov Bevrepov, 6 Be BevT6po<; Bid rov irpayrov 
6 Be dvajKaioraro^; /cal ottov dvairaveaOai Bel, o 
IT pMTOf; . r)/jL€L<i Be efxiToXiv TTOiovp.ev ev ydp tgj 
rpiTcp roTTO) BiarpL^ofiev koI irepl eKelvov eanv 
f)fuv 7] irdaa cnrovBr)' tov Be irpooTov iravTeXoi^i 
d/jLe\ov/jL€v. Tocyapovv '^evBofxeOa /j,ev, ttco? Be 
aTToBeiKVUTai oti ov Bel -yjrevBeaOai, Trpo'xeipov 


1 c. 53. *E7ri 7ravT0<^ irpoyeipa eKTeov " Tavra' 

dyov Be ^ jx , 0) Zev, Kal av y * 7) YieTT pw pievrj , 
OTTOi TToO^ v/jlIv eljA BiaTeTay fievo^' 
ft)? e'^opiai y doKvo^' rjv Be ye fxt] deXco, 
KaKO^ yev6fJLevo<;, ovBev yjttov eyjro/jbai. 

2 '* ocTTt? S' dvdyKT) GvyK.e\(j)p7]Kev Ka\co<;, 
(Tocpo^ Trap' 7)/jblv, Kal Ta deV^ eiriaTaTai." 

3 ** dW\ 0) KpLTMv, el TavTT) toI<; OeoL<; <pi\ov, 

4 TavTT) yeveaOwy 

" e/iie Be"AvvTo<s Kal MeX,7;T09 ^ diroKTelvaL /xev 

Bvvavrai, /3\d\lrai Be ov.'''' 

^ C \\n., and perhaps Siinpl. : 6 rov the other MSS. 
^ C iionn., Par., Simpl. : evKreoy the other MSS. 
3 Me i bom (from the Disc.) : 6.yi Sr) fx€ Ench. 
* Meibom (from s in three of the four quotations in the 
Disc): Kai A un., and S generally. Tlie other MSS. omit. 
^ C nonn., Plutarch : 0e?a the other MSS. * Me\iTos MSS. 


52. The (irst and most necessary division in 
philosophy is that which has to do with the appH- 
cation of the principles, as^ for example, Do not 
lie. The second deals with the demonstrations, as, 
for example. How comes it that we ought not to 
lie } The third confirms and discriminates between 
these processes, as, for example, How does it come 
that this is a proof ? For what is a proof, what is 
logical consequence, what contradiction, what truth, 
what falsehood ? Therefore, the third division is 
necessary because of the second, and the second 
because of the first ; while the most necessary of all, 
and the one in which we ought to rest, is the first. 
But we do the opposite ; for we spend our time in 
the third division, and all our zeal is devoted to it, 
while we utterly neglect the first. Wherefore, we 
lie, indeed, but are ready with the arguments which 
prove that one ought not to lie. 

53. Upon every occasion we ought to have the 
following thoughts at our command : 

Lead thou me on, O Zeus, and Destiny, 
To that goal long ago to me assigned. 
I'll follow and not falter; if my will 
Prove weak and craven, still I'll follow on.^ 

" Whoso has rightly with necessity complied, 

We count him wise, and skilled in things divine." ^ 

" Well, O Crito, if so it is pleasing to the gods, so 
let it be." 3 

" Anytus and Meletus can kill me, but they 
cannot hurt me." * 

^ From Clean thes. See note on II. 23, 42. 

^ Euripides, frag. 965 Nauck. 

3 Plato, Criio, 43 D (slightly modified). 

* Plato, Apology, 30 C-D (somewhat modified). 



ABLSDOS one's own people, 103, 509 

Aberration, 473 

Abject, 197, 203, 237-9, 261, 313, 305, 

Abroad, going, 200-11, 215 
Abscess, 181 
Abstention, 85 
Abstinence, 157, 319 
Academy, 321 
Acceptance, 419 
Accident, 229 
Accusers of Socrates, 287 
Accusing, 35, 45 
Acheron, 93 
Achilles, 183, 406-9 
Acquaintances, 187, 205, 307 
Acquie.-cence, 233 
Acropolis, 2U7, 273 
Act, one's own, 2G7-9 
Action, 31, 317, 329 
Actinties, 433 ; of reason, 421 
Actor, 3U1, 3G5, 497; comic, 35, 39 
Almetus, 119 
Administration, 511 
Admiration, 199, 231, 371, 519 
Adonis, 389 
Adulterer, 31, 309, 381 
Adultery, 395 
Advancement at court, 433 
Advantage, 119-21, 265, 335, 355, 375 
Adventures, 521 
Advertising, 179 
Advice, 463 
Adze, 377 
Aegisthus, 19 
Aeolus, 159 

Affection 20^5, 211, 307 
Agamemnon, 133, 141-2, 309 
Age, proper, 129 
Aggressor, 343 
Agrippinus, 465-7 
Air, 193, 449 ; airs, putting on, 77 
Alcibiades, 344 
Alexander, 161, 207 
Aliens, 517 
Alone. See Forlorn. 

Ambassador, 275 

Ambition, 329 

Amendment, 129 

Anaxarchus, 206 

Ancestors, 247, 297 

Anchor, 475 ; at anchor, 489 

Andromache, 169 

Anger, 27, 79, 91, 103, 135, 429, 451, 

465, 509 
Animal, 363, 409-11, 443; caged and 

free, 251-3 ; rational and irrational, 

471 ; tame, 285, 469 
Ankle, 101, 507, 525 
Annoyance, 427, 463 
Another (= God), 21, 33, 93, 279, 497 
Antecedent, 51 
Anticipation, 451 
Antilochus, 407 
Antipater, 27, 125 
Antisthenes, 153, 205, 283, 353 
Anxiety, 397-9, 405 
Anvtus, 177, 537 
Ape, 103, 509 
Apollo, 11, 73, 89; Paean, 73; 

Pythian, 517 
Apollonius, 87 
Appearances, 201, 339 
Appetite, 117 
Applause, 173, 197, 325 
Apple, 339 
Application of principles, 265, 529-33, 

Approval, 451 
Apron, 381 
Aprulla, 295 
Apuleius, 326 
Archedemus, 27, 125 
Archelaus, 455 
Archery, 357 
Archidamus, 299 
Arethas, 150 
Argos, 189, 237 
Arguments, 293, 303, 427, 537 
Argus, 19, 167 
Aricia, 465 
Aristeides, 393 



Aristophanes, 417; (of Byzantium), 

Armament, 253 
Armour, 351 
Arms, 503, 609 
Army, 195 
Arriiin, 449, 453 
Arrogance, 85, 295 
Art and Arts, 35, 57, 125, 171, 377, 

427; small, 179 
Artaserxes Oehus, 253 
.Ajsclepius, 385 
Ashamed. See SfMine. 
Ashes, 233 
Ass, 59, 99, 149, 309, 339. See also 

Assent, 23, 29, 53, 85, 145, 1C7, 267, 

317, 349, 355, 397, 411, 451, 471, 529 
Assessing penalty, 205 
Assistance, 501-3 
Associates, 193 
Athena, 89 

Athenians, 161, 207, 299, 301 
Athens, 55, 149, 161, 179, 189, 197, 

203-9, 217-9, 303, 327, 455 
Athlete, 101-3, 107, 119, 125, 139, 

151, 169, 225, 281, 317, 325, 509, 517 
Atoms, 441 
Attach oneself, 275-7 
Attachment, 211 
Attendant, 117, 233 
Attention, 167, 375, 423 fiE., 471, 489, 

535; personal, 505 
Attire, 393 
Attractive and Attractiveness, 85, 

163, 523 
Audience, 173-5, 182-3, 457 
August (jadj.), 121 
AvLopices, 223 
Authority, 207, 367, 4^5 
Automedon, 407 
Aversion and Avoidance, 21-3, 29, 47, 

57-9, 81-7, 99, 135, 141, 145-7, 153, 

167, 173, 2U3, 231, 323-5, 341, 351, 

383, 399, 411, 419, 441, 471, 4S3-5, 

495, 513-5, 533; Treatise on, 319 
Avoidance. See Aversion. 
Awe, 147, 371 
Axe, 377 

Babble and Babbler, 197, 433-5 
Babv, 155 
Backsliding, 381 

Bar], 79, 121-3, 289, 347, 375-7, 
381 ; man, 245-7. See also Evil. 

Hag, 467 

BaiJiil' of the Free Cities, 49 ff. 

Banishment, 219 

Banker, 29 

Banquet, 105, 461, 495, 529 

Barbarisms, 69 

Barea Sorauus, 292 

Barley, 99, 271, 463; -meal, 455 

Base, the, 55, 329 

Bath and Bathing, 71, 117, 225, 235, 

259, 317, 323, 377, 415-17, 421, 

487, 503, 529 : public, 486 ; -tub, 155 
Battle, 91; -field, 155 
" Bear and Forbeiir," 455 
Beard, 13, 379, 381 
Bearing grudges, 335 
Beast, 413 

Beaten (defeated), 509 
Beating, 167, 269, 369; to death, 59 
Beautiful and Beautv, 5-9, 15, 19, 21, 

175, 327, 391-3, 407, 419 
Beautifying, 525 
Bed, 43, 71, 239, 387; hard, 133; 

-fellows, 525 
Bedroom, 135; -door, 59 
Bee, 167, 273 
BeeswEix, 339 
Begetting children, 57 
Beggar, 79, 135, 161, 229, 257, 457, 497 
Beginner, 85, 95 
Beginning, 531 
Beheading, 2r)9, 287, 371 
Being, problem of, 441-3 
lienches, 183; the judge's bench, 197 
Benefit, 497 
Besiegers, 341 

Best thing in the s\ odd, 49-53 
Bile, 393 
Birds, 251 
Birth, 279-81, 337 
Biting, 287 
Blackguards, 197 
Blacksmith, 171, 503 
Blame and Blaming, 77, 147, 151, 203, 

209, 233, 329, 363, 375-7, 381, 483, 

489, 513, 617 
l^Ifssed, 121, 367-9 
Biiad and Blinded, 139, 235, 383-5, 

Jilossom, 389 
Blow the nose, 491 
Blowhard, 3S5 
Blows, 223 
Blush and Blushing, 57, 459, 465, 523, 



Boar. 399 

Bodv, 21, 47-9, 53, 73. 77, 'j;i, 113, 
137-9, 141-5, IGl, 167, 'Ml, l,'G7-73, 
279, 283, 289, 297-301, 311, 325, 
359, 3G7, 413-19, 443-5, 459, 465, 
467-9, 475, 4S3, 491, 497, 507, 515, 
525-7; -guard, 163-5, 275 

Bold, 453 

Bombast, 459 

Bonds, 267, 367 

Bones, 373 

Book, 159, 313-17, 325, 375, 405, 533 

Borrowing, 347 

Bow, of ship, 195 

Bowels, 393 

Bov, 33, 5:>, 395; pretty, 249; 
-favourito, 135 

Braggart, 199, 347 

Brave, 247 

Break wind, 159 

Breast, 2n3 

Bridle, 271, 463 

Brigand and Brigandage, 91, 193, 467 

Bronze, 141 

Brother, 23, 31, 79-81, 87-9, 115, 125, 
145, 149, 159, 165, 2(Jl, 2U5, 2ny-ll, 
267, 275, 283, 343, 373, 435, 511, 

Brotherly love, 31 

Brushing teeth, 467 

Brutal and Brutality, 331 EE., 33) 

Builder and Building, 77, 125, 451 

Bulb, 489 

BuU, 13, 133, 167, 391 

Burden, 349, 435 

Bushel-measure, 233 

Business, 321, 357, 501 ; one's truo, 
345, 399 

Busybody, 165 

Buying and selling, 261 

Caesar, 29, 31, 37-9, 59, 61, 69, 91, 
103-5, 149-51, 223, 247-9, 257-9, 
263,277,315-17, 369,431, 435, oil; 
friend of, 247; household of, 357 

Cage, 251 

Cake, 345, 463 ; sweet, 507 

Calf, 133 

Callicles, 331 

Calling of a Cvnic, 131-69 

Calm, 359, 401-3, 459, 493, 511 

Campaign, 193-7, 249-51, 255 

Capitol, 223 

Captain, 195, 489 

C-aufcivea, 285 

Careful, 159 

Careleisnoss, 381, 515 

Caring for men, 2m5 

Carpenter, 137, 171, 377-81, 423, 427 

Cash, 433 

Cassiope, 50-1 

Cassius, 313 

Categorv, 179 

Cattle, is, 69, 323 

Cautery, 157 

Censorious, 519 

Censure and Censuring, 163 5, 225. 
229, 427, 531 

Chaeroneia, 139 

Chains, 285, 431 

Chamberlain, 361, 367 

Chance gift, 129 

Change, 215, 449; periodic, 187 

Chapel, 127 

Character, 309, 517 

Charm, natural, 163 

Chase, 287 

Cheerfulness, 445 

Cheese, 48-9 

Child and Children, 33, 55-7, 71, 93, 
101, 105, 115-7, 125, 147, 153-9, 
165, 169, 173, 187-9, 203-5, 211-13, 
235, 267, 2 75, 279-83, 293, 299, 301, 
361, 369, 373, 387, 443, 445, 487-91, 
495-7, 505, 509-13; children's 
children, 193 

ChUl, 153 

Choice, 23, 57-9, 81, 85, 141, 145-7, 
167, 203, 245, 267, 275, 319, 323, 
351, 355, 367, 411, 419, 441, 447, 
471, 483, 487, 533; of God, 277; 
treatise on, 319 

Choke lions, 335 

Chorus, 441 ; singer, 96-7 

Christians, 362 

Chronic disorders, 109 

Chrvsippus, 27, 44, 71, 125, 211, 393, 
449, 533 

Circumspection, 101-3, 509 

Circumstances, 263 

Circus, 109, 403 

Citadel, 273-5 

Cithara, 381 

Citharoede, 171, 179, 375 

Citizen (and duties of), 13, 17, 23, 49, 
55, 125, 199, 201, 221, 339, 501-3, 
511; of universe, 191 

Citizenship, 57, 199 

City, 93, 147, 155, 273, 303, 417; 
imperial, 195; -state, 201 



Civil strife, 343 

Clap bauds, 187 

Claque, 37 

Class-room, 109 

Clay, 145, 279 

Clean and CleanUness, 20-1, 163, 

409 ff. 
Oleanthes, 181, 235, 305, 327; quoted, 

Climate, 1U9 
Cloak, fancy, 183; little, 157; purple, 

457; rough, 13, 133, 147, 377-81, 

387, 421 
Clothes, 135, 239, 267, 393-5, 413, 

417, 4G3; clothing, 519. See also 

Dress, and Raiment. 
Club, 59 
Cnossos, 65 
Coal, 105 
Cobbler, 67, 199, 201, 235, 427, 503; 

-'8 apple, 3oS 
Cobbling, 171 
Cock, 21, 235, 287 
Cocvtus, 93 

Coiii and Coinage, 29^33, 337, 501 
Cold, 193, 353, 457, 465, 507; water, 

101, 507 
Collapse of building, 451 
Colophon, 257 
Colour, 451 

Command, 197, 217, 221, 333 
Commandeering, 269 
Commander, 237 
Commanding officer, 511 
Comments, 125 
Commerce, 401 
Common people, 167, 217; sense, 46; 

weal, and welfare, 159, 2(t5, 401 
Communion with oneself, 89, 217 
Community of women, 461 
Companion, 93, 427, 517-a 
Company, 281 
Complaint, 195 
Complexion, 161 
Compliments, 531 
Compoeit* judgomcnt, 527 
Composition, 177-9 
Comprehension, 441 ; treatise on, 317 
Compulsion, 27, 31, 91, 185, 197, 269, 

275, 295, 325, 435, 607 
Conceit, 97-9 

Conception, 483 ; of fitting and help- 
ful, 147 
Concern, one's own, 143, 191; 

principal, 619 


Conclusion, 29 

Concord, 345 

Condemnation, 113-5 

Confidence, 235, 345, 437 

Conformity with nature. See Nature. 

Confound and be confounded, 431 

Confusion, 311, 381-3, 411 

Confutation, 129 

Conscience, 165 

Consent, 511 

Consequent, 51 

Consideration, 111 

Consistency, 317 

Consolation, 221 

Conspicuous clothing, 375 

Constancy, 209, 311 

Constraint, 207 

Consul, 33, 141, 247, 261, 295, 303, 

403, 497 
Consular, 463 ; rank, 99 
Consulship, 261, 265, 295, 331, 369, 

Consumptive, 95, 161 
Contemptible, 447 

Contentious, 331 f[. 
Contentment, 3G5 

Contest, 47, 325, 383, 497, 507, 535 

Continence, 491 

Continuity, 315 

Contradiction, 537 

Control, 31, 185, 191, 239, 265-7, 271, 
279, 289, 319, 327, 363, 397-9, 
405, 443-5, 451, 463, 471, 483-7, 
493-7, 501-3, 513-15, 533-5 

Conversation, 105-7, 217, 517, 521 

Convei-se, with gods, 137 ; with men, 
207 ; with oneself, 323-5 

Convincing men of things good and 
evil, 347-9; oneself, 349, 351 

Convincing sense-impression, CO-l , 

Cook, 117; professional, 233 

Co-operation, 319 

Copulating, 527 

Corcyra, 50 

Corinth, 17 

Corinthians, 161, 299 

Comer, 165 

Cornice, 233 

Corpse, 371,471 

Corrector, 49 

Corruptible, 191 

Corruiiting, 295 

Cosmos, 443-5, 459. See also Uni- 
verse, and World, 


Oot, 155-7 

Counsel, 515; of God, 129 

Oounselior, 433, 515 

Oountenance composed, 381-3 

Oountrv, 31, 119, 209, 297-9, 445, 

501 ; = the Universe, 297 
Coarage, 165, 227, 239, 283 
Oourt, 103, 121, 509; Caesar's, 435 
Coward, 119 

Cowardice, 213, 231, 239, 247 
Cowardly, 281 
Craftsman, 339 
Crates, 153 
Creatures, 237 
Credentials, 59 
Orinus, -J 7 
Cripple, 497 
Criterion, 65 
Crito, 301, 537 
Crockery, 335 
Croesus, 139 
Cross-examination, 99 
Crow, 315 

Crowd, 87, 167, 183, 323 
Crowding the world, 281 
Crown (as prize), 39, 201 
Crows, 187 
Crucifixion, 235 
Crystal, 71; goblet, 211 
" Cuckoo," sing, 335 
Cudgel, 117 
Cup, 155, 283 
Curator, 467 
Custom, 109 
Cynic, 83, 130-69, 385 
Cyrus, 353 

Danaus, 159 

Dance, 29, 187, 281 

Dancer, 357 

Danger, 515, 521 

Darkness, 135 

Daughter, 159, 421 

Day, 523 

Deaf, 383 

Death, 33, 41, 61, 77, 113, 121, 137 
143, 153, 193, 205-7, 213-17, 227-9^ 
239-41, 251, 263, 267, 275, 281, 
287-303, 337, 347, 361, 369-71, 
401-5, 469, 475, 485, 489, 499, 505, 
515; -bed, 295; defined, 365; 
when overtaken by, 41-3, 401-3 

Deceit, 473 

Deceived, 343 

Decency, 395 

Decent, 151; behaviour, 61 ; speech. 

Decisions of will, 443 

Deed, of purchase, 263 ; of sale, 247 

Deeds, 533 

Defence, 135, 205, 519, 531; of self, 

Defer, 485 

Deity, 11, 149, 281, 329, 457 

Delay, 523, 535 

Deliberate, 473 

Deliberation, 507 

Delicacies, 233 

Deliverance, 397 

Delivery of speech. 179 

Delphi, 441 

Demeter, 127 

Demonstration, 233, 363, 537 

Demosthenes, 24 

" Denver, The," 71 

Dependable, 433 

Dependence, 193 

Deposit, 433 

Deprivation, 185 

Dervishes, 130, 133 

Design, 357 

Designation, 427 

Desire, 21-3, 29, 47, 57-9, 71, 81-7, 
95, 99, 103, 135, 141, 147, 167, 171-3, 
203, 221, 231, 245-7, 251, 269, 
272, 305, 315, 323-5, 341, 351, 
355, 359, 367, 383, 393, 399, 411, 
419, 435, 441, 471, 483-7, 495, 
513-5, 533; ineffectual, 153; 
treatise on, 319. See also Hanker- 
ing, and Teaming. 

Despair, 361, 395 

Despise and Despised, 339, 397 fE., 
427, 495-7, 509 

Despising the laws, 373 

Destiny, 165, 289, 327, 537 

Destruction, 215, 397 

Devoting oneself, 355 

Diadem, 385 

Dialectics, 453 

Diction, 183 

Diet, 74-5, 101, 169, 507 

DiflBcalties, 277, 433, 507 

Diffidence, 97-9 

" Dig in," 101, 507 ; di£?ging, 401 

Digestion, 123-5, 323, 529-31 

Dignity, 521 

Dining out, 259; with distinguished 
persons, 347 

Dinner, 505, 525 ; -party, 503-5 



Dio (ChrvsoBtoni), 174-5; the name, 

Diogenes, 12, 15, 26, 81-2, 129, 139, 

161-3, 159, 161-3, 197, 205-7, 

235, 253, 283, 297-9, 335, 370-1, 

393, 417, 495 
Director of pvmuasium, 55 
Dirt and Dirty, 1G3, 411 ft"., 519 
Disagreeable, 621 
Disagreement, 35 

Discipline, 211, 237, 241, 507; 
breach of, 1G5; (== study), 211 
Discontent, 315, 401 
Discouragement, 341 
Discourse, 125, 173, 177, 181-3, 

393; The Discourses of Epicteltis, 

449, 453 
Disease. See Illness. 
Disfranchisement, 263 
Disgrace, 149, 221, 229, 239, 289- 

Disgraceful, 383, 459; word and 

thoughts, 393 
Dishonour, 301 
Dislocation of wrist, 101, 507 
Disloyal, 119 
Disobedience, 197, 325 
Disparagement, 357 
Dispassionateness, 121 
Dispensation, the divine 79. See 

also Governance. 
Display, 87, 169-83, 223 
Disposition, good, 121 
Disrepute, 465 
Dissatisfaction, 443 
Dissent, 29 
Dissolute, 397 
Dissolution, 187 
Dissuasion, 49 
Distance runner, 169 
Distant, equally, from God, 331 
Distinction, 307; distinctions of 

reason, 535 
Distinguished persons, 347 
Distraction, 155 
Distress, 151, 495 
Distrust of oneself, 493 
Disturb and Disturbed, 79, 113, 451, 

Disturbance, 153, 507 
Divination, 19, 515 
Divine, 295; beings, 449; powers, 93 
Diviner, 515-17 
Divisions of philosophy, 537 
Dogood, 171, 287 

Doctor, 469; -'s office, 129. See also 

Doctrines, 53-9, 91, 125, 129 
Dog, 5, 7, 13, 235, 273, 283, 287, 391 ; 

hunting, 21, 33, 159, 376 
Donkey, 269-71, 327. See also Ass. 
Door, 135, 201, 233, 305, 367, 387, 

521; front, 199; -keeper, 229, 233, 

505; (of suicide), 63, 93, 143 
Downhearted, 77 
Draw water, 229-31 
Drawbacks, 509 
Dreams, 23, 137, 193 
Dress and Dressing, 129, 233, 285. 

Sec also Clothes, and Raiment. 
Drink and Drinking, 75, 95-7, 101-3, 

125, 307, 383, 425, 509, 517-19, 

527; -cup, 505; heavy, 85 
Drivel, 421 
Drone, 167 

Dnigs, 129 ; peddlers of, 211 
Drunkenness, 23, 229 
Due, one's, 77 
Duel, 133 
Dullness, 351 

Dung, 415, 419-21 ; -hill, 153, 423 
Dust, 93 
Duty and Duties, 23, 55-7, 157, 201, 

319, 427, 511, 515; principal, 57; 

private, 155; Treatise on, 319. See 

also Cituen. 
Dwelling, 337 
Dysentery, 145, 401 
Dyspepsia and Dyspeptics, 387-9, 401 

Earth, 93, 145-7, 189, 441-3, 449 

Earthenware, 169 

Earthquake, 91 

Easy-going, 535 

Eating, 75, 95, 103, 117, 125, 149, 157, 

223, 231, 235, 317, 369, 381-3, 413, 

509, 517, 525-7, 529-31 
Eccentricitv, 423 

Education, 55, 117, 129, 333, 421, 489 
Effeminacy, 203 
Effort, 483 
Egnatius Celer, 292 
Egocentric principle. See Self. 
Elation, 489 
Elements, 365; the four, 449; 

physical, 93 ; of reason, 379 
Eleusis, 127 

Elocution and Eloquent, 529 
Emancipator, 209, 282-3, 295, 367 
Embassy, 193 



Embroiderv, 463 

Emotion, 23, 285, 353, 459, 465 

Emperor, Roman, 165 

Enchanters, 187 

End in itself, 363; (= purpose) of 

life, 459 
Endowment, special, 1G9 
Endurance, 383, 455, 491, 531 
Enemr, 139, 277, 343, 447, 467, 483, 

513, 533 
Fnergv, 167; misdirected, 453 
Entertainment, 315, 517 
Enticement, 523 
Enviable, 121 
Enrv, 23-7, 79, 91, 135, 153, 167, 199, 

223, 247, 325, 429, 497 
Epaminondas, 159 
Epaphroditus, 295 
Ephebi, 17, 55 
Epictetus, 9, 13, 62-3, 67-9, 119, 131, 

181, 295-7, 311, 333, 370, 389, 40f>-l, 

408-9, 413, 443, 445, 449-50, 453-5, 

Epicureans, 49-59, 197, 459 
Epicurus, 51-3, 459 
Epirus, 35 

Epitome of all ills, 239 
Equality, 433 
Equipment, 391 

Equivocal premisses. See Premisses. 
Error, 23, 117, 377 
Escort duty, r,i)3 
Espionage, 431 

Essence, 51. See also Nature, true. 
Estate. 463, 497 
Et€ocles, 343, 513 
Ether, 449 
Eubius, 392 
Euloi^, 465 

Euphrates (philosopher), 103, 381, 581 
Euripides, quoted, 3S6-7, 537 
Eurysthens, 151, 237 
Evacuating of the bowels, 527 
Evenus, 393 
Evil, or Evils, 29, 61-3, 113-19, 139, 

143, 185, 207, 211-13, 237, 291, 

341-3, 347-9, 381, 399, 405, 425, 

429, 441, 451, 501, 503, 513-15; 

cause of, 257 ; conduct, 301 ; 

-doer, 3u3: eye, 213; Genius, 327; 

greatest, 291 ; habits, 453 ; nature 

of, 507 
Examination, 85, 129 
Example, 195, 237, 303 
Excellent, 201,289, 489 

Exchange, 209, 309-13 

Excitement, 519 

Excuses, 205, 461 

Exercise and Eiercisini?, 61, 75, 87, 
121, 125, 151, 169, 171, 241, 259, 
317, 325, 351, 495, 527 

Exhibition, 151, 177 

Exhortation, 183 

Exile, 35, 137, 193, 263, 303, 343, 
365-7, 417, 465, 499, 615 

Existence, 57 

Expose, of children, 157 

Expression of face, 45, 451 

External and Externals, 31, 49, 77, 
83, 105, 203, 309, 313-15, 343, 363, 
375-9, 387, 397, 433, 493-5, 499, 
511, 521, 531 

External impressions. See Impres- 
sions, and Sense-impression. 

Eve, 167, 339, 447, 459, 499 ; -palves, 

Face, washing, 295 

Facing both ways, 307 

Facultv and Faculties, 275, 335, 363, 

375, 401, 491 
Failure, 161, 223 
Fair-mindedness, 121 
Faith, 99 
Faithful and Faithfulness, 111, 175, 

337, 397, 433-7, 501-3 
Faithlessness, 291 
False, 29, 117-19, 145, 267, 537 
Fame, 207 
Familiar, 203 
Family, 55, 227 
Fancv, 211 
Fare "badlv, 287 
Farm, 29, 31, 43, 69, 267, 337, 

Farmer, 29, 39, 41, 389 
Farming, 401 
Fasces, twelve, 263 
Fate, 281, 5o5 
Father, 23, 31, 41, 81, 99, 111-15, 

119-21, 125, 149, 159, 185, 229, 

247, 257, 279, 343, 511, 513-5; 

(of God), 189; -in-law, 155; -land, 

125, 205 (see also Country). 
Fault. 461, 519 
Fault-finding. 35, 147, 167, 209, 233, 

281, 363,483, 513, 531 
Pavorinns, 453-5 
Fear, 79, 93, 137, 147, 153, 221, 223, 

227, 231-5, 247, 251, 271-3, 311, 



341, 351, sniff., 4r.l-3, 493; 
of death, 241; of loss, 393 
Felicio, 295 

Fellow- citizens, 447; -men, 323; 
-traveller, 93, 125, 277; -voyager, 
339; -workers, 279 
FeUowship, 279 
Felt cap, 381 
Festival, 281, 321-3 ; (of the pageant 

of life), 43 
Fever, 73-7, 91, 145, 151-3. 157, 193, 
225-9, 273-7, 315, 321, 353, 369-71 ; 
385, 393, 457, 465 
Fidelitv, 31, 59, 119, 311, 503 
Held, 41 ; of studv, 20-3, 85, 231, 401 
Fig, 71, 213-15, 369 
Fighting, 145, 195; against oneself, 

Finery, 347 
Finger, 461; middle, pointing with, 

25-7 ; -nails, 459 
Fire, 29, 91-3, 145, 273, 405, 441. 

See also World- conflagration. 
Firm, 121 
Firstfruits, 515 
Fish, 253, 463 ; -hook, 49 
Fistula, 181 
Fitness, special, 129 
Fitting, 147, 447 
Flatt€rv, 69, 79, 111, 173, 199-203, 

261, 357, 369, 373 
Flesh, 51-3, 57, 279, 301, 373 
Flight, 301 

Flogging, 149, 285-7, 303 
Flutist, 315 
Flying, 335 

Fodder, 99, 271, 463, 531 
Folly, 95 
Following, 79 
Food, 95, 227-39, 519, 531 
Fool, 161, 175, 213, 279, 293, 373, 

385, 407, 451, 493 
Foolish, 145, 191, 371 
Foolishness, 35 
Foot, 77, 413, 525 

Force, 245; forcing oneself in, 3G7-9 
Forlorn state, 87-93 
Fortification, 275 
Fortunate, 127, 471 
Fortune, 329 
Foul language, 329, 521 
Fox, 345 
Frankness 429 

Free and Freedom, 41, 57, 91, 103, 
137, 145-7, 161, 205-7, 215-7, 239, 

241 ff., 275, 311, 325, 343, 349-51, 

363, 437, 445, 459, 473, 477, 483-5, 

495-7, 511; freewill, 311 
Free Cities, 49 
Frecdman, 249 
Friend, 53, 87, 153, 165, 181, 187, 189, 

193, 197, 201, 205-13, 239, 267, 275, 

297-9, 307, 433, 493, 501, 515-17; 

of Caesar, 37, 247, 257-9, 277, 315; 

of God, 311; of kings, 261 
Friendlv, 307 
Frost, 389 
Frowning, 523 
Fniit, 133, 279, 389-91 
Fun, makijag, 291 
Function, 113-15, 237, 425; of life, 

321 ; proper, 383, 503 
Fundamental conception, 131 
Furnishings, 69 
Furniture, 279, 387, 403 
Futile, 315; discourse, 309 
Future, 399 

Gait, composed, 383 

Galha, 105 

Galilaeans, 363 

Gambler, 163 

Games. 17, 323, 361, 367, 371, 403, 609 

Garden of Adonis, 388-9 

Gate, 159, 203 

Gay attire, 393 

Geese, 421 

General, 165. 213, 217-19, 237; 
(of God), 195 

General perception, 47 

Genius, 173 

Gentle, 205, 339, 527; birth, 347 

Gentleness, 121, 365 

Geometrician, 171 

Geometry, 351 

Qeta, 249 

Gifted men, 49, 173 

Girl, 407; pretty, 249-51, 255. See 
also Maid, Wench. 

Giver (= God), 279, 331, 491 

Gladiator, 101-3, 107, 139, 509, 517 

Gladiatorial combat, 109 

Gloomv, 147 

Glorv, 121 

Goblets, 69 

God, 19, 31-2, 43-5, 57, 75-9, 91, 119, 
127-9, 133-5, 147-9, 157, 163, 169, 
183-5, 203-5, 215, 219, 237-9, 271, 
275-7, 303, 311-15, 319-21, 345, 
353, 363-7, 383, 387, 401, 407, 425, 



437, 415, 467, 499; resisting, 191-3, 
279. See also Another, Captain, 
Deity, Father, General, Giver, 
Mujlily, Playwright, Zeus. 

Gold, 55, 59, 69, 121, 141, 463 

Golden Versex of Pythagoras, 57, 73 

Good, 29, 31-2, 51-3, 61-3, 77-9, 
117-23, 139, 143-7, 179, 185, 201, 
211, 289, 341-3, 347-9, 359, 363, 
367-9, 375-7, 397-9, 4U5, 425, 437, 
441, 459, 489, 497, 501-3, 613-15, 
527; doing good, 175, 209, 213; 
faith, 431; fortune, 185, 223, 473; 
the good man, 47, 235-7; the 
greatest, 291 ; one's own, 313. 
Good and excellent, see Man. 

Goods, lesser, 459 ; of soul, 459 

Gout, 145, 157, 385 

Governance of God, 277-9, 363 

Governing principle, 41, 47, 67, 75-7, 
105, 125, 137, 143, 163, 329, 333, 
375, 511, 525 

Government, 59, 89-91, 199 

Governor, 37; -'s mansion, 147 

Governorships, 261, 309 

Grain, 215 

Grammarian, 533 

Grandfather, 247, 263 

Grandsires, 463 

Grandson, 89 

Grapes, 213-15 

Gravity, 521 

Great, 145, 149; Great King (of 
Persia), 153, 207, 261 

Great-grandfather, 263 

Greece, 193, 2U9 

Greedily eating, 381 

Greeks," 53, 143. See also Hellenes. 

Greengrocer, 29, See also Vegetable- 

Greeting, 153. See also Salutation. 

Grief and Grievinsr, 33, 61, 79, 143, 
153, 185-7, 191, 100, 211-13, 223, 
247, 325, 351, 429, 465, 483, 489, 

Groanin?, 231, 497 

Ground, 147 

Grovelling, 369 

Grudge, 335 

Guard against oneself, 533; mount, 

Guardian, 467 

Guards, 135, 159, 361, 365, 309-71; 
-man, 223 

Quest-gifts, 403 

Guide, 127 

Guise, 375 ff. 

Gyara, 217-21, 327 

Gymnasium, 55, 81, 283; -colonnade, 

Gymnastic trainer, 395 

Habit, 83, 109, 225-7, 291, 423, 511 

Hades, 93, 227, 301 

Hair, 19, 129, 135, 141, 285, 377-9, 

419, 463; -dres.=, 379; plucking, 9, 

15-17, 21 
Halt, 385 

Hampered, 483, 531 
Hand, 57, 269, 413 
Handle, 297, 527 
Handsome, 33, 393 
Hanging, 3U3 
Hankering, 213. See also Desire, and 

Happiness and Happv, 75, 121, 139- 

41, 145, 153, 161," 183-5, 189-91, 

201, 221-3, 233, 257, 287, 327, 331, 

363, 387, 445, 497 
Harbour, 127 
Hardship, 153, 465 
Harm, 31, 395, 431-3, 447, 483, 511, 

Harmonious, 449 
Harmony, 441 ; with nature, see 

Harp, 265 
Harvesting, 215 
Hate, 513 

Hateful to God, 133 
Hatred, 221 
Head, 353; -ache, 157, 181, 225, 229, 

353, 385; -band, 129 
■ Health and Healthv, 119, 223, 235, 

269, 385-7, 393, 443 
Hearing, 323, 351. See also Listening. 
Heart, 141 
Hearth, 147, 417 
Heat, 193, 305, 465, 507; scorchiug, 

Hector, 133, 169 
Hedge-priests, 377 
Heirs, 229 

Hellenes, 59. See also Greeks. 
Helmsman, 285, 311, 425 
Help, 95, 343, 383-5, 433, 531 
Helpers, 375 
Helpful, 447 
Helplessness, 93 
Helvidius, 287 



riephaestng, 383 

Hera, 89 

Heracleitus, 88, 495 

Heracles, 151, 188-9, 237, 335, 399 

Herfild, 127, 155 

Herd, 167 

Hermes, 19, 121 

Hides. 137 

Hierophant, 127-9 

Hish brow, 499 ; spirit, 457 

Hi?h-minded and High-mindedness, 

63, 119, 187, 283, 363, 473, 501 
Hindrance, 31, 79, 91, 99, 185, 197, 

207, 245, 207-71, 279, 289, 313, 

325, 351-3, 363, 383, 435-7, 483, 489 
Hippias, 45 
Hive, 167 
Hog, 421 

Holiday, 279-81, 323, 387 
Holy ri'tes, 129 
Home, 147 
Homer, 159, 191, 409, 533; quoted, 

19, 79, 141, 155, 159, 163, 169, 189- 

93, 387, 409 
Honey, 323 
Honour, 59, 103, 115, 119, 125, 169, 

275, 295, 301, 355, 369, 501, 509; 

position of, 347 
Hope, 475, 527; give up, 465 
Horse, 5, 7, 13, 33, 43, 99, 107, 267, 

273, 283, 309, 323, 335, 415, 421, 

463, 489; -race, 517 
Hospital, 181 
Host, one's, 463 
Hot weather, 389 
House, 77, 135, 153, 229, 267-9, 387, 

405, 417 
Household, 157, 197, 207-9, 345; 

head of, 217; of Caesar, 223; 

of one, 187 
Human being. See Man. 
Humane, 387 
Humiliation, 185, 349 
Hunger, 75, 191, 227-9, 233, 353, 409, 

457, 463, 493 
Hunting, 33 ; dog, 21, 33, 159, 375 
Hurt, 341-3, 385, 447, 513, 525 
Husband, 55 
Hvmn of praise, 237, 281 
Hypothesis, 29 
Hypothetical premisses, 23, 209, 319 

Ignoble, 119, 203, 205, 231, 239, 291, 

Ignorance and Ignorant, 343, 427 

Ilium, 133 

111 (evil), 409, 519, 527 

Illness, 39-43, 109, 119-23, 153, 221, 
239, 257, 295, 345, 425, 443, 485, 

Ill-omened, 213-5 

Imagination, 219 

Imitation, 37, 509 

Immortality, 187 

Immutability, 231 : of nature, 449 

Impediment, 319, 491 

Imperishable, 341 

Impertinence, 159, 329 

Imperturbability, 317 

Impiety, 35, 113, 535 

Implement, 235 

Important things, 375 

Impossible, 191 

Impressions, external, 401, 405, 445, 
449-51,485,489,491, 497-9, 523; 
intellectual, 117. See also Seme- 

Imprint, 337 

Imprisonment, 291 

Improvement, 519 

Impudent of speech, 453 

Impulse to act, 31 

Impunitv, 285, 411 

Inattention, 311, 423 fE. 

Incantation, 213 

Incapacity, 169, 447 

Inclinations, 425 

Income, 161 

Inconsiderate, 501 

Inconstancy, 117 

Indifferent," 291 

Indigestion, 229 

Indignation, 359 

Individual, 345 

Indivisible, 441 

Indulgence, 519 

Industry, 329 

Infant, 203 

Inferior and Inferiority, 111, 167 

Inheritance, 25, 435 

Initiates in the mysteries, 281 

Injury, 59, 61, 113-15, 335, 365 

Injustice, 237, 335 

Inn, 491 

Insatiable, 503-5 

Insensibility, 167 

Insolence and Insolent, 295, 447, 505 

Instruction, 129, 183 

Insult, 167, 499 ; gesture of, 25 

InteUect, 449-51 



Intelligence, 513 

Intercourse, social, 89, 105-9, 305-9, 

Interest, 429; one's, 505,513 
Interpret nature, 533 
Interpreter, 313, 533 
Interrogations, sophistical, 61, 127 
Interview, 201 
Intimates, 211 
Introduction, 177, 383 
Intuition, 291 
Invalid, 95, 235, 533 
Invincibility of good man, 47 
Invitation, 181 
Iron, 145, 273; tool, 413 
Irrational creatures, 187 
Irreverence, 365 
Irritation, 103, 499, 509 
Isocrates, 177 
Issue, 515 
Isthmian games, 39 
Italicus, 62-3 

Jail- bird, 255 

Jar, 71, 211, 433 

Jaws, 149 

Jealousy, 23, 153, 

Jest, 427 

Jewish literature, 

John the Baptist, 

Joints, 389-91 

Journey, 75, 89, 

Joy, 465, 523 

Judge, 53-5, 59, 1 

Judgement, 23-7, 
113, 117, 153, 
263, 273-5, 283, 
339-45, 351-3, 
391, 401, 409-1 
461, 473, 487- 
composite, 527 ; 

Judging, 383 

Jug, 487 

Jumping- weights. 

Junk, 195 

Just and Justice, 
459, 473 

393, 497 


125, 151, 185, 193, 

13-15, 287, 307 
35, 41, 65-73, 107, 
171, 191, 203, 239, 
, 291-3, 303-5, 327, 
357, 369, 373, 377, 
1, 421, 425, 433-7, 
9, 495, 499, 529; 
withholding, 29 

31, 99, 237, 445, 

Keepers of doors, 387 
Kettle, 155 
Kicking, 99, 287 
Killing, 335 

Kin, Kindred, Kinsliip, and Kiusinun, 
31, 89, 165, 199, 205, 297-9, 343 

Kind-hearled, 205 

Kindness, 335-7 

King, 143, 147, 155-7, 163, 229, 237, 

261, 299; Great (of Persia), 153, 

207, 261; the lot of a, 353; the 

Per_-iian, 253 
Kiucrdom, 153, 157, 265, 387 
Kingly manner, 129 
Kingship, 153 
Kiss, 213, 249, 399, 403, 487; the 

hand, 201, 295 
Knife, 157 

" Know thyself," 11, 441 
Knowledge, 117 

Labour and Laborious, 45-7, 237, 

491, 511, 535 
Lacedaemon and Lacedaemonians, 

55, 149, 299, 345, 445-7 
Lad, 179, 491, 535 
Ladies, 525 
Laius, 11 
Lame and Lameness, 119, 235, 296-7, 

Lamentation and Lamenting, 23, 

79, 139, 191, 199, 211, 231 
Lamprocles, 331-2, 343 
Land, 41, 283, 403 
Language, 125 
Laughing and Laughter, 

21; laugh at, 97, lu3, 

laugh at oneself, 321 ; 

scorn, 509 
Law, 199, 219, 299, 313, 

533-5; of nature, 111 
Lawful privileges, 519; striving, 75 
Lawlessness, 237, 373 
Layman, 49, 105-9, 115, 161, 443, 

497, 511, 519-21, 529-31, 535 
Lazy, 315 
Learning, 333 
Leather, 83 
Leaves, 215 
Leaving home, 185-91 
Lecture, 33, 67, 123, 127, 171, 179, 

183, 221, 373, 423; -room, 107, 171 
Leg, 297, 491 
Txjgacy- hunters, 295 
Leisure, 27, 71, 155-7, 313, 321-5, 

375, 523 
Leon, 299, 371 
Lesbius, 123 
Letters, 193, 351 
Lettuce, 199, 201, 505 
Liar, The, 25, 71 


499, 519- 
123, 427; 
laugh to 

373, 445. 


T.ibations, 513 

Lie, 113, 35S-9, 537 

Life, 75, 85, 117-21, 125, 129, 139, 

161, 195, 201, 211, 289, 311, 361; 

in accordance with nature, 423 ; 

science of, 285; style of, 197; way 

of, 207-9. See also Lining, 
liight, ray of, 35 
Light heart, 3G5 
Light-heartedness, 123 
Lightning, 91 
Lincoln, 324 
Lion, 13, 21, 133, 239, 251, 335, 315, 

Listening, 325, 329. See also Hearing. 
Literature, 59, 117 
Living, 205; actof,317; being, 419 
Locking door in one's face, 307-9 
Loggias, 503 
Logic, 45, 69 
Logical consequence, 537 
Loins, 103, 121, 149, 509 
Long Walls, the, 207 
Looking to other persons, 231 
Lord of the mansion, 133 
Loss,277, 309, 395, 427, 491 
Love, 91, 149, 193, 203, 249, 263, 295, 

307, 345, 421; brotherly, 31; 

passionate, 157 
Lucian, 326 
Lunch and Luncheon, 29, 71, 403, 

Luxury, 237, 459, 519 
Lycaeum, 209, 321 
Lycurgus, 445 
Lyre, and Lyi-e-pjaver, 107 
Lysias, 177 

Madmen, 65 

Madness, 361-3, 471 

Magic wand, 121 

Maid, pretty, 225. See also Girl, 

Malice, 377 

Malignant disposition, 329 

Man, as distinct from animals, 4<>9; 
distinct from woman, 15-7; be- 
coming to a, 71; characteristics 
and nature of, 15, 19, 93, 99, 171, 
187, 285-7, 337-9, 535; good, 393, 
443; good and excellent man, 21, 
25, 29, 155, 161, 191, 201, 215, 219, 
331, 333, 383, 457; a tame animal, 
335, 469 ; true nature of, 337, 443 ; 
an ungifted, 527 


Manager, 133 

Manc-3, 239 

Mankind, 95, 157-9, 185, 199 

Manliness, 61 

Mantle, 183 

Marble halls, 373 

Mark, 427, 507 

Market, 41; -gardener, 45, 199; 

-place, 211, 395 
Marriage, 55-7, 125, 153-9, 333, 461 
" Marvellous I " 17 7 
Masks, 169 
Massage, 233-5 

Masseur, 29, 235. Sec also Rubber, the. 
Mast, 195 
Master, 159, 227, 249, 263-5, 285, 

295-7,337,307,495; = Emperor, 

293; of oneself, 477, 497 
Masurius, 313 

Material, 137. See also Subject-mcUter. 
Maximus, 50-1, 53 
Mean spirit, 213, 365; mean-spirit«d, 

Mean, the, 475 
Jfeaning, 461 
Measure, 525; due, 315; measuring 

and measuring instrument, 233 
Medea, 433 
Meddler, 165 
Melancholy- madness, 23 
Meletus, 177, 537 
Memory, 227 

Menander, quoted, 249-51 
Menelaus, 400 
Menoeceus. 119 
Merchant, 513 
Messenger, 139, 145, 155 
Mighty, He that is, 427 
Military command, 159; expeditions, 

Milk, 531 

Mind, 137, 449-51, 507 ; troubled, 493 
Mingle with men, 425 
Ministrant, 153 
ilirror, 149 
Misbehaviour, 377-9 
Misdirected energv, 453 
Miserable and Misery, 187, 191-5, 

199 223 335 
Misfortune', 35, 185-7, 19.^, 325, 473, 

485, 507 
Mistake, 225-7, 315, 325, 347 
Mob, 171 
Mocking, 123 
Moderation, 426 


Modest, 393 

Monev, 31, 111, 239, 293, 309, 329, 3G9, 

Moon, 93, 137 

Moral excellence, 301; purpose, 19, 
27, 31-5, 39, 41, 47, 51, 61, 79, 83, 
109, 115, 135, 167, 171, 187, 203, 
219, 221, 235, 273, 279, 315, 319-21, 
325, 329, 335, 341-5, 349, 363, 397- 
9, 425-7, 435, 487, 491-3, 511 

Mortal, 185, 213, 219, 277-9 

Mortar, 83 

Mother, 43, 191, 205, 247, 257, 409 

Mottoes, clever little, 181 

Mountebanks, 81 

Mourning, 187, 191-3 

Mouse, 27 

Moustache, 419 

Mucus, 413 

Mud, 413, 421 

Multitude, 319, 345-7, 417, 427 

Murder, 395 

Music, 59, 117 

Music-hall songs, 177 

Musicians, 171, 377-81 

Musoniua. See Rufus. 

Mutual affection, 89, 335 

Mvcenae, l'37 

Myron, 139 

Mvrrhiue ware, 71 

Mysteries, the, 127-9, 281 

NaU, 525 

Naked, 147 

Nations, 315 

Natural science, 441-3 

Nature (including accord with, con- 
formity uith, and nature of man), 
7. 13-15, 31, 39, 41, 47, 57, 67-9, 
75, 95, 109, 139, 143, 185-7, 217, 
287, 319, 329, 333-5, 343, 349, 421, 
443, 459, 467-9, 487, 493, 511, 533; 
of birds, 251; function of, 447; 
of the good, 437; of good and evil, 
441; harmony with, 487-9, 511; 
immutability of, 419; law of. 111; 
process of, 215 ; rule of, 397 ; true 
nature, 53, 211, 337, 421, 443; 
vdU of, 505 

Nausea, 107, 393 

Necessary, 283 

Necessities of life, 227 

Necessity, 237. 449 

Neck, 121; -tr;ipping=, 99 

Need, 215-7 

Neglect, 159, 221, 233; of affairs, 493 

Neglectful, 535 

Negligence, 331 

Neighbour, 25, 53, 93, 121-5, 339, 

429-31, 467, 511, 521 
Nemean games, 39 
Nero, 141, 336-7, 339, 465 
Nests, 187 
Neutral 29 
New Testament, 74, 150-1, 237, 322, 

430, 487 
News, 113-5, 193 
Nicocreon, 206 
Nicopolis, 50, 149, 249 
Night, 523 ; -watch, 85 
Nightingale, 7 
Ninny, 161 
Nitre, 413 

Nobility, 363 ; of character, 283 
Noble, 31, 55-7, 247, 329, 387, 417; 

action, 309; character, 357; spirit, 

203, 443, 473 ; thought, 393 
Nobody, a, 501 
Non sequitur, 529 
North wind, 153 
Nose, 339, 413; wiping, 295 
Nostrils, 413 
Notebooks, 157 
Notice, posting of, 15 
Nuisance, 195 
Numenius, 59 
Nurse, 117, 155, 203 
Nursing, 153, 239, 295 
Nut, 71, 369 
Nymphs, 1 73 

Oath, 517 

Obedience, 365 

Obeisance, 281, 371 

Obey, 425; the la^-s, 373 

Obol, 201, 455, 505 

Observing men, 315-17 

Obstacle, 425 

Occasion, 517-19, 521-3, 537 

Occupation, 171 

Odysseus, 189-91, 237, 457 

Oedipus, 10; at Colonus, 457; the 
King, 457 

Offence, 197 

Offensive, 519 

Office, 41-3, 47, 55, 59, 103, 123, 139, 
161, 169, 221-3, 229, 239, 275, 295, 
311-13, 319-21, 325, 347, 353-5, 
365. 391-3, 433-5, 483-5, 495, 501, 
509; doctor's, 129 



Officer, comul.1ndia^', 195 

Official, 197, 217, 3-'5, 11)7 

Oil, 77, l.jf., 161, l."J3, 4U5, 413, 493 

Old age, 193, 2J9, 413; man, 295, 

491 ; women, 295 
Olympia, 151, 201, 281, 321-2; 

crown there, 201 
Olympic, contest, 149; festival, 225, 

323; games, 39, 74, 535; training, 

101; victory, 507 
Omen, 137, 213, 515 
One's own, 2S3, 333, 403 ; self, 341 
Open air, IGl 
Ophellius, 139 
Ophthalmia, 145 
Opinion, 21, 305, 451-3, 497-9, 511; 

of others, 349 
Opponent, 507 
Oppressor, 207 
Orator, 17 
Order, the, 219 
Ordinances, 221, 313 
Orphans, 189 

Ostentation, 529 ; avoidauoo of, 523 
Outcast, 457 
Outcome, 515 
Outdoor life, 137 
Outward signs, 383 
Overcoat, 387 
Ox, 13, 309 

Pack-saddle, 271 

Paean Apollo, 73 

Paeans, 321 

Pageant, 279-81 

Pain, 91, 147, 181, 311, 349, 353, 445 

Palace, 305, 3G7 

Palaestra, 285 

Pale, 457 

Palisade, 195 

Palm, setting up, 80-3 

Pan, 173 

Pancratiast, 7, 99 

Pancratium, 0, 75, 223 

Paradox, 221, 287 

Parasite, 293 

Parents, 57, 181, 229, 297-9, 355, 373 

Part and whole, 3ii3 

Particular instances, 257 

Parturition, 155 

Passers-by, 151 

Passion, 23, 153, 311, 351; passion- 
less manner, 457 

Patience, 63, 121, 319, 491; patient 
endurance, 167 


Patient, a, 179 

Patrimony, 337 

Patriot, 119 

Patroclus, 407 

Patron, 65, 69 

Pattern of life, 149 

Paying, 307 

Fax lioiimtia. See Peace. 

Peace, 161, 309, 313-31, 323-5, 345; 
of mind, 27, 91, 117, 125, 167, 193, 
209, 231, 403, 493; Pcix Hoinumi, 
91, 151 

Pedagogue, 135, 229 

Pedants, 293 

Peevish, 281 

Penalty, 205 

Pentathlon, 7, 169, 509 

People (as topio of conversation), 107 

Perdiccas, 207 

Perfection. 91 

Perfume, 393-5 

Peril, 451; of life, 121 

Periodic change, 187 

Perishable, 341 

Perrhaebians, 205 

Persian king, 153, 207, 253, 261 

Persians, 299 

Perturbation of spirit, 427 

Perverts, 17, 309 

Pestle, 83, 121 

(Pheres), father of AdmetiLS, 119 

Phihp of Macedon, 139, 207 

Philosopher, 9, 13, 23-5, 45, 49, 55-7, 
63, 67-9, 73-7, 81, 91, 103-7, 115, 
125, 171-83, 187, 191, 195, 229, 239, 
271, 289-93, 305, 319, 349, 359, 369, 
373-5 ff., 441, 453, 459, 465, 499, 
509, 515, 529-33 

Philosophic vein, 303 

Philosophy, 75, 85, 95, 99, 103, 211, 
231, 283, 379, 383, 387-9, 417-9, 
453, 461, 499, 611, 517, 637; 
meaning of, 73 

Physical elements, 93 ; science, 441-3 

Physician, 29, 75-7, lul, 109, 121, 
157, 179, 225, 295, 465-7, 507 

Physics, 453 

Physique, a particular, needed for a 
teacher, 129 

Piety, 511-13 

Pig, 413-9 

Piracy, 91 

Piraeus, 257 

Pirates, 205-7, 283 

Pitch, 435; -plasters, 135 


Pitied, bein?, 345 Cf. 

Pity, 135, IGl, l-j'J, -217, 295, 345-7 

Plan, 97; of life, 149, 4'J9 

Plants, 187, 197, 3S9, 443 

Plate, 55-9, 69, 239, 347, 413 

Plato, 87, 314, 344; quotations and 

references, 11, 85, 139, 165, 177-9, 

217, 284-5, 303, 321, 460-1, 463, 537 
Plausible, 85 

Plav, 423, 427; a play, 101, 497, 509 
Playwright (= God), 497 
Pleading cases, 67 
Pleasant companion, 307-9 
Plea.-.iug God, 331, 425 
Pleasure, 51-3, 83, 181, 197, 207, 459, 

513, 523 
Plectrum, 381 

Poet, the (= Homer), 19, 79 
Poison, 301 
Pole, 161 
Polemo, 8, 9, 419 
Politeness, 495 
Politics, 67, 161 
Pollution, 411 
Polus (actor), 457 
Polus (sophist), 331 
Polvueices, 313, 513 
Portent, 497 
Possessions, 113, 139-41, 145, 167, 

213; one's own, 337, 3 73; ov.u 

proper, 143, 185, 271 
Possible, 475 
Post, 499 ; given a, 195-7 
Postponement, 423 
Pot, S5, 283, 409 
Potsherds, 361, 369 
Poverty, 35, 43, 69, 113, 121-3, 153, 

221, 347, 353-5, 365, 425, 485 
Power, 95, 195, 207, 367, 497, 525; 

to use external iinpressionp, 445 
Practice and Practising, 75, 85, 283, 

351, 533 
Praetor, 295, 333, 497 
Praetorship, 265, 311, 369 
Praise, 171-81, 201, 237, 329, 345, 

375-9, 465, 503-5, 517, 531 
Prayer, 127, 357-9; of slave, 253; 

for success of others, 287 
Precept, 411, 533; philosophical, 211 
Precious, 145 

Precipice, 525 ; leaping over, 303 
Preconceived idea. See Preconreptum. 
Preconception, 93, 145, 257, 323, 401 
Precept, 67 
Pregnancy, 389 

Premature blooming, 389 

Premisses, 2U9, 265, 378-9; equivocal, 

23, 27-9, 127, 351, 427; hypothe- 

tio.d, 23, 209, 319 
Prep;u-ation, 147, 325, 351, 411 
Present, the, 45-7, 155, 357 
Presents, 59, 295, 403 
Pretence, 347 
Prevented, 531 
Priam, 159 

Price, 103, 303, 403, 493, 503, 511 
Pride, 151, 295, 463, 533 
Prime, conception, 377; importance, 

53, 155-7 
Prince, 219 

Principal things and duties, 57 
Principle, 33, 55, 73, 79, 123-5, 213, 

219, 265, 325, 351, 379, 385, 425-7, 

461, 505, 525, 529-37 
Prison, 59-61, 2(;9, 219-21, 263, 287, 

Private citizen, 217 
Proconsul, 31, 151, 275-7 
Procurator, 35-7, 105, 463, 511 
Procuratorship, 369 
Prodigy, 15 
Profession, 377-9 
Profitable, 377-9 
Progress, 23, 45-7, 85, 95, 307, 491-3, 

531, 535 
Prohibitions, 217 
Prominence, 141 
Proof, 537 
Property, 47, 53-5, 207, 261-3, 271, 

275, 279, 289, 297, 311, 325, 359-61, 

367, 373, 387, 483, 495, 525, 529 
Proposition, 523 
Propriety, 85 
Prosperity, 111, 295 
Prostitution, 255 
Protagoras, 45 
Protesilaus, 407 
Proverbs, 48-9, 84-5, 120-1, 174-5, 

272-3, 345, 357, 405 
Providence, lUo, l*i9-13, 459 
Province, 31, 2t;5, 369 
Public, 133; interest, see Common- 
weal, and welfare; privilege, 39; 

-spirited, 447 
Pulse, 157 
Pumping water, 235 
Punishment, 59, 79, 165, 199, 233, 

2S5, 459, 493 
Pupil, 1S2, 349, 385 
Puritication, 127-9 



Purity, 129, 137, 1G5, 411, 515, 519 

Purple cloak, 457 

Purpose, 1G7, 223, 355, 411 

Pusliins oneself in, 367-9 

Pyriphk'gethon, 93 

Pythagoras, Golden Verses, 57, 73, 357 

Pythian games, 39 

Quadratus, 177 

Quaestor, 275 

Quails, 225 

Quarrelling, 157, 387, 471 

Queen bee, 167 

Quiet, 203 

Rabies, 321 

Race, 99; horse-race, 517 

Rack, 275, 303 

Rage, 135 

Rags 457 

Raiment, 93. See also Clothes, and 

Raisins, 215 
Random, at, 461 
Rascal, 491 

Rash and Rashness, 375, 433 
Rational animal, being, or creature, 

59, 359, 363 
Raven, 19, 187, 497 
Reading, 75, 177, 197, 217, 227, 241, 

315-19, 325, 329, 345, 351; a 

public, 171, 177-9, 521 
Reason and Reasoning, 15, 49, 09, 

85, 91, 95, 109, 177, 187, 199, 233, 

241, 279, 305, 339, 351, 363, 375, 

379, 411, 419-21, 451, 615-7, 535 
Reasonable, 447-9 
Rebuking, 129 
Recall, 93, 217, 237 
Recklessness, 331 
Reconnaissance, 195 
Red stripe in toga praeterta, 13 
Reform, 231, 397, 447, 535 
Refuge, 277 
Refusal, 23, 29, 57-9, 85, 141, 147, 323, 

411, 419, 441, 487 
Refutation, 183, 275, 341 
Rejection of the good, 53 
Rejoicing, 187 
Relationships, and Human and Social 

Relations and Relationships, 31, 

81, 155, 209, 319, 355, 383, 401-3, 

427, 511 
Relatives, 155, 181 
Relaxations, 219 


Relaxing attention, 423 

R,eligiou, 23 

Remedies, medical, 385-7 

Renunciation, 327-9, 349, 373, 383, 

483. See aJso Body, and Properly. 
Rei)er,tance, 469, 523 
Reproof, 521 
Reputation, and Repute 135, 141, 

207, 239, 311, 325, 329, 359, 425, 

483, 497, 535 
Rescue, 395 
Reservations, 471, 487 
Resignation, 445 
Resisting God, 279. See also 

Struggle ayniiist the Cosmos. 
Respect ami Respectful, 115, 309, 

371, 395, 433-5, 521 
Responsibility, 113-17, 229, 425, 

431-3, 513 
Restraint, 27, 31, 145, 265-7 
Revenge, 457 
Revenue, 161 

Reverence, and Reverent, 57, 99, 301 
Reviling, 35-9, 85, 121, 125, 135, 

149, 159, 167, 329, 333, 343, 491, 

499, 507, 513, 523, 527 
Revolution of the universe, 279 
Reward for doing right, 201 
Rhetor and Rhetorician, 63, 67, 103-5, 

171, 509-U 
Rich, 57, 69, 111, 139, 199, 239, 277, 

293, 305, 347, 391-3, 417, 455, 459, 

529. See also Wealth and Wealthy. 
Ridicule, 499 
Righteous and Righteousness, 237, 

Ring, 254-5 ; for wrestling, 385 
Rising up from sleep, 425 
Risks, 383 
Road, 93, 275 
Robbers, 89, 275-7 
Rods, 275; (= fasces), 403 
R61e, 497, 511, 525 
Roman citizens and citizenship, 199, 

Romans, 63, 161 
Rome, 15, 53, 63-5, 179, 193, 209, 

217-19, 287, 327, 431, 461 
Root, 389 
Rooted, 187, 107 
Royal power, 513 
Royalty, 141 

Rubber, a, 121. See algo Ifasscur. 
Rubbing, 169 
Rudiments, 25 


Ruf us (Musouius), 49, 105, 181 

Rule, 33, 441, 485, 4'J5, 5L'o ; of nature 

397. See also ."itandard. 
Runner, 7 
Runuing, 335, 4G3 
Rust, 351 

Sacred force, 129 

SacriUce, 127-9, 223, 357, 513-15 

Saddle-cloths, 4G3 

Safety, 277, 473 

Sailor, 41, 195, 4-11, 513 

Salamis, 371 

Sale, deed of, 247 

Salutation, 58-9, 313, 327, 357, 503. 
See also Greeting. 

Salvation of our souls, 455 

Sand, 101, 149, 5u9 

Sanity, 471 

" Saonio," 160 

Sardanapalus, 141 

Satisfaction, 305 

Sattirnalia, 203 

Savage men, 399 

Scales, 233 

Scare away, 163 

Scarlet, 135, 421 

Scent, 335 

Sceptre, 143, 153, 335-7 

Schiller, 123 

Scholar, 27, 75 

Scholarship, 313 

School, 38-9, 291-3 

School-room, 345 

School-teacher, 157 

Science, 427 

Scorn, laugh to, 427 

Scourging, 101, 259, 509 

Scout, 139, 145, 155 

Sea, 187, 305, 443 

Season, 133, 213, 279 

Secrets, 429, 433 

Security, 75, 193, 231-3, 257-9, 315, 

Sedateness, 317 

Seduction, 53, 393 

Seed, 389 

Seemliness, 425 

Self, 39 (cf. 31), 41, 231, 331 ; -conceit, 
175; -control and -controlled, 247, 
397, 445, 455, 459, 473 ; -disparage- 
ment, 107 ; -examination, 315, 357- 
9; -i>o~^'ssion, 473; -resyicct, 57, 
135, 309-11. 315. 339, 387, 395-7, 

4J-;, 473, 501-3,527; -satiBfacUoQ, 

r.J3; -sufficiency, 89 
Selling, 111 
Senate, 247, 293 
Senator, 17, 173, 197, 205, 217, 247, 

257, 497 
Sense-impression and Impression, 23- 

5, 29, 33-5, 61, 83-7, 109, 133-5, 

139, 147, 167, 207, 213, 225, 231, 

269, 317-19, 323, 341, 355, 359, 373. 

See also ConHnciagiieiise-inipression. 
Senses, 93, 279, 401 ; evidence of, 291 
Sentenced, 465 
Serene and Serenity, 97, 113, 121, 

139, 145-7, 185, riSl, 259, 315, 327, 

359, 363, 385-7, 417, 445, 491 
Servant, 47, 145, 159, 165, 216, 221, 

233, 237, 285, 367 
Service, 157-9, 221 ; of God, 155 
Servile, 483 
Sex-life, 519 

Sexual intercourse, 293 ; perverts, 17 
Shame, 57, 231, 459, 501 
Shameless and Shamelessness, 111, 

213, 391 ff., 429, 453, 503 
Shapely, 347 
Sharing difficulties and burdens, 

Sheep, 171, 309, 339, 489, 531 
SheU-flsh, 489 
Shelter, 519 
Shepherd, 143, 531 
Sherds, 93 
Ship, 29, 61, 69, 83, 195, 285, 311, 323, 

475, 489-91 
Shipwreck, 91 
Sliirt, 387 
Shoe, 199, 233, 503, 525 ; for a donkey, 

Shoemaker, 77, 137 
Shoulders, lo3, 121, 125, 149, 387; 

dislocated, 181 
Shouting, 309-11, 323, 519 
Shows, 109, 519 
Shrinking, 451 
Sick, 463 

Sickness. See Illness. 
Sighing, 35 
Sight, 291 
Sights, 49 
Sign, 211 

Silence, 473, 523, 529 
Silver, 31, 55-9, 69, 239, 347 
Simple living, 531 
Simpleton, 505 



Sinews, 373 

Singer, 441 

Singing, 29, 307, 377-9, 423 

Sire, 99 

SkiU, 285, 377 

Sky, 147, 451 

Slandcrors, 343 

Slave, 37, 75, 89, 103, 145-7, 197, 205- 
9, 225-7, 233-5, 239, 247-9, 253-5, 
259-G3, 2G7, 283-5, 289, 295, 
303-5, 325-7, 337, 341, 347, 363, 
3G7-9, 403, 495, 509, 519; -boy, 
493, 505; of tilings, 119 

Slavery, 161, 205, 269, 289, 295 

Slavish, 167, 191, 483 

Sleep and Sleeping, 147, 1G5-7, 197, 
259, 329, 383, 425 

Slovenliness, 415, 515 

Small change, 25, 41, 395 

Smell, 415 

Smiling to oneself, 353 

Smith, 357, 381-3, 413 

Smoke, 405 

Smutty talk, 309 

Snake, 287 

Snivel, 1G3 

Snoring, 141, 167, 407 

Snout, 159 

Sober, 307 

Social, feeling, 525; instinct, 409; 
intercourse, see Intercourse ; 
relationsliips, see Relationships. 

Society, 157, 443 

Socrates, 11-12, 43-4, 59, 85, 99, 107, 
113, 129, 139, 177-81, 197, 205, 217, 
235, 257, 287, 299-3o3, 321, 331-3, 
343, 371, 383, 393, 415-17, 455, 471, 
489, 515, 521, 529-31, 535 

Socratic dialogues, 44 

Soft young men, 49 

Soldiers, 195, 205, 217, 221, 235, 269, 
299, 371, 430-1, 443 

Solecisms, 69 

Solitary and Solitude, 299, 323 

Solo, 97 

Somebody, a, 109, 501 

Son, 23, 51, 87-9, 115, 125, 133, 159, 
217, 333, 343, 355, 407, 421, 613 

Song, 177-9, 427 

Soot, 107 

Sophism, 25, 233 

Sophist, 25 

Sophistical, arguments, 331-3 ; inter- 
rogations, Gi 

Sophron, 39 

Sorrow, 23, 27, 79, 91, 211-13, 325, 

341, 445, 495 
Soul, 25, 29, 35, 49-53, 77, 143, 161, 

397, 411, 427, 453-5, 459, 465, 471, 

475, 509 
Sound, 451 
Soup, 197 
Sowing, 127 

Speaker, 182; -'s stand, 183 
Speaking ill, 113, 619 
Spears, 275 
Spectacle, 189, 519 
Spectators, 87, 279-81, 325, 381 
Speech, 473; correct, 179; delivery 

of a, 175 
Spiders, 421 

Spirit, 93 ; low spirits, 173 
Spitting, 421 
Sponge, 235 
Spraining ankle, 607 
Springs, 455 
Sprinter, 169 
Sputum, 95 
Squalor, 147, 163 
Stability, 231 
Stadium, 317 
Stafl, 133, 149-52 
Stage, tragic, 139 

Standard, 315, 355, 425-7; of be- 
haviour, 37; general and individual, 

Stars, 93, 137, 443 
Start, 507 

Starving, 227-9, 251 
State, 55, 187, 201, 219, 345, 503; 

an Epicurean, 55 
Statuos, 23, 67, 81, 85, 335, 631 
Steadfastness, 35, 69, 445 
Stealing, 53, 227 
Stick of wood, 27 
Stoic, Stoicism, and Stoic School, 55, 

115, 199, 282, 449, 459 
Stomach, a weak, 123 
Stone, 27, 49, 59, 67, 85, 117, 167, 175, 

227, 267, 335 
Stopping to think, 455 
Storms, 277 
Stow away, 149 
Straightforward, 173 
Strand, a woven, 149 
Stratigerg, 49, 79; in the universe, 191 
Strengthening, 221 
Strife, 35, 471 
Strigil, 413 
Striking, 335, 490 



strings of lyre, 107 

Stripes, 149 

Stripping off clothes, 277 

Striving against Crod, 27t> 

StroUiug, 75, lt)7, 20'J 

Strong, 459 ; the stroii^'i-r, 373 

Struggle against the Cosmos, 445 

Study, 219 

Stupidity, 373 

Style, 175, 183 

Subject, 207, 301; unto God, 205; 

-matter, 29, 39, 235 
Submission, 425, 511 
Subservient, 313 
Substance, 187 
Success, 161, 355-7 
Suffering, 227 
Sufliciencv, 457 

Suicide, 63, 93, 143, 217, 303, 405 
Sun, 93, 107, 137, 163, 279, 443; 

sustenance of, 179 
Sunning oneself, 321 
Superintendent, of Ephebi, 17, 55; 

of games, 1 7 
Superior, 167, 281, 373; individuals 

Superiority, 99, 111, 529 
Supplies, 341 
Sura, 111 
Surfeit, 305 
Surgeon, 157 
Swallowing sand, 507-9 
Sweat, 413 

Sweet, 535; -cake, 85, 101, 135, 165 
Sweetheart, 249 
Sweetness, 523 
Sword, 251, 275, 361, 367-9 
Syllogisms, 23, 47, 127, 209, 231-3 

"319, 351 
Sympathy, 497 
Symphorus, 59 

Table, 133, 159 

Tablets, 157 

Tact, 97 

Tactless and Tactlessness, 149, 429 

Takii\g sides, 35-7 

Talent, 201, 509; natural, 103 

TalJdng, 175, 309, 429 ff., 517-9 

Tame animal, man, 335, 409 

Tasteless person, 347 

Tavern, 337 

Tax for manumission, 255 

Tax-gatherer, 1U5, 511 

Teacher, 129, 182, 217, 349, 535 

Teaching, 129, 173, 177 
Teeth, 413, 467 

Tegea, 81 

Temple, 421, 517 

Tent, 83 

Test, 33 

Testimony, 161, 387 

Thankfuhiess, 345 

Thanks, 281, 319 

Thanksgiving, 331, 363 

Theatre, 35-9, 71, 447 

Thebans, 159 

Thebes, 189, 217 

Theft, 53, 341 

Theoretical principles, 453 

Thermopylae, 183 

Thersites, 133, 309 

Thessalv, 301 

Thief, 3"l, 167 

Thighs, 103, 149, 509 

Thin, 161 

Things, inspiring fear, 273 

Thinking, 203, 315, 511 

Thirst and thirsty, 75, 149, 191, 321, 

353, 3U3, 531 
Thoughtless, 447 

Thoughts to have ready at hand, 537 
Thrasonides, 249 
Thrasymacbus, 331 
Throne, 343 
Tight- rope walking, 81 
TUe, 369-71 
Timbers, 137 
Timidity, 341 
To-day," 429 
Toqa TpraeteJcta, 263 
Toil, 305, 329 
Tokens, 87 
To-morrow, 429 
Tool, 413 

Topic, See Field of study. 
Toi'ics of conversation, 517 
Topsails, 29 

Torch, 127; -bearer, 127 
Torture, 275, 303, 434:-5 
Towel, 413 
Tragedians, 375 
Tragedy, 97 
Tragic stage, 139 
Trainer, 75, 101, 285, 507 
Training, 21, 75, 81-7, 101, 148-9, 

151, 221, 271, 283, 293, 325, 395, 

427, 507 
Training partners, 317, 325 
Traits, 423 



Tranquil and Tianquillitv, 41, 91-3, 
103, 125, 317, 3-'7, 359, 385, 417, 

Transformation, 449 

Trappings, alien, 197 

Travel, 91, 181, 313 

TraveUers, 275, 491 

Trembling, 516 

Trench, 195 

Tribune (oflBcer), 99 ; (platform), 403 

Tribuneship, 2iij, 311 

Triumph, :.'13 

Trojans, 143-5, 337 

Troops, iGo 

Troubled and Troubles, 341, 365, 507 

True, 20, 147 

Trumpet, 101, 509 

Trust, 431, 435 

Truth, 197, 247, 253, 477, 537 

Tune a lyre, 107 

Tunic, 283 

Turmoil, 321-7, 349, 483 

Tyrant, 145, iG3, 1G7, 193, 223, 229, 
239, 273-7, 289-91, 345, 361, 365, 
371, 425; the Thirty Tyrants, 

Ugliness, 5-9, 10, 21 

Ugly-snouted, 159 

Unconstrained, 41 

Uneducated, 489 

Unfair, 365, 501 

Unfeeling, 359 

Unfortunate, 143, 343 

Unfriendly, 359 

Unhampered, 41 

Unharmed, 363 

Unhappiness and Uuliappv, 79, IGl, 

Unhindered, 147 
Uninstructed, 237, 325 
Unionof men, 279 
Universe, 77, 105, 137, 187, 191-3, 

213-15, 233, 207, 363-5, 443-5, 440, 

507,611; revolution of, 279. See 

also Cosmos, and World. 
Unjust, 503 
Unmannerly, 307 
Unnatural " vice, 309. See also 

Unreason, 445 
Unrestrained, 247 
Unseemly, 371, 383, 393 
Unsocial, 359 
Unspoiled, 173 

Unwillingness, 196 

Upsetting, 369 

Urine, 453-5 

Use of external Impressions, 445. 

See also Impressions. 
Useful, 303 
Useless, 235 

Vainglorious, 197 
Value, 303, 313, 397 ff. 
Vegetable-dealer, 67, 201. See also 

Vegetables, 45, 323 
Vertigo, 35 

Vessel, 155, 433, 453-5 
Vexation, 69, 405, 507, 521 
Vice, 163, 455, 463, 493 
Victory, 39, 101, 225, 497, 523; at 

Olvmpia, 507 
Vigils, 103, 305, 403-7, 509 
Vine, 285 
Vinegar, 323, 453 
Vintage, 387 
Violent, 447 
Virtues, 35, 151, 221, 301, 387, 445, 

459, 463 ; miserable, 107 
Vivacity, 125 
Voice, 129 
Vomit, 123-5 

Voyage, 51, C9, 75, 91, 103, 489 
Vulgarity, 459, 521 
Vulgarizing the Mysteries, 127-9 

Wages, 191 

Wailing, 203 

Walk and Walkiiig, 169, 197, 267 

Wall, 233,341 

Wallet, 33, 140 

WaUs, 135, 387 

Wand, 121 

Want, 227; of endurance, 455; of 

self-control, 455. See also Poverty. 
War, 91,123, 161, 169 
Warden of the city, 17 
Warmth, 133 
Washing, 155, 107, 467 
Watching over, 1C5 
Water, 93-7, 155, 321, 393, 413, 421, 

449, 457, 489; bowl of, 35; cold, 

101, 507; -drinker, 531 
Wax, 107 
Weak, 483 
Wealth and Wealthv, 53, 207, 229, 

263-5, 313, 355, '391, 485, 495. 

See also Rich. 



Weaving, 169, 187, 35, 191, 203, 495 

W'eighiug, -'33 

Wench, 135, 251, 329, 435: frail, 33; 

pretty, 25, 45, 85, 273. See also 

Girl, and Maid. 
Wheel, 435 
Whisper, 213 

Wicked, 111, 279, 3;>3, 459 
Wife, 53-5, 111, 145-7, 155-7, 235, 

267, 279-83, 299, 3Ul, 333, 343, 361, 

387, 391, 487-97, 5U5, 513 
Wild beast, 171, 285, 339, 391 
Wilderness, 277 
Will, 275-9, 397, 443, 449-51, 473, 

483, 493; of God, and one's own, 

367; of Zeus, 373 
Wind, 133, 153,193,311 
Wine, 77, 85, (97), 101, 293, 433, 493, 

507, 529 
Winter, 213, 389; -'straining, 389 
WLsdom, 95, 129 
Wise, 145, 155, 247; man, 95, 277, 

Wish, 327, 491, 495 
Wit, 163 
Wither, 391 
Within you, 221 
Withholding judgement, 29 
Witness, 161, 221, 237 
Wolf, 143, 287, 335 
Woman, 15-17, 55, 159, 185, 203, 295, 

391-3, 461, 525-7; handsome, 

491 ; pretty, 197 
Womb, 157 
Wool, 155, 531 
Word, 127-9, 285, 461, 533; of ill 

omen, 213-5 
Work hard, 83, 103-5, 509 
Working together, 28 7 
Workmen, 235 
World, 205, 463; below (= Hades), 

227; a city-8tate, 201; -cpn- 
flagrudon, 89. See also Cosnioa, 
and Universe. 

Worm, 293, 421 

Worthy, man, 393; of the best 
things, 535 

Wounding, 335 

Wrestler, 7, 103, 149, 509; -'s sand, 

Wrestling, 223, 351, 395; -com- 
panion, 119; -school, 417 

Wretch, Wretcheil, and Wretchedness, 
151, 187 

Wrist, 101, 507 

Writing, 197, 201, 217, 227-9, 265, 
317-19, 325, 329, 345, 351 ; a book, 
159; implements, 157 

Wrong, 285, 377 

Xanthippe, 331, 343 

Xenocrates, 419 

Xenophon, 467; quoted, 176-7, 257, 

Xerxes, 183 

Yawning, 197 

Year, 133 

Yearning, 79, 387. See also Desire^ 

and Hankering. 
Young, care of, 129 ; men, 181, 321 
Youth, 443, 469 

Zeal, 537 

Zeno, 129, 181, 197, 239, 304, 379, 
393, 449, 521 

Zenodotus, 18 

Zeus, 15, 31-3, 39. 59, 63, SO-1, 89, 
129, 137, 143, 151, 159, 165, 191-3, 
205, 221-3, 275, 289, 327-9, 337, 
347, 373, 385-7, 449, 537; Father 
of all, 159, 189; God of Fathers, 
81 ; God of Kindred, 81 


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Aelian: On the Nature of Animals. SVols. Vols. I. and II. 

A. F. Scholfield. 
Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasandeb. Tlie 

Illinois Greek Club. (2nd Imp.) 
Aeschines. C. D. Adams. (3rd Imp.) 
Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. llh Imp., Vol. 

II. Gth Imp. revised.) 
Alciphron, Aelian, Philostratus Letters. A. R. Benner 

and F. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon, Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 
Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols, ('ird Imp.) 
Apollonius Rhodius. K. C. Seaton. (5th Imp.) 
The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

Sth Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Appian: Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vols. II.-IV. Sri Imp.) 
Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 
Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Versa 

trans. (5th Imp.) 
Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freeso. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. (2nd 

Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick, 2 Vols. (4:th Imp.) 
Aristotle: Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Aristotle: Minor Works. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies. On Plants, On Marvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Mellissus, Xonophanes, 

and Gorgias. (2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. (6th Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralla. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (ith Imp.) 
Aristotle: On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp. 

Aristotle: On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

Aeistotle: Organon — Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3r£/ Imp.) 
Akistoti-E: 0kg anon — Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tr.^- 

dennick and E. S. Forster. 
Abistotlk: Organon — On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. 8. 

Forster and D. J. Fiirley. 
Aristotle: Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck; Motion and 

Progression OF Animals. E. S. Forster. {ith Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Physics. Rev. P. Wick.stecd and F. M. Cornford. 

2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. 11. '6rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Poetics and Longinus. \V. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. {5tfi Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Politics. H. Rackham. {ith Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Problems. W. S. Hott. 2 Vols. C2nd Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. 

Vol. IE). H. Rackham. 
Arrian: History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. llLffe 

Ivobson. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Athenaeus: Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

(Vols. l.-IV., VI. and VIE 2nd Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd imp.) 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachtjs, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lvcophron. A. W. 

Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair, {2nd. Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. {3rd Imp.) 


Daphnis and Chloe. Thomley's Translation revised by 

J. ]M. Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. {4th Imp.) 
Demosthenes I.: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. l.-XVII. and XX. J. H. Vince. {2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes II.: De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III.: JNIeidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

Timocbates and Aristogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vince 

{2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes IV .-VI.: Private Orations and In Neaebam. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 3rd Imp., Vols. V. and VI. 2nd 

Demosthenes VII.: Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassitjs: Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-IX. 2nd l7)ip.) 
Dio Cury'sostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
DiODORUS SicULUS. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XI. F.Walton. {W ol.l. 3rd Imp., VoIh.U.-1V. 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. {5th Imp.). 
DiONYsrus OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Carj'. 7 Vols. (V'ols. I.-V. 

2nd Imp.) 


Epictetus. W. a. Olclfather. 2 Vols. {3rd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and IV. 1th Imp., Vol. 

II. 8//i Ijnp., Vol. III. C//i Imp.) Verso trans. 
EusEBius: Ecclesiastical History. Kiibopp Lake ami 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ord Imp.. Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock, {'ith Imp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I.-IV. 

bth Imp., Vol. V. Zrd Imp.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. .1. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 'ird Imp., Vol. 11. Ind Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, xMoschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. {Ith Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. {2,rd 

Herodes. Cf . Theopheastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (V^ol. I. 4;/i Imp., Vols. 

II. and III. bth Imp., Vol. IV. 2rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn ^^■hite. 

(1th Imp. revit<ed and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. VV. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., 

Vols. II.-IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {1th Imp.) 
Homer: Odyssey'. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {Sth Imp.) 
IsAEUs. E, W. Forster. (3rd Imp.) 
Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

{2nd Imp.) 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
JosEPHUs. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (Vol. V. 4ih Imp., Vol. VI. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV. 

and Vll. 2nd Imp.) 
Julian Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 

3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd hup.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. 4th Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. t>th Imp. 

Vol. II revised and enlarged, and III. 4th Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. {3rd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. {3rd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antipuon, Andocides, Lycurous, 

Demades, DiNARCHUs, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphjodorus. a. W. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Papyri. Non -Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (2nd hnp.) Literary Selections. 

(Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 


Pausanias: Description of Gheece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranuod by R. E. Wycherloy. 

(Vol^. I. and III. 3n/ Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2/uZ Imp.) 
Vhtlo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. CoLson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitakcr Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I-II., V.- 

VII., 3rd Imp.. Vol. IV. Uh Imp., Vols. III., Vlil., and IX. 

2nd Imp.) 
Philo: two supplementary Vols. {TratVilation o)Uy.) Ralph 

Piiii-osTKATUs : The Life of Appoixonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ith Imp., Vol. II. 2rd Imp.) 
Philostratus : Imagines; Callistratus: Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. {2nd Imp.) 

Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave ^V^ight. {2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (8//t Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

TiiEAGEs, 3iJixo.s and Epxnojiis. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd 

Plato: Cratvlus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

HiPPiAS. H. N. Fowler. {Uh Imp.) 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo. Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler, {llth Imp.) 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (3nZ Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols, {^rd Imp.) 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5^/i 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 

Vol. II. '^th Imp.) 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H. X. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (4^/i Imp.) 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. II. N. Fowler. (Uh Imp.) 
Plato: Timaeus, Cbitias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. {'6rd Imp.) 
Plutarch: Morai.ia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. Vll. P. H. De Lacey and 

B. Einarson. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. (Vols. I.-VI. and X. 2nd Imp.) 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. Zrd Imp., Vols. III.-V. and 

VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. \V. R. Paton. 6 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Procopius: History of the \Vars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I. -ird Imp., Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. Cf. .Manetho. 

QuiNTUS Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans, {ord Imp.) 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (V'ol. I. \th 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. lO^/i Imp. Vol. II. <oth 

Imp.) Verse trans. 


Stuabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I.. V., 

and VIII. 'ird Imp., Vols. II., III.. IV.. VI., and VIJ. 2»ui Imp.) 
Theopurastus: Characteus. J. M. Edmonds. HiiRODE-s, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3;vi Imp.) 
Theopurastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 

Bart. 2 Vol.^^. {'Ind Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. bth Imp., Vols. 

II. and IV. 4//t Imp., Vol. III., 'ird Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodobus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4;/i Imp., Vol. II. 'ird Imp.) 
Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownsoa and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III 

3rd Imp., Vol. il. Uh Imp.) 
Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant 

{'ird hnp.) 
Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (3aZ Imp.) 


Greek Authors 

Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peek. 
Plotinus: a. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 

Babrius and Phaedrus. Ben E. Pi;rry. 



Disc curse,